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commands) saith, it saith to them who are under
the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all
the world may become guilty before God.' Ro. Hi. 19.
And this is thy sad condition that art under the

law. Ga. iii. 10.

But if any should object, and say, But the law
doth not command impossible things of natural
man, —

I should answer in this case as the apostle did
in another very much like unto it, saying, • Un-
derstanding neither what they say, nor whereof
they affirm.' For doth not the law command thee
to love the Lord thy God with all thy soul, with all
thy strength, with all thy might, (fee., and can the
natural man do this? How can those that are ac-
customed to do evil, do that which is commanded
in this particular? 'Can the Ethiopian change
his skin, or the leopard his spots ?' ,ie. xiii. 23.

Doth the law command thee to do good, and no-
thing but good, and that with all thy soul, heart,
and delight ? which the law as a covenant of works

calleth for; and canst thou, being carnal, do that?
But there is no man that hath understanding, if he
should hear thee say so, but would say that thou
wast cither bewitched or stark mad.

6. They that are under the law are in a sad con-
dition, because that though they follow the law, or
covenant of works; I say, though they follow it, it
will not lead them to heaven; no, but contrariwise,
it will lead them under the curse. It is not pos-
sible, saith Paul, that any should be justified by the
law, or by our following of it ; for by that ' is the
knowledge of sin,' and by it Ave are condemned for
the same, which is far from leading us to life, be-
ing the ministration of death. 2 Co. iii. And again;
1 Israel, which followeth after the law of righteous-
ness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.
Wherefore ? Because they sought it not by faith,
but by the law, and by the works thereof. ' Ro. be


7. They that are under the law are in a sad con-
dition, because they do not know whether ever they
shall have any wages for their work or no ; they
have no assurance of the pardon of their sins,
neither any hopes of eternal life ; but poor hearts
as they are, they work for they do not know what,
even like a poor horse that works hard all day, and
at night hath a dirty stable for his pains ; so thou
mayest work hard all the days of thy life, and at the
day of death, instead of having a glorious rest in
the kingdom of heaven, thou mayest, nay, thou
shalt, have for thy sins the damnation of thy soul
and body in hell to all eternity ; forasmuch, as I
said before, that the law, if thou sinnest, it doth
not take notice of any good work done by thee, but
takes its advantage to destroy and cut off thy soul
for the sin thou hast committed.

8. They that are under the law are in a sad con-
dition, because they are under that administration;
upon whose souls God doth not smile, they dying
there ; for the administration that God doth smile
upon his children through, is the covenant of grace,
they being in Jesus Christ, the Lord of life and
consolation ; but contrariwise to those that are under
the law; for they have his frowns, his rebukes, his
threatenings, and with much severity they must he
dealt withal — ' For they continued not in my cove-
nant, and 1 regarded them not, saith the Lord.'

He. viii. 9.

9. They are in a sad condition, because they are
out of the faith of Christ; they that are under the
law have not the faith of Christ in them; for that
dispensation which they are under is not the ad-
ministration of faith. The law is not of faith, saith

the apostle. Ga. iii. 12.

10. Because they have not received the Spirit;
for that is received by the hearing of faith, and not
by the law, nor the works thereof. Ga. iii. 2.

11. In a word, if thou live and die under that
covenant, Jesus Christ will neither pray for thee,



neither let thee liave one drop of his blood to wash
;i way thy sins, neither shalt thou he so much as one
of the least in the kingdom of heaven; for all these
privileges come to souls under another covenant, as
the apostle saith — ' For such are not under the law,
but under grace — that is, such as have a share in
the benefits of Jesus Christ, or such as are brought
from under the first covenant into the second ; or
from under the law into the grace of Christ's gospel,
without which covenant of grace, and being found
in that, there is no soul can have the least hope of
eternal life, no joy in the Holy Ghost, no share in
tiie privileges of saints, because they are tied up
from them by the limits and bonds of the covenant
of works. For you must understand that these two
covenants have their several bounds and limitations,
for the ruling and keeping in subjection, or giving
of freedom, to the parties under the said covenants.
Now they that are under the law are within the
compass and the jurisdiction of that, and are bound
to be in subjection to that; and living and dying un-
der that, they must stand and fall to that, as Paul
saith, 'To his own master he standeth or falleth.'
The covenant of grace doth admit to those that are
under it also liberty and freedom, together with
commanding of subjection to the things contained
in it, which I shall speak to further hereafter.
[For lohat purpose the Law was added and given ]

But now, that the former things may be further
made to appear — that is, what the sad condition of
all them that are under the law is, as I have shown
you something of the nature of the law, so also shall
I show that the law was added and given for this
purpose, that it might be so with those that are out
of the covenant of grace.

First, God did give the law that sin might
abound, not that it should take away sin in any,
but to discover the sin which is already begotten,
or that may hereafter be begotten, by lust and
Satan. Ro. v. 20. I say, this is one proper work of
the law, to make manifest sin ; it is sent to find
fault with the sinner, and it doth also watch that
it may do so, and it doth take all advantages for
the accomplishing of its work in them that give ear
thereto, or do not give ear, if it have the rule over
them. I say, it is like a man that is sent by his
lord to see and pry into the labours and works of
other men, taking every advantage to discover their
infirmities and failings, and to chide them ? yea, to
throw them out of the Lord's favour for the same.

Second. Another great end why the Lord did
add or give the law, it was that no man might have
anything to lay to the charge of the Lord for his
condemning of them that do transgress against the
same. You know that if a man should be had be-
fore an officer or judge, and there be condemned,
and yet by no law, he that condemns him might be
very well reprehended or reproved for passing the
judgment; yea, the party himself might have better

ground to plead for his liberty than the other to
plead for the condemning of him; but this shall
not be so in the judgment-day, but contrariwise;
for then every man shall be forced to lay his hand
on his mouth, and hold his tongue at the judgment
of God when it is passed upon them ; therefore
saith the apostle, • What things soever the law
saith, it saith to them who are under the law;' that
is, all the commands, all the cursings and threat-
enings that are spoken by it, are spoken, saith he,
' that every m mth may be stopped ;' mark, I be-
seech you, 'it saith,' saith he, 'that every mouth
may be stopped, and all the world may become
guilty before God.' Uo. lii. 19. So that now, in case
any in the judgment-day should object against the
judgment of God, as those in the 25th of Matthew
do, saying, Lord, when saw we thee thus and thus?
and why dost thou pass such a sad sentence of con-
demnation upon us ? surely this is injustice, and
not equity: now fur the preventing of this the law
was given ; ay, and that it might prevent thee to
purpose, God gave it betimes, before either thy
first father had sinned, or thou wast born. So that
again, if there should be these objections offered
against the proceedings of the Lord in justice and
judgment, saying. Lord, why am I thus condemned,
I did not know it was sin ? Now against these
two was the law given and that betimes, so that
both these are answered. If the first come in and
say, Why am I judged ? why am I damned ? then
will the law come in, even all the ten command-
ments, with every one of their cries against thy
soul ; the first saying, He hath sinned against me,
damn him; the second saying also, He hath trans-
gressed against me, damn him ; the third also say-
ing the same, together with the fourth, fifth, sixth,
seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth ; even all of them will
discharge themselves against thy soul if thou die
under the first covenant, saying, He or they have
transgressed against us, damn them, damn them :
and I tell thee also, that these ten great guns, the
ten commandments, will, with discharging them-
selves in justice against thy soul, so rattle in thy
conscience, that thou wilt in spite of thy teeth be
immediately put to silence, and have thy mouth
stopped. And let me tell thee further, that if thou
shalt appear before God to have the ten command-
ments discharge themselves against thee, thou
hadst better be tied to a tree, and have ten, \
ten thousand of the biggest pieces of ordnance in
the world to be shot off against thee ; for these
could go no further but only to kill the body; but
they, both body and soul, to be tormented in hell
with the devil to all eternity.

Third, Again; if the second thing should be ob-
jected, saying, But, Lord, 1 did not think this had
been sin, or the other had been sin, for nobody told
me so; then also will the giving of the law take
off that, saying, Nay, but I was given to thy fathsi



Adam before he had sinned, or before thou wast
born, and have ever since been in thy soul to con-
vince thee of thy sins, and to control tbee for doing
the thing that was not right. Did not I secretly
tell thee at such a time, in such a place, when thou
wast doing of such a thing, with such an one, or when
tliou wast all alone, that this was a sin, and that
God did forbid it, therefore if thou didst commit it,
God would be displeased with thee for it: and when
tliou wast thinking to do such a thing at such a
time, did not I say, Forbear, do not so ? God will
smite tbee, and punish thee for it if thou dost do
it. And besides, God did so order it that you had
me in your houses, in your Bibles, and also you
could speak and talk of me; thus pleading the
truth, thou sbalt be forced to confess it is so; nay,
it sball be so in some sort with the very Gentiles
and barbarous people that fall far short of that
light we have in these parts of the world; for, saith
the apostle, 'The Gentiles which have not the law,
do by nature the things contained in the law, these,
having not the law,' that is, not written as we
have, yet they ' are a law unto themselves : which
show the works of the law written in their hearts.'
Ro. ii. 14, 15. That is, they have the law of works in
them by nature, and therefore they shall be left
without excuse ; for their own consciences shall
stand up for the truth of this where he saith,
' Their conscience also bearing witness, and their
thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing
one another.' Ay, but when? Why, 'in the day when
God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ
according to my gospel.' Ro. ii. 15, 16. So this, I say,
is another end for which the Lord did give the law
— namely, that God might pass a sentence in righte-
ousness, without being charged with any injustice
by those that shall fall under it in the judgment.

Fourth, A fourth end why the Lord did give
the law it was, because they that die out of Jesus
Christ might not only have their mouths stopped,
but also that their persons ' might become guilty
before God. ' Ro. Ui. id. And indeed this will be the
ground of silencing, as I said before, they finding
themselves guilty, their consciences backing the
truth of the judgment of God passed upon them,
' they shall become guilty' — that is, they shall be
tit vessels for the wrath of God to be poured out
into, being tilled with guilt by reason of transgres-
sions against the commandments ; thus, therefore,
shall the parties under the first covenant be 'fitted
to destruction,' Ro. i.*. 22, even as wood or straw, be-
ing well dried, is fitted for the fire; and the law
was added and given, and speaks to this very end,
that sins might he shown, mouths might be stopped
from quarrelling, and that 'all the world,' mark,
' the world may become guilty before God,' and so
be injustice for ever and ever overthrown because
of their sins.

And this will be so for these reasons —

1. Because God hath a time to magnify bis
justice and holiness, as well as to show his forbear-
ance and mercy. We read in scripture that his
eyes are too pure to behold iniquity, and then we
shall find it true. Hab. i. 15. We read in scripture
that he will magnify the law, and make it honour-
able, and then he will do it indeed. Now, because
the Lord doth not strike so soon as he is provoked
by sin, therefore poor souls will not know nor re-
gard the justice of God, neither do they consider
the time in which it must be advanced, which will
be when men drop under the wrath of God as fast
as hail in a mighty storm. 2 Pe. m. 9. Ps. 1. 21, 22. Now,
therefore, look to it all you that count the long-
suffering and forbearance of God slackness; and be-
cause for the present he keepeth silence, therefore to
think that he is like unto yourselves. No, no; but
know that God hath his set time for every purpose
of his, and in its time it shall be advanced most
marvellously, to the everlasting astonishment and
overthrow of that soul that shall be dealt withal by
justice and the law. ! how will God advance his
justice ! ! how will God advance his holiness !
First, by showing men that he in justice cannot,
will not regard them, because they have sinned ;
and, secondly, in that his holiness will not give
way for such unclean wretches to abide in his sight,
his eyes are so pure.

2. Because God will make it appear that he will
be as good as his word to sinners. Sinners must
not look to escape always, though they may escape
awhile, yet they shall not go for all adoe unpun-
ished; no, but they shall have their due to a far-
thing, when every threatening and curse shall be
accomplished and fulfilled on the head of the trans-
gressor. Friend, there is never an idle word that
thou speakest but God will account with thee for
it; there is never a lie thou tellest, but God will
reckon with thee for it ; nay, there shall not pass
so much as one passage in all thy lifetime but God,
the righteous God, will have it in the trial by his
law, if thou die under it, in the judgment-day.

[Who they are that are under the covenant


Third. But you will say — ' Bid wJio are those
thai are thus under the law ?'

Ansio. Those that are under the law may be
branched out into three ranks of men; either, first,
such as are grossly profane, or such as are more
refined ; which may be two ways, some in a lower
sort, and some in a more eminent way.

First, Then they are under the law as a covenant
of works who are open profane, and ungodly
wretches, such as delight not only in sin, but also
make their boast of the same, and brag at the
thoughts of committing of it. Now, as for such as
are, there is a scripture in the first epistle of



Paul to Timothy, ch.l. ver. 9, 10, which is a notable
one to this purpose, 'The law,' saith he, 'is not
made for a righteous man,' not as it is a covenant
of works, ' but for the' unrighteous or ' lawless and
disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for
unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and
murderers of mothers, for manslayers, for whore-
mongers, for them that defile themselves with man-
kind, for menstealers, for liars,' look to it, liars,
'for perjured persons, and,' in a word, ' if there be
any other thing that is not according to sound doc-
trine.' These are one sort of people that are under
the law, and so under the curse of the same, whose
due is to drink up the brimful cup of God's eternal
vengeance, and therefore I beseech you not to
deceive yourselves ; for ' know ye not that the un-
righteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God ?
Neither fornicators, nor idolators, nor adulterers,
nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with man-
kind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor
revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom
of God.' i Co. vi. 9, ;o. Poor souls, you think that
you may have your sins, your lusts, and pleasures,
and yet you shall do pretty well, and be let to go
free in the judgment-day ; but see what God saith
of such in De. xxix. 19, 20 — which shall ' bless him-
self in his heart, saying, I shall have peace,' I
shall be saved, I shall do as well as others, in the
day when God shall judge the world by Jesus
Christ; but, saith God, I will not spare them, no,
but my anger and my jealousy shall smoke against
them. How far ? Even to the executing all the
curses that are written in the law of God upon
them. Nay, saith God, I will be even with them,
'for I will blot out their names from under heaven.'
And indeed it must of necessity be so, because
such souls are unbelievers, in their sins, and under
the law, which cannot, will not, show any mercy
on them ; for it is not the administration of mercy
and life, but the administration of death and des-
truction, as you have it, 2 Co. iii. 7, 9; and all those,
every one of them, that are open profane, and
scandalous wretches are under it, and have been so
ever since they came into the world to this day ;
and they will for certain live and die under the
same dispensation, and then be damned to all eter-
nity, if they be not converted from under that cove-
nant into and under the covenant of grace, of which
I shall speak in its place; and yet for all this, how-
brag and crank* are our poor wantons and wicked
ones in this day of forbearance ! as if God would
never have a reckoning with them, as if there was
no law to condemn them, as if there was no hell-
fire to put them into. But how will they be de-
ceived when they shall see Christ sitting upon the
judgment-seat, having laid aside his priestly and
prophetical office, and appearing only as a judge

* 'Crank,' brisk, jolly, lusty, spirit fill, buxom. — Ed.

to the wicked? when they shall see all the records
of heaven unfolded and laid open ; when they shall
see each man his name out of the book of life, and
in the book of the law; when they shall see God in
his majesty, Christ in his majesty, the saints in their
dignity, but themselves in their impurity. What
will they say then ? whither will they flv then ? where
will they leave their glory ? sad state ! is. x. 3.
Second. They are under the law also who do not
only so break and disobey the law, but follow after
the law as hard as ever they can, seeking justifica-
tion thereby — that is, though a man should abstain
from the sins against the law, and labour to fulfil
the law, and give up himself to the law, yet if he
look no further than the law he is still under the
law, and for all his obedience to the law, the
righteous law of God, he shall be destroyed by that
law. Friend, you must not understand that none
but profane persons are under the law; no, but you
must understand that a man may be turned from
a vain, loose, open, profane conversation and sin-
ning against the law, to a holy, righteous, religious
life, and yet be in the same state, under the same
law, and as sure to be damned as the other that
are more profane and loose. And though you may
say this is very strange, yet I shall both say it and
prove it to be true. Read with understanding that
scripture in Ro. ix. 30, :;i, where the apostle, speak-
ing of the very same thing, saith, ' But Israel,
which followed after the law of righteousness ; '
mark, that followed after the law of righteous-
ness; they notwithstanding their earnest pursuit,
or hunting after the law of righteousness, ' hath
not attained to the law of riirhteousness.' It sio-ni-
fies thus much to us, that let a man be never
so earnest, so fervent, so restless, so serious, so
ready, so apt and willing to follow the law and tlio
righteousness thereof, if he be under that covenant,
he is gone, he is lost, he is deprived of eternal life,
because he is not under the ministration of life it
he die there. Read also that scripture, Ga. iii. io,
which saith, ' For as many as are of the works
of the law are under the curse;' mark, they
that are of the works of the law. Now, for to
be of the works of the law, it is to be of the
works of the righteousness thereof — that is, to
abstain from sins against the law, and to do the
commands thereof as near as ever they can for
their lives, or with all the might they have; and
therefore I beseech you to consider it, for men's
being ignorant of this is the cause why so many
go on supposing thev have a share in Christ, be-
cause they are reformed, and abstain from the sins
against the law, who, when all comes to all, will
be damned notwithstanding, because thev are not
brought out from under the covenant of WOl
and put under the covenant of grace.

Object. ' But can von in very deed make theso
things manifestly evident from the Word of God?



Methinks to reason thus is very strange, that a man
Bhould labour to walk up according to the law of
God as much as ever he can, and yet that man,
notwithstanding this, should he still under the
curse. Tray clear it.'

Answ. Truly this doth seem very strange, I do
know full well, to the natural man, to him that is
vet in his unhelief, because he goeth by beguiled
reason ; but for my part, I do know it is so, and
shall labour also to convince thee of the truth of
the same.

1. Then, the law is thus strict and severe, that
if a man do sin hut once against it, he, I say, is
gone for ever by the law, living and dying under
that covenant. If you would be satisfied as touch-
ing the truth of this, do but read Ga. ill. to, where it
saith ' Cursed is every one,' that is, not a man
shall miss by that covenant, • that continueth not
in all,' mark, in all 'things which are written in
the hook of the law to do them.' (1.) Pray mark,
h>rc is a curse, in the first place, if all things
written in the book of the law be not done, and
that, continually too — that is, without any failing
or one slip, as I said before. Now there is never
a one in the world but before they did begin to
yield obedience to the least command, they in their
own persons did sin against it by breaking of it.
The apostle, methinks, is very notable for the
clearing of this in Ro. m., v. In the one he endea-
vours for to prove that all had transgressed in the
first Adam as he stood a common person, repre-
senting both himself and us in his standing and
falling. 'Wherefore,' saith he, 'as by one man
sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and
so death passed upon all men,' mark that; but
why < ' for that all have sinned.' Ro. v. 12. That is,
forasmuch as all naturally are guilty of original
sin, the sin that was committed by us in Adam;
bo this is one cause why none can be justified by
their obedience to the law, because they have in
the first place broken it in their first parents.
Hut, (2.) in case this should be opposed and re-
jected by quarrelsome persons, though there be no
ground for it, Paul hath another argument to back
his doctrine, saving, For we have proved (already)
that both Jews and Gentiles are all under sin.
•Asrt is written, There is none righteous, no, not
one.' 'They are all gone out of the way, they
her,' mark, together, 'become unprofit-
able, there is none that doeth good, no, not one.'
•Their throat is an open sepulchre; with then-
tongues they have used deceit, the poison of asps
18 under their lips.' Their 'mouths are full of
cursing and bitterness.' * Their feet are swift to
shed blood.' In a word, ' Destruction and misery
are in their way, ; and the way of peace have they
not known.' Now then, saith he, having proved
e things so clearly, the conclusion of the whole
is this, 'That what things soever the law saith '

in both showing of sin, and cursing for the same,
' it saith ' all ' to them who are under the law

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