John Burke.

A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, enjoying territorial possessions or high official rank; but univested with heritable honours (Volume 1) online

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gentleman m. the daughter and heiress of
JohnTresawell, of Tresawell, and was s. by
his son, another

John Polwheile, esq. of Polwheile, who
represented the county of Cornwall in par-
liament, in the 4th and 5th of Philip and
Mary. It is worthy of remark, that of the
families which had the honor of sitting in
parliament for this shire, from Edward I.
to Philip and Mary, three only are now
extant — Basset, Tremayne, and Polwhele.
John Polwheile espoused Grace, daughter
of Nicholas Lower, esq. of Trelask, and was
s. by his son,

Degory Polwhele, esq. of Polwhele
and Treworgan : the latter estate, acquired
by his marriage with Catherine, one of the
daughters and co-heirs* of Robert Tren-
creek, of that place, the first recorder of the
borough of Truro, under the charter of
Elizabeth. By this lady he had issue,

Thomas, his heir.

ages. But we are told by Worcestre, who passed
the night in " Villa Polwhele," a guest of Otho,
that the castle of Polwhele was then reduced to
ruins ; and it was so reduced, probably by the
adherents of Queen Margaret.

Polwkele's Traditions and Recollection.
* The daughters of Trencreek were,

1. Julian, m. to Carminow.

2. Jane, m. to Penwarn.

3. Catherine, m. to Polwhele.

4. Honor, m. to Mohun.

Some little scattered property still remains with
the Polwhele family, a memorial of their alli-
ance with Mohun and Carminow ; as also a few
small tenements commemorative of their con-
nexion with Edgcumbe, Glanville, and Godol-
phin. In the north side of the old church at St.
Erme, there was an aged monument, (now placed
in the vestry room of the new church,) charged
with five shields of armorial bearings. 1st. Tren-
creek, quartering a chevron between three Dol-
phins, and impaling Vivian. 2d. Carminow, im-
paling Trencreek. od.Penwarne, impaling Trencreek.
4th. Polwhele impaling Trencreek. 5th. Mohun
impaling Trencreek.

It is remarkable, that Vivian's arms, Az. three
fishes in pale, arg. are the same as those which
belonged to the Bodmin Priory.

Polwkele's Traditions.




William, of London.
Otho, in holy orders, rector of Maiden-
Degory, of London.
Jonathan, in holy orders, rector of

Susanna, m. to John Webber, esq. of

St. Kew.
Anna, m. first to William Herle, esq.
of Berian, and secondly, to — Can-
ham, esq.
Isabella, m. to Richard Chiverton, esq.*
of Trehunsey Quethiock, and had
eleven children, one of whom,
Sir Richard Chiverton, was lord
mayor of London, in 1658.
Maria, ra. to John Chattye, esq. of
He was s. by his eldest son,

Thomas Polvvhele, esq. of Polwhele and
Treworgan, living in 1620, who espoused
Dionysia, dau. of John Glanville, of Tavis-
tock, one of the judges of the court of
King's Bench, and had issue,

John, his successor, b. in 1606.

Francis, b. in 1608.

Thomas, b. in 1610, in holy orders,

vicar of Newlyn.
Degory, b. in 1616, fellow of Exeter
College, Oxford.f

* The epitaphs on the Chivertons, in Quethiock
church, are curious.
On Richard Chiverton, who died 28th July, 1617.

" Friends (whoe'er you be) forbeare
On this stone to shed a teare :
Keep thine ointment, for indeede
Bounty is made goode by neede.
Here are they whose amber eyes
Have embalmed their obsequies :
Who will think you doe them wronge,
Offeringe what to them belonge 1
Beside this, their sacred shrine
Sleights the myrrhe of others eyne.
Then forbeare — when these growe drye,
We will weepe both thou and I."

Epitaph of Isabella, his wife, who died May
25th, 1631.

" My birth was in the month of May,
And in that month my nuptial day.
In May a mayde, a wife, a mother ;
And now in May not one nor other.
So flowers do flourish, so they fade ;
So things to be undone are made.
My stalk here withers ; yet there bee
Some lively branches sproute from me.
On which bestowe thine April rayne,
So they the livelier may remayne :
But here forbeare — for why 1 'tis said,
Tears fit the living not the dead.

t This gentleman was created M. D. by the
University of Oxford in 1660. In the Chancel-

Robert, b. in 1618.
Alicia, b. in 1611.
Mr. Polwhele was *. by his eldest son,

John Polwhele, esq. of Polwhele. This
gentleman wedded Anne, youngest daughter
of Thomas Baskerville, esq. of Richardston,
in the county of Wilts (see p. 93). He repre-
sented the borough of Tregoney, in parlia-
ment, in conjunction with Sir Richard Vy-
vyan, of Trelowarren. " In 1643, we observe
him (says his representative, the present
Mr. Polwhele) and his relations and friends,
Lord Mohun, and Edgecumbe, and Glan-
ville, and Godolphin, and Lower, and Kil-
legrew, rallying round the sacred person of
Majesty; and at Oxford, the magnificent
hall of Christ Church was their senate
house." To his loyalty Mr. Polwhele * de-
voted a large part of his patrimonial estate.
He was s. at his decease, by his eldest son,

John Polwhele, esq. of Polwhele and
Treworgan, who m. — , daughter of — -
Redinge, esq. of Northampton, and was s.
by his son,

Richard Polwhele, esq. of Polwhele
and Treworgan. This gentleman, who was
high sheriff of Cornwall in the reign of
George I. is thus spoken of by the Cornish
historian, Carew, who wrote at that period.
" We will close this hundred with the gen-
tleman of mark Polwhele, whose name

is deduced from his dwelling, and his dwell-

lor's letters for that purpose, we find the follow-
ing account of him. " That he had from the be-
ginning of the late unhappy troubles, vigorously
and faithfully served his Majesty, under the com-
mand of Ralph Lord Hopton, then Sir James
Smith, in the quality of a Major of Horse, and
continued in arms until the surrender of Penden-
nis Castle ; from whence he went to his late Ma-
jesty of blessed memory, and afterwards followed
his now Majesty (Charles II.) in Holland and
Flanders, and in and about the year 1650, he re-
turned into Cornwall, his native county, where
he betook himself to the study and practice of

* There was a great intimacy between John
Polwhele, and the grandfather of Tonkin, the
Cornish Historian. " My grandfather (says the
credulous historian,) being seized with the spotted
fever, which carried him off, July 6th, 1672, and
his old friend John Polwhele, esq. (who had been
his fellow prisoner in Pendennis Castle) dying
the same night, and, as it is supposed, the same

moment, lit his seat of Treworgan

my grandfather, as he was expiring, cried out
three times, Polwhele ! Polwhele ! Polwhele ! . .
to signify, as it were, that as they had suffered to-
gether in this world, so they were going together
to partake of an eternal reward in the next. This
I had both from the eldest daughter of my aunt
Ley, and from a servant of his, Will. Rickard,
who were both present when he died." — Tonkin's
MSS. penes De Dunstanvilte.



ing may be interpreted the miry work ;
linked in wedlock with the co-heir of Tren-
creek, in English, the town of the borough.
His mother was Lower of Trelask. Pol-
whele beareth sable, a saltier engrailed
erm." To which Tonkin subjoins : " I
think Polwhele should rather signify ' the
top of the work,' according to the situation
of the place, it lying high. This place gave
name to a family of very great antiquity,
which flourished here before the Conquest ;
about which time they were so eminent,
that Drew de Polwhele was chamberlain to
William the Conqueror's Queen.* Ever
since the said Drew, they have lived in
much esteem in this their ancient habitation,
till Degory Polwhele, on his marriage with
Catherine, daughter of Trencreek, removed
to Treworgan." Richard Polwhele wedded
Mary, sister of the Rev. Edward Collins,
vicar of St. Erth and Breage, and was s. by
his son,

Thomas Polwhele, esq. of Polwhele, who
espoused Mary, daughter of R. Thomas, an
alderman of Truro, and had issue,

Richard, his heir.


Grace, who died at eleven years of age.
" This gentleman," says Gilbert, " was
much respected and esteemed both in pub-
lic and private life, for his sound judgment,
impartiality, and integrity, as well as for

* It should be the Empress Maud.

the urbanity of his manners and benevo-
lence of his heart. By his noble relation,
Edgecumbe, of Mount Edgecumbe, he was
presented with a sword, in 1745, which he
had no sooner drawn against the rebels,
than their defeat at the battle of Culloden
restored it to its sheath ; and, as deputy-
lieutenant, &c. he was equally inclined to
serve his country. Much, however, is it
to be regretted, that his severe lot was, se-
clusion from that society to which those abi-
lities, and that disposition, might have been
so highly beneficial ; as the gout, to which
he died an early victim, long chained him
to his couch. It was there his exemplary
fortitude and resignation were witnessed by
many who still survive to lament how rare,
at this moment, are such truly Christian
virtues." Mr. Polwhele was s. at his de-
cease, by his only son, the present Rev. Ri-
chard Polwhele, of Polwhele.

Arms — Sa. a saltire engrailed, ermine.
Quartering the arms of Lukie, Tresawell,
Trencreek, &c.

Crest — A bull gu. with horns, or. An-
other crest of the family is, a Blackmore's
head, with an olive branch in its mouth.

Estates — Polwhele, Calerrick, Tregon-
tilian, Lanely, North Downs, Silver Closes,
Lastingarth, Eight Kemblins, with other pro-
perty situated near Truro ; all in the county
of Cornwall : possessed time immemorial.

Seat — Polwhele House.


STUART, WILLIAM, esq. of Tempsford Hall, in the county of Bedford, M.P. for

that shire, b. 31st October, 1798, m. 9th August, 1821,
Henrietta-Maria-Sarah, eldest daughter of the late Ad-
miral Sir Charles Morice Pole, bart. K.C.B. &c. and
has issue,

William, b. 7th March, 1825.
Charles-Pole, b. 7th May, 1826.
Clarence-Esme, b. 27th May, 1827.


Mr. Stuart succeeded his father, 6th May, 1822. He is
a magistrate aud deputy-lieutenant for the county of
Bedford, and also in the commission of the peace for
Herts and the liberty of St. Albans.

X &-


k — ST — m




John, third Earl of Bi'TR, the cele-
brated minister of George III. espoused
Mary, only daughter of Edward Wortley
Montague, esq. M. P. and dying, in 1792,
left with six daughters, five sons, viz.

John, his successor, as fourth Earl of

James-Archibald, who assumed the ad-
ditional surname and arms of Wort-
ley. He wedded Margaret, daugh-
ter of Sir David Cunyngham, and
had, with other children,
James-Archibald, created Baron
WhaRNCLIFFE, (see Burke's
Frederick, M.P. for the county of Bute,

d. unmarried, 1802.
Charles (Sir), a lieutenant-general in
the army, governor of Minorca,
which island, amongst his other mili-
tary services, he had reduced in 1798.
He m. Louisa, second daughter and
co-heiress of Lord Vere Bertie, and
had issue,

1. Charles, created Lord Stuart,
de Rothesay.

2. John, Captain, R.N. who m. in
1807, Albinia, eldest daughter
of the Right Hon. John Sulliv an,

and left at his decease, in 1811,
an only son, Charles.
William, of whom we have to treat.
The youngest son.

The Hon. William Stuart, a church-
man, was consecrated Archbishop of Ar-
magh and Primate of Ireland. His grace
wedded, 3d May, 1796, Sophia Margaret
Juliana, daughter of Thomas Penn, esq.
and had issue,

William, his heir.

Henry, attached to the British Em-
bassy at St. Petersburgh.
Mary-Juliana, to. in February, 1815,
to Thomas, Viscount Northland, eld-
est son of the Earl of Ranfurly, and
has issue.
Louisa, d. unmarried in 1823.
The archbishop died, 6th May, 1822, and
was s. by his elder son, the present William
Stuart, esq. M.P. of Tempsford Hall.

Arms — Or, a fesse chequz az. and arg.
within a double tressure, flory, counter-
flory, gu.

Crest — A demi-lion rampant gu.

Motto— Avito viret honore.

Estates— In Bedfordshire, &c.

Seat — Tempsford Hall, Bedfordshire.


(Kcmrsrntattbe of tljr protector.)

CROMWELL, ELIZABETH-OLIVERIA, of Cheshunt Park, in the county of

Herts, b. 8th June, 1777, to. 18th June, 1801, Thomas-
Artemidorus Russell, esq. and has issue,

John-Henry-Cromwell Russell, of Sittingbourne, b.

29th August, 1807, to. 14th August, 1832, Eliza,
only daughter of Morris Lievesley, esq.

Thomas-Artemidorus Russell, b. 25th October, 1810.

Charles-William-Cromwell Russell, b. 18th May, 1814.

Elizabeth-Oliveria Russell, to. 17th November, 1823,
to Frederick-Joseph, only son of Frederick Prescott,
esq. of Theobalds Grove, Herts.

Mary-Esther Russell, to. 14th August, 1832, to Lieu-
tenant-General Armstrong.

Letitia-Cromwell Russell.

Emma-Bridget Russell.

Mrs. Russell succeeded her father, Oliver Cromwell,
esq. on the 18th June, 1821, and became representative
of the familv of Cromwell.




The family of the Protector, which
arose in Wales, and was deemed illustrious
by the genealogists of the principality, bore
the surname of Cromwell, by assumption
only, its patronimic, "Williams, having been
abandoned at the special desire of King
Henry VIII. " That monarch," saith
Noble, " strongly recommended to the
Welch, (whom he incorporated with the
English) to adopt the mode of most civilized
nations, in taking family names instead of
their manner of adding their father's, and
perhaps grandfather's name to their own
Christian one, with nap, or ap, between the
Christian and sirname, as Morgan ap Wil-
liams, or Richard ap Morgan ap Williams,
that is. Richard, the son of Morgan, the son
of Williams ; and the king was the more
anxious, as it was found so inconvenient in
identifying persons in judicial matters. —
Richard's * father seems to have taken the
name of Williams for his family name ; but
ae the sirname of Williams was of so late a
standing, his Majesty recommended it to
Sir Richard to use that of Cromwell, in
honor of his relation, the Earl <>y E-^ex,
whose present greatness entirely obliterated
his former meanness."

Ralph Brooke, York Herald, drew up
a pedigree of the family, which he entitled,
"A Genealogy of the Cromwell family,
descended from the Williams of Wales,
whose predecessors were Lords of Powes
and Cardigan, from 1066 to 1602." He
commences with

Glothian, Lord of Powes, who m. Mor-
veth, daughter and heiress of Edwyn ap
Tvdwall, Lord of Cardigan, whom the Bri-
tish historians affirm lineally sprang from
Caredig, from whom the county of Cardi-
gan took the name of Caredygion. The
heir of this marriage,

Gwaith-Voed, was Lord of Powes and
Cardigan, Gwente and Gwynvaye. He was
wounded to death in a battle against one
Avisa, a Scythian infidel, in defending the
temple or church of St. David's, and died
about the time of the Norman Conquest.
He was *. by

Gwivestan ap Gwaith Vof.d, Lord of
Powes, + from whom we pass to his lineal de-

* Sir Richard Williams, who first assumed
the name of Crom wlll.

t Prom whom (continues Brooke) is descended
Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hincbinbroke, knt. as
li^ir-male, and by female, manv of the nobility of
this realm, living in the year 1602.

Yevan ap Morgan, of New Church,
near Cardiff, in the county of Glamorgan,
who (redded Margaret, daughter of Jenkin
Reinys, esq. of Bagam, and was *. by his
eldest son,

William ap Yevan, servant to Jasper
Tudor, Duke of Bedford, and to Kiny Hen-
ry VII. whose son and heir,

Morgan Williams, espoused the sister of
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex,* and
had issue,

Richard, his successor.

V\ alter, who left two daughters, Joan

and Anne.
Richard, who left a son, Henry.
The eldest son,

Sir Richard Williams, assumed, as
already stated, at the desire of Henry
VIII. the surname of his uncle, Cromwell,
and through the influence of that once pow-
erful relative, himself and his family ob-
tained wealth and station. "As Vicar-Ge-
neral of all spiritual, the Earl of Essex had
an opportunity of obliging his kinsman,
then Richard Williams, alias Cromwell, esq.
and others,with the sale of the lately dissolved
religious houses, at sums infinitely below the
very great value of most. Some of the most
advantageous purchases were made by this
ancestor of the Huntingdonshire Cromwells;
and among others, those of the nunnery of
Hinchinbrooke, and the monastery of Sal-
try-Judith, in that county, and all the manors
situate in the same county, together with
the site of the rich abbey of Ramsey. Ad-
ditions were made to his possessions by the
king, even after the fall of the favorite,
Cromwell ; so that at the period of his
death, Sir Richard's estates probably equal-
led in value (allowing for the alteration in
the value of money) those of the wealthiest
peers of the present day. At a tournament
held by his royal master in 1540, and de-
scribed by Stowe, Richard Cromwell, esq.
is named as one of the challengers ; all of
whom were rewarded on the occasion by
the king with an annual income of an hun-
dred marks, granted out of the dissolved
Franciscan monastery, of Stamford, and
with houses each to reside in. His Majes-
ty was more particularly delighted with the
gallantry of Sir Richard Cromwell (whom
he had knighted on the second day of the
tournament), and exclaiming, ' formerly

* For an account of this celebrated favorite of
HrNRV VIII. refer to Burke's Extinct and Dor-

mant Peerage.



thou wast my Dick, but hereafter thou shalt
be my Diamond,' presented him with a dia-
mond ring, bidding. him for the future wear
such an one in the fore-gamb of the demi-
lion in the crest, instead of a javelin, as
heretofore. The arms of Sir Richard, witli
this alteration, were ever afterwards borne
by the elder branch of the family ; and by
Oliver himself, on his assuming the protec-
torate, though previously he had borne the
javelin."* Sir Richard Cromwell served
the office of sheriff for the counties of Cam-
bridge and Huntingdon, in 1541, and was
member for th« latter shire in the parliament
which began January 16, 1542. He wedded
in 1518, Frances, daughter and co-heir of
the then lord-mayor of London, Sir Thomas
Murfyn, of Ely, and had two sons, viz.
Henry (Sir) his successor.
Francis, of Hemingford, in the county
of Huntingdon, M.P. for that shire
in the 15th of Elizabeth, and sheriff
for the counties of Cambridge and
Huntingdon, in the 29th of the same
reign. He m. Margaret, daughter of
Henry Mannock, of Hemingford, and
died in 1598.
The elder son and heir,

Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchinbrooke,
received the honor of knighthood from
Queen Elizabeth, in 1563, and the same
year was returned to parliament by the
county of Huntingdon. He was sheriff for
the shires of Huntingdon and Cambridge in
the 7th, 13th, 22nd and 34th of Elizabeth.
Sir Henry married twice, but had issue only
by Joan, daughter of Sir Ralph Warren,
knt.f his first wife, namely,

I. Oliver, who inherited Hinchin-
brooke at his father's decease, in
1603. He was knighted by Queen
Elizabeth, and created a knight of
the bath by King James. He m.
first, Elizabeth, daughter of the Lord
Chancellor (Sir Thomas) Bromley,
and had four sons and three daugh-
ters, viz.

1. Henry, of Ramsay, colonel in
the army of King Charles.
This gentleman married thrice,
and had several children. Co-
lonel Cromwell died in 1657,
and his only surviving son and

Henry Cromwell, of Ram-
say, reassumed the surname
of Williams.

* Oliver Cromwell and his Times, by Thomas

i Son of Sir Ralph Warren, knt. twice lord-mayor
of London, by Joan, daughter and co-heir of John
Trelake, alias Davy, of Cornwall.

2. Thomas, also in the service of
King Charles.

3. John, a colonel in the royal
army, had an only daughter,

4. William, like his brothers, a
cavalier officer, d. unmarried, in

5. Elizabeth, m. to Sir Richard In-
goldsby, knt. and died in 1666.

6. Catherine, m. to Sir Henry Pa-
lavicini, knt. of Babesham,in the
county of Cambridge.

7. Joan, m. to William Baker,
esq. of Bury.

8. Jane, m. to Tobias Palavicini,

Sir Oliver Cromwell wedded second-
ly, Anne, daughter of Egideus Hiff-
man, of Antwerp, and widow of
Sir Horatio Palavicini, and had
other children,
ii. Robert, of whom presently,
ill. Henry, of Upwood. This gentle-
man m. twice, and left a son and two
daughters, by Mrs. Jones, his first

Richard, whose only snrviving
child, Anne (a poetess), m. her
kinsman, Henry Williams (alias
Cromwell) of Ramsay.
Elizabeth, m. to Oliver St. John,
lord chief justice of the Common
Anne, m. to John Neale, esq. of
iv. Richard.

v. Philip (Sir) of Biginhome, m. Mary,
daughter of Sir Henry Tounsend,
chief justice of Chester,
vi. Ralph.
vii. Joan, m. to Sir Francis Bavington,

VIII. Elizabeth, m. to William Hamp-
den, esq. of Great Hampden,
ix. Frances, m. to Richard Whalley,

esq. of Kirkston.
x. Mary, m. to Sir W T illiam Dunch, of

Little Whittenham.
xi. Dorothy, m. to the Lord Chief
Justice (Sir Thomas) Fleming.

The second son,

Robert Cromwell, settled in the town
of Huntingdon, and became a brewer there..
Coke says, (Delection ii. 57. London, 1694)
" that his father being asked whether he
knew the Protector, replied, yes, and his
father too, when he kept his ' brew-house'
in Huntingdon." And Sir William Dug-
dale relates, that " Robert Cromwell, though
he was, by the countenance of his elder
brother, made a justice of the peace in
Huntingdonshire, had but a slender estate,
much of his support being a brew-house in



Huntingdon." He m. Elizabeth,* daughter
of William Stewart, esq. of Ely, and widow
of William Lynn, esq. and had surviving

Oliver, his successor.

Catherine, m. first, to Captain Roger
Whitstone, and secondly, to Colonel
John Jones, one of the Judges whose
signature appears to the warrant for
the execution of King Charles I.

Margaret, m. to Colonel Valentine
Vi aughton, another of the regicides.

Anne, m. to John Sewster, esq. of

Jane, in. to Johu Desbrow, esq. one of
the King's judges, but his name does
not appear to the warrant for the ex-

Robina, m. first, to Doctor Peter French,
canon of Christ church, Oxford, and
secondly, to Doctor John Wilkins,
bishop of Chester.

* Of this lady nothing is very, certainly known :
according to Noble, as well as Brooke, she sprang
from a branch of the royal family of Stuart, and
the descent is thus deduced:

Banquo, Thane of Lochabar, slain by Macbeth,
1 was grandfather of

Walter, who was created Lord High Steward
of Scotland. His son,

Alexander, second Lord Steward, had with
other issue,

John, or James, (the eldest son) who suc-
ceeded as third Lord Steward. His son,
Walter, Lord Steward, espoused Mar-
gery, only daughter, by his first
wife, of King Robert Bruce, and had
a son,

Robert Stuart, who ascended the

Scottish throne at the decease of

his uncle, David II. in 1370, as

' Robert II. (the first monarch of

the house of Stuart.)
Andrew, (the third son.)

Andrew (the third son) Steward, of Dunda-
vale, was father of

Sir Alexander Steuart, in the service of the
King of France, and slain at Vannoile. His

Sir John Stewart, knt. settled in England,
and was grandfather of

Thomas Stewart, esq. of Swaffam Market, in
the county- of Norfolk, whose grandson,

Nicholas Stewart, of Well, in Norfolk, m.
Cicely, daughter and heiress of — Baskerville,
esq. and was grandfather of

William Stewart, esq. of FJv, whose daughter,
Elizabeth Stewart, wedded first, William Lynn,
esq. and after his decease became the wife of
Robert Cromwell, and mother of the Protector.

Note — This connection between the Usurper
and his Royal Victim, may or may not be au-
thentic, all it shows, however, is that they de-
scended from a common progenitor.

Robert Cromwell, who sate in Parliament
for the borough of Huntingdon, died in
1617, leaving his son,

Oliver Cromwell, then a youth of eigh-
teen, having been born in the parish of St.
John, Huntingdon, on the 25th April, 1599.
The education of this eminent man was at
first entrusted to the Rev. Mr. Long, of his
native town, but he was afterwards placed
under the care of Doctor Beard, master of
the free grammar school in the same place,
whence he removed to Cambridge, and
entered Sydney Sussex College, as a fellow
commoner, 23rd April, 1616. Subsequently

Online LibraryJohn BurkeA genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, enjoying territorial possessions or high official rank; but univested with heritable honours (Volume 1) → online text (page 66 of 112)