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THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH.



ministration, it was not till tlie cliurch was with
Moses, and he with the angels on Mount Sinai in
the wilderness.

Now in the law, as moral, we conclude a time
propounded, but no seventh day sabbath enjoined.
But in that law, as thus ministered, which mini-
stration is already out of doors ;* we find a seventh
day; that seventh day on which God rested, on
which God rested from all his works, enjoined.
What is it then ? Why the whole ministration as
written and engraven in stones being removed, tlae
seventh day sabbath must also be removed ; for
that the time, nor yet the clay, was as to our holy
sabbath, or rest, moral; but imposed with that
whole ministration, as such, upon the church,
until the time of reformation : which time being
come, this ministration, as I said, as such, ceaseth;
and the whole law, as to the morality of it, is
delivered into the hand of Christ, who imposes it
now also ; but not as a law of works, nor as that
ministration written and engraven in stones, but
as a rule of life to those that have believed in him.

I Co. ix. 21.

So then, that law is still moral, and still sup-
poses, since it teaches that there is a God, that
time must be set apart for his church to worship
him in, according to that will of his that he had
revealed in his word. But though by that law
time is required ; yet by that, as moral, the time
never was prefixed.

The time then of old was appointed by such a
ministration of that law as we have been now dis-
coursing of ; and when that ministration ceaseth,
that time did also vanish with it. And now by
our new law-giver, the Son of God, he being 'lord
also of the sabbath day,' we have a time prefixed,
as the law of nature requireth, a new day, by him
who is the lord of it ; I say, appointed, wherein
we may worship, not in the oldness of that letter
written and engraven in stones, but according to,
and most agreeing with, his new and holy testa-
ment. And this I confirm further by those reasons
that now shall follow.

Fiist, Because we find not from the resurrection
of Christ to the end of the Bible, anything written
by which is imposed that seventh day sabbath
upon the churches. Time, as I said, the law as
moral requires ; but that time we find no longer
imposed. And m all duties pertaining to God and
his true worship in his churches, we must be
guided by his laws and testaments. By his old
laws, when his old worship was in force ; and by
his new laws, when his new worship is in force.
And he hath verily now said, ' Beliold, I make all
thina's new. ' Re. x.a. 5.



* 'Oat of doors/ no more to be found, quite gone, fairly
scut away. — Loc.'ce. 'Out of coui't.' — Laii;-itY?n. — Ed.



Second, I find, as I Lave shewed, that this
seventh day sabbath is confined, not to the law of
nature as such, but to that ministration of it which
was given on Sinai : which ministration as it is
come to an end as such, so it is rejected by Paul
as a ministration no ways capable of abiding in
the church now, since the ministration of the
Spirit also hath taken Its place. 2Co. iii. Where-
fore instead of propounding it to the churches with
arguments tending to its reception, he seeks by
degrading it of its old lustre and glory, to wean
the churches from any fhkement thereof :

1. By calling of it the ministration of death, of
the letter, and of condemnation, a term most
frightful, but no ways alluring to the godly.

2. By calling it a ministration that now has
no glory, by reason of the exceeding glory of that
ministration under which by the Holy Spirit the
New Testament churches are. And these are
weaning considerations. 2 Co. iii.

3. By telling of them It is a ministration that
tcndeth to blind the mind, and to veil the heart as
to the knowledge of their Christ : so that they can-
not, while under that, behold his beauteous face,
but as their heart shall turn from It to him. 2 Co. iii.

4. And that they might not be left in the dark,
but perfectly know what ministration it Is that he
means, he salth expressly, it Is that ' written and
engraven in stones.' See again 2Co.iii. And in
that ministration It is that this seventh day sab-
bath is found.

But shall we think that the apostle speaiis any
thing of all here said, to wean saints oft' from the
law of nature, as such ! No verily, that he retains
in the church, as being managed there by Christ :
but THIS ministration is dangerous nov), because
It cannot be maintained In the church, but In a
way of contempt to the ministration of the Spirit,
and is derogatory to the glory of that.

Now these, as I said, are weaning considera-
tions. No man, I do think, that knows himself,
or the glory of a gospel ministration, can, if he
understands what Paul says here, desire that
such a ministration should be retained in the
churches.

Third. This seventh day sabbath has lost its
ceremonies (those imto which before you are cited
by the texts) which was with it imposed upon the
old church for her due performance of worship to
God thereon. How then can this sabbath noio be
kept ? Kept, I say, according to law. For if
the church on which it was first imposed, was not
to keep It, yea, could not keep it legally without
the practising of those ceremonies : and if those
ceremonies are long ago dead and gone, how will
tliose that pretend to a belief of a continuation of

t ' Any likcment,' any fondness or partiality. — Ed.



THE SE'\'ENTH-DAY SABBATH.



369



the sanction tliereof, keep it, I say, according as
it is -Rritten ?

If they say, they retain the day, hut change
their manner of ohservation thereof ; I ask, ^vho
has commanded them so to do ? This is one of
the laws of this sahhath. ' Thou shalt take fine
flour, and hake twelve cakes thereof : two tenth
deals shall he in one cake. And thou shalt set
them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure
tahle hefore the Loi'd. And thou shalt put pure
frankincense upon each row, that it may he on the
hread for a memorial, even an offering made hy
fire unto the Lord. Every sahhath he shall set it
in order hefore the Lord continually, being taken
from the children of Israel hy an everlasting cove-
nant, Le. xsiv. 5— s. You may see also other places,

as Xu. xiviii. 9, 10. Nc. xiii. 23. and Eze. sM. 4.

Now if these he the laws of the sahhath, this
seventh day sahhath ; and if God did never com-
mand that this sahhath should hy his church he
sanctified without them : and, as was said hefore,
if these ceremonies have heen long since dead and
huried, how must this sahhath he kept ?

Let men take heed, lest while they plead for
law, and pretend themselves to he the only doers
of God's will,* they he not found the higgest trans-
gressors thereof. And why can they not as well
keep the other sahhaths ? As the sahhaths of
months, of years, and the juhilee ? For this, as I
have shewed, is no moral precept, it is only a
branch of the ministration of death and condem-
nation.

Fouiih, The seventh day sahhath, as such,
was a sign and shadow of things to come ; and a
sign cannot he the thing sig-nified and substance
too. \\Tierefore when the thing signified or sub-
stance, is come, the sign or thino: shadowino;
ceaseth. And, I say, the seventh day sabbath
being so, as a seventh day sabbath it ceaseth also.

See again Ex. X3.xi. 13, 14. Eze. XX. Vi, 21. Col. ii. 14.

Nor do I find that our Protestant writers, not-
withstanding their reverence of the sabbath, do
conclude otherwise ; but that though time as to
worshipping God, must needs be contained in the
bowels of the moral law, as moral ; yet they for
good reasons forbear to affix the seventh day as
thai time there too.

* This spirit is not extinct. Mr. Shenston, in his ' Plea
for the Seventh -day,' charges those who keep the Lord's day
' that they yield to the tide — keep their friends — riches — com-
forts ; they believe that the seventh-day is the sabbath, and
would greatly prefer keeping it, if the rulers of the nation
woiild alter the day; they imagine that their God is some
dumb idoll't Language most unseemly and insulting —
charging all who observe the Lord's day with being hj'pocrites
and the worst of fools. Mr. S. forgot the solemn proverb, 'with
what judgment ye judge ye shall be judged.'



VOL. II.



t Edit. 1S3G, pp. 41, 42.



They do it, I say, for good reasons ; reasons
drawn from the scripture ; or rather, for that the
scripture draws them so to conclude: yet they
cast not away the morality of a sabbath of rest to
the church. It is to be granted them, that time
for God's worship abideth for ever, but the seventh
day vanishes as a shadow and sign ; because such
indeed it was, as the scripture above cited declares
as to the sanction thereof as a sabbath.

The law of nature then calls for time ; but the
God of nature assigns it, and has given power to
his Son to continue sucn time as himself shall hy
his eternal wisdom judge most meet for the
churches of the Gentiles to solemnize worship to
God by him in. Hence he is said to be ' Lord
even of the sabbath day. ' Mat. xii. s.

Fifth, I find by reading God's word, that Paul
by authority apostolical, takes away the sanctions
of all the Jews' festivals and sabbaths.

This is manifest, for that he leaves the ohserva-
tion or non-observation of them, as things indiffer-
ent, to the mind and discretion of the believers.
* One man esteemeth one day above another :
another esteemeth every day alike. Let every
man be fully persuaded iu his o^vn mind.' Ro.

.\iv. 5.

By this last clause of the verse, * Let every man
be fuUy persuaded iu his own mind,' he dotli
plainly declare, that such days are now stript of
their sanction. ;[ For none of God's laws, while
they retain their sanction, are left to the will and
mind of the believers, as to whether they will
observe them or no. Men, I say, are not left to
their liberty in such a case ; for when a stamp of.
divine authority is upon a law, and abides, so long
we are bound, not to our mind, but to that law :
but when a thing, once sacred, has lost its sanc-
tion, then it falls, as to faith and conscience,
among other common or indifferent things. And
so the seventh day sabbath did. Again,

Sixth, Thus Paul writes to the church of
Coloss. * Let no man therefore judge you in
meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or
of the new moon, or of the sabbath: which are a
shadow of things to come; but the body is of
Christ.' Col. ii. iG, 17. Here also, as he serveth other
holy days, he serveth the sabbath. He gives a
liberty to believers to refuse the observation of it,
and commands that no man should judge against
them for their so doing. And as you read, the
reason of his so doing is, because the body, tho
substance is come. Christ saith he, is the body,
or that which these things were a shadow or
figure of. ' The body is of Christ,'



I This was the opinion of those great reformers, Tj-ndale,
Calvin, and Luther ; see introduction by the Editor. It was
a sentiment which led to no practical e\Tl. — Ed.
'6 X



370



THE SEVENTIl-DAY SABBATH.



Nov liatli the apostle, siriCO he saith * or of the
sabbath ' one would think, left any hole, out at
which men's inventions could get : but man has
sought out many ; and, so, many he will use.

But again, That the apostle by this word * sab-
bath' intends the seventh day sabbath, is clear;
for that it is by Moses himself counted for a sign,
as we have shewed: and for that none of the
other sabbaths were a more clear shadow of the
Lord Jesus Christ than this. For that, and that
alone, is called ' the rest of God : ' in it God rested
from all his works. Hence he calls it by way of
eminency, 'My sabbath, and my holy day.' is. M.

4; Iviii. 13.

Yet could that rest be nothing else but typical ;
for God, never since the world began, really rested,
but in his Son. ' This is he,' saith God, * in whom
I am well pleased.' This sabbath then, was God's
rest typically, and was given to Israel as a sign of
his grace towards them in Christ. Wherefore
when Christ was risen, it ceased, and was no
longer of obligation to bind the conscience to the
observation thereof, [Or of the sabbath.] He
distinctly singleth out iliis seventh day, as that
which was a most noble shadow, a most exact
shadow. And then puts that with the other
together; saying, they are a shadow of things to
come ; and that Christ has answered them all.
• The body zs of Christ.'

Seventh, No man will, I think, deny but that
He. iv. 4. intends the seventh day sabbath, on which
God rested from all his works ; for the text doth
plainly say so : yet may the observing reader easily
perceive that both it, and the rest of Canaan also,
made mention of ver. 5. were typical, as to a day
made mention of vers. 7 and 8. which day he calls
another. He would not afterwards have made
mention of another day. If Joshua had given
them rest, he would not. Now if they had not
that rest in Joshua's days, be sure they had it not
by Moses ; for he was still before.

All the rests therefore that Moses gave them,
and that Joshua gave them too, were but typical
of another day, in Avhich God would give them
rest. lie. iv. 9, 10. And M-hethcr the day to come, was
Christ, or Heaven, it makes no matter: it is
enough that they before did fail, as always shadows
do, and that therefore mention by David is, and
that afterward, made of another day. ' There
remains therefore a rest to the people of God.' A
rest to come, of Vifhich the seventh day in which
God rested, and the land of Canaan, vv-as a type ;
which rest begins in Christ noio, and shall be con-
summated in glory.

Aud in that he saith 'There remains a rest,'
referring to that of David, what is it, if it signifies
not, that the other rests remain not ? There
remains therefore a rest, a rest prefigured by the



seventh day, and by the rest of Canaan, though
they are fled and gone.

' There remains a rest;' a rest which stands not
now in signs and shadows, in the seventh day, or
Canaan, but in the Son of God, and his kingdom,
to whom, and to which the weary are invited to
come for rest. is. xxvm. 12. Mat. xi. 20. He. h. 11.

Yet this casts not out the Christians holiday or
sabbath : for that was not ordained to be a type
or shadow of things to come, but to sanctify the
name of their God in, and to perform that worship
to him which was also in a shadow signified by
the ceremonies of the law, as the epistle to the
Hebrews doth plentifully declare.

And I say again, the seventh day sabbath can-
not be it, for the reasons shewed afore.

Eighth, Especially if you add to all this, that
nothing of the ministration of death written and
engraven in stones, is brought by Jesus, or by his
apostles, into the kingdom of Christ, as a part of
his instituted worship. Hence it is said of that
ministration in the bowels of which this seventh
day sabbath is found, that it has now NO glory;
that its glory is done away, in or by Christ, and
so is laid aside, the ministration of the Spirit that
excels in glory, being come in the room thereof.

I will read the text to you. ' But if the minis-
tration of death, written and engraven in stones,
was glorious, so that the children of Israel could
not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the
glory of his countenance; which glory y^ as to be
done away: (It Avas given at first with this pro-
viso, that it should not always retain its glory,
that sanction, as a ministration.) How shall not
the ministration of the Sjjirit be rather glorious ?
For if the ministration of condemnation be glory,
much more doth the ministration of righteousness
exceed in glory. For even that which was made
glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of
the glory that exceUeth. For if that which was
done away was glorious, much more that Avhich
rcmaineth is glorious.' 3 Co. iii. 7— II.

What can be more plain ? The text says ex-
pressly, that this ministration doth not remain;
yea, and insinuates, that in its first institution it
was oi'dained Mith this proviso, ' It was to be done
away.' Now if in its first institution upon Sinai
it was thus ordained ; and if by the coming in of
the ministration of the spirit, this ordination is
now executed ; that is, if by it, and the apostle
saith it, it is done away by a ministration that re-
mains : then where is that seventh day sabbath ?

Thus therefore I have discoursed upon this
fourth question: And having shewed by this dis-
course that the old seventh day sabbath is abo-
lished and done away, and that it has nothing to
do with the churches of the Gentiles ; I am next
to shew what day it is that must abide as holy to



THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH.



J71



the Christians, tmd for them to perform their New
Testament cliurch service in.
Take the question thus.

QUESTION y.

Since it is denied that the seventh day sabbath is
■moral, and it is found that it is not to abide as a
sabbath for ever in the church, What time is to
he fixed on for Neio Testament saints to perform
together, divine worship to God hy Christ in ?

Upon this question hangs the stress of all, as to
the suhject now under consideration: hut hefore
I can speak distinctly to it, I must premise, as I
have in order to my speaking to the questions
before, something for the better clearing of our
\Yay —

[Therefore I remark, that] we are not now speak-
ing of all manner of worshipping God, nor of all times
in which all manner of worship is to be performed ;
but of that worship, Avhich is church worship, or wor-
ship that is to be performed by the assembly of saints,
when by the will of God they in all parts of his
dominion assemble together to worship him; which
worship hath a prefixed time allotted to, or for its
performance, and without which it cannot, accord-
ing to the mind of God, be done. This is the
time, I say, that we are to discourse of, and not
of ALL time appointed for all manner of worship.

I do not question but that worship by the godly
is performed to God every day of the week ; yea,
and every night too, and that time is appointed or
allowed of God for the performance of such wor-
ship. But this time is not fixed to the same mo-
ment or hour universally, but is left to the discre-
tion of the behevers, as their frame of spirit, or
occasions, or exigencies, or temptations, or duty
shall require.

We meddle then only with that time that the
worship aforesaid is to be performed in; which
time the law of nature as such supposes, but the
God of nature chooses. And this time as to the
churches of the Gentiles, we have proved is not
tliat time which was assigned to the Jews, to wit,
THAT seventh day which was imposed upon them
hy the ministration of death ; for, as we have
shewed already, that ministration indeed is done
away by a better and more glorious ministration, the
ministration of the spirit; which ministration surely
would be much more inferior than that which has
now no glory, was it defective as to this. That
is, if it imposed a gospel service, but appointed
not time to perform that worship in: or if not-
withstanding all its commendation, it should be
forced to borrow of a ministration inferior to itself;
that, to wit, the time without Avhich by no means
its most solemn worship can be performed.

This then is the conclusion, that TIME to wor-



ship God in, is required by the law of nature ; but
that the law of nature doth, as such, fix it on the
seventh day from the creation of the world, that I
utterly deny, by what I have said already, and
have yet to say on that behalf. Yea, I hope to
make it manifest, as I have, that this seventh day
is removed; that God, by the ministration of the
spirit, has changed the time to another day, to
wit. The first day of the week. Therefore we
conclude the time is fixed for the worship of the
New Testament Christians, or churches of the
Gentiles, unto that day.

Now in my discourse upon this subject, I shall,

I. Touch upon those texts that are more close,
yet have a divine intimation of this thing in them.

II. And then I shall come to texts more ex-
press.

FIRST, for those texts that are more close, yet
have a divine intimation of this thing In them.

First, The comparison that the Holy Ghost makes
between the rest of God from his works, and the
rest of Christ from his, doth intimate such a thing.
* He that is entered into his rest, he also hath
ceased fi'om his own works, as God did from his.'

He. iv. 10.

Now God rested from his works, and sanctified
a day of rest to himself, as a signal of that rest,
which day he also gave to his church as a day of
holy rest likewise. And if Christ thus rested
from his own works, and the Holy Ghost says he
did thus rest, he also hath sanctified a day to
himself, as that in which he hath finished his
work, and given it (that day) also to his church
to he an everlasting memento of his so doing, and
that they should keep it holy for his sake.

And see, as the Father's work was first, so his
day went before ; and as the Son's work came
after, so his day accordingly succeeded. The
Father's day was on the seventh day from the
creation, the Son's the first day following.

Nor may this be slighted, because the text says,
as God finished his work, so Christ finished his ;
He also hath ceased from his own works as God
did from his. He rested, I say, as God did; but
God rested on his resting day, and therefore so did
Christ. Not that he rested on the Father's rest-
ing day ; for It Is evident, that then he had great
part of his work to do ; for he had not as then
got his conquest over death, but the next day he
also entered Into his rest, having by his rising
again, finished his work, viz., made a conquest
over the powers of darkness, and brought hfe and
immortality to light through his so doing.

So then, that being the day of the rest of the
Son of God, it must needs he the day of the rest
of his churches also. For God gave his resting
day to his church to be a sabbath ; and Christ
rested from his own works as God did from his,



873



THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH.



therefore he also gave the day in which he rested
from his works, a sabbath to the churches, as did
the Father. Not that there are two sabbaths at
once: the Father's was imposed for a time, even
until the Son's should come; yea, as I have
shewed you, even in the very time of its imposing
it was also ordained to be done away. Hence he
saith, that ministration ' was to be done away. '
2 Co. iii. 7. Therefore we plead not for two sabbaths
to be at one time, but that a succession of time
was ordained to the New Testament saints, or
churches of the Gentiles, to worship God in; which
time is that in which the Son rested from his own
works as God did from his.

Second, Hence he calls himself. The * Lord
even of the sabbath day,' as lu. v. Mat. xu. 8. shews.
Now to be a Lord, is to have dominion, dominion
over a thing, and so power to alter or change it
according to that power ; and where is he that
dares say Christ has not this absolutely! We
will therefore conclude that it is granted on all
hands he hath. The question then is. Whether
he hath exercised that power to the demolishing
or removing of the Jews' seventh day, and esta-
blishing another in its room ? The wliich I think
is easily answered, in that he did not rest from
his own works therein, but chose, for his own rest,
to himself another day.

Surely, had the Lord Jesus intended to have
established the seventh day to the churches of the
Gentiles, ho would himself in the first place have
rested from his o'vvn works therein ; but since he
passed by that day, and took no notice of it, as to
the finishing of his own works, as God took notice
.of it when he had finished his ; it remains that he
fixed upon another day, even the first of the week;
on which, by his rising again, and shewing him-
self to his disciples before his passion, he made it
manifest that he had chosen, 'as Lord of the sab-
bath,' that day for his own rest: consequently,
and for the rest of his churches, and for his wor-
ship to be solemnized in.

Third, And on this day some of the saints
that slept arose, and began their eternal sabbath.
Mat. xxvii. 5^2, 53. See how the Lord Jesus hath glori-
fied this day ! Never was such a stamp of divine
honour put upon any other day, no not since the
world began. ' And the graves were opened; and
many bodies of the saints which slept arose, and
came out of the graves after his resurrection,' &c.
That is, they arose as soon as he was risen. But
why was not all this done on the seventh day ? No,



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