John C Laskey.

A description of the series of medals struck at the National medal mint by order of Napoleon Bonaparte, commemorating the most remarkable battles and events during his dynasty. By Captain J. C. Laskey online

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Online LibraryJohn C LaskeyA description of the series of medals struck at the National medal mint by order of Napoleon Bonaparte, commemorating the most remarkable battles and events during his dynasty. By Captain J. C. Laskey → online text (page 1 of 13)
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DESCRIPTION OF THE SERIES



OP



MEDALS

STRUCK AT THE NATIONAL MEDAL
MINT BY ORDER OF



COMMEMORATING

THE MOST REMARKABLE BATTLES AND
EVENTS DURING HIS DYNASTY.




BY

CAPTAIN J. C. LASKEY,

MEMBER Olr THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY. L.3.H. S. &c



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR H. R. YOUNG,

N- 56, PATERNOSTER-ROW.

fy

1818.



Printed by J.



ut, London.




STACK ANNEX



PREFACE.



JN the few observations which the Author has to make on
the subject of the following work, he does not feel it necessary
either to eulogize, or vilify the character of Bonaparte : suc-
cessful enterprise, and disappointed interests, have mutually
contributed to furnish the world with every thing which could
be said or written of this extraordinary man, whose encourage-
ment of the fine arts has given rise to a series of Medals un-
equalled by any of modern times, and surpassed only by those
standards of excellence, the elegant and classical Coinage of
antient Greece and Rome. Much, however, as they possess to
instruct the Artist, amuse and gratify the man of taste, and
give emulation to rival genius ; it is trifling, compared with
those mighty and appalling events, which for thirty years have
astonished and convulsed the world, and of which they are at
once a proud monument, and a degrading record.

The series commence icith the BATTLE OF MONTENOTTE,
the first victory gained by Bonaparte after his appointment
to the command of the army of Italy, in 1796; and is follow*
ed by others, commemorating events and important battles in
which the French were successful, up to 1813.



IT

On the Emperor's return from Elba, in 1815, the Medal,
No. CXXXVI. was immediately struck, and is chronologically
the last of the Series. The French Medallic Mint List, how-
ever, has placed the Jive small Medals of the Empress Maria
Louisa, the Princess Eliza, the Princess Pauline, the Queen
of Naples, and the Queen Hortense after it, in the succession
here enumerated: they were struck probably in 1813, the Medal
of Maria Louisa bearing that date.

The Author having had no other guide for the historical
facts, than the public records of the time ; the difficulty of
ascertaining precisely the meaning intended to be conveyed by
the devices on some of the Medals, must be apparent to every
body ; and he hopes for the indulgence of the public, to a work
not intended to combat opinions or principles, but solely to
assist the collector of Napoleon Medals, with a description
of the Obverse and Reverse, and a brief account of the cir-
cumstances which gave rise to them.

The want of suck a Publication being generally acknow-
ledged, nothing of the kind having been published either
in this kingdom, or in France, the present will, it is hoped,
prove acceptable, until some one, possessing more knowledge of
the subject, with greater abilities to display it, shall produce
to the Public a Work more deserving of their notice.



jHonnate ties



Collection des Medailles des Campagnes et du Regne
de lEmpereur Napoleon.



Ordre

Cljronologique.


designation fceg i&it&SUf.


N ombre
de

Medailles.


Dimension
par

Centimetres.


(


f Bataille de Montenotte*


1


4.


1796 . . .<




2


4.






3


4.






4


4.


1797


) Capitulation de Mantoue* ....
\ Passage du Tagliamento


5

6


3 a 4.
4.


!

1798 . . .!

|


Traite de Campo-Formio ....

Conquete de la Basse-Egypte* . .
Conquete de la Haute- Egypte* .
UEgypte Conquise*


7

8
9
10


5 a 6.

3 a 4.
3d 4.
4.


1799 . . .


Ret our d Frejus* .


11


3 a 4




j

' Passage du grand Saint-Ber-
nard*


12


4




Bataille de Marenao


13


4 d D




*/


14


4 d 5


1800 . . L


Colonne Departemejitale


15


5 d 6




Colonne Nationale


16


4




Le Quai JDesaix


17


4




Honneurs rendiis d Tnrenne . . .
>Attentat du trois Nivose


18
19


4 d 5. -
4 d 5




b







Vlll



Ordre

Chronolopique.


e^ignation Deg 3EteDatffe.


N ombre
de
Medailles.


Dimension
par

Centimetres.


1801 . . J
1802 . .^

1803 . . ^
1804. .^


Paix de Luneville


20
21

22
23
24

25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33

34
35

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47


5 d6.
4.

4 a 5.
4.

4 a 5.

4.

1 a 2.
4.
3 a 4.
4.

3 a 4.

3 a 4.
3 a 4.
4.

4.
4.

4.
4.
4.

3 a 4.
2 a 3.
1 cf2.
4.
6d7.
3 a 4.
2 a 3.
4.
4.




/
'Paix d' Amiens


Autre sur le nietne suiet .


j
Retablissement du Culte


Organisation de I' Instruction pub-


' Negotiations avec I'Angleterre* .


La Venus de Medicis*


Les Ecoles de Pharmacie* ....
^La Fortune Conservatrice* ....

(SaUedeVApollan*

Le Musee Napoleon!

tSalle du Laocoon.*


V

LEcole des Mines du Mont-
Blanc*


Le Catnp de Boulogne*


Construction des deux mille Bar-




''

Le Couronnement d Paris -/ ^

(*'
Le Sacre*


Repas donne par la ville de Pari
Fetes du Couronnement


Distribution des Aigles*


La Monnaie des Medailles retablie

. Societe Centrals de Vaccine* . .



IX



Ordre

ChroDologiqu


3eicmation Des IBeDarlles.

s.


Nombre
de

Med ailles.


Dimension
par
Centimetres.




r Visite du Pape Pie VII* . . .


48


4.


1 Cniir(mnf.m.f>nt d Hfilan.*


49


4.


1805 . .


/ Le Tombeau de Desaix*


50


2 a 3.






\ Autre, avec inscription*


51


2 a 3.


La Ligvrie reunie d la. France* .


52


4.


v Les Ecoles de Medecine* ....


53


4.




\








premiere Campape o^iitrirJje.








f Levee du Camp de Boulogne* . .


54


4.




Allocution sur le Pont du Lech* ,


55


4.




Capitulation d'Ulm et de Mem








minqen*


56


4




Prise de Vienne et de Presbourg


57


4.




Reprise des Drapeaujc d Inspruck


58


4.


1805 . . (


Bataille d'Austerlitz*


59


4.






Les trois Etnpercurs* .......


60


4.






Entrevue des deux Empereurs* . .


61


4.




Deputation des Maires de Paris d








Schoenbrunn


62


6 a 7.






63


4.




Cathedrale de Vienne*


64


4.






65


4.


i


Concruete de Ffstrie*


66


4.




Conyuete de la Dalmatie* ....


67


4.


1


Conouete de Naples* .


68


4.




1806 . . \


Souverainetes donnees* ......


69


4.




Mariage du Prince de Bade* . .


70


4.


Colonne de la gran.de Armee* . .


71


4.


V




72


4.





X



Ordre

Chroaologique.



N ombre

de
Medailles.



Dimension

par
Centimetres.



Campagneg De $ruge tt de
Cologne.



Confederation du Rhin* 73 4.

Bataille d'Jena* 74 4.

Autre sur le meme sujet 75 4.

, Entree a Berlin* 76 4.

\ Capitulation des quatre Forte-

resses de la Prusse* 77 4.

Alliance avec la Saxe* 78 4.

Occupation de Hambourg* .... 79 4.

/Les Aigles Frangaises sur la Vis-

tule* 80 4.

Bataille d'Eylau* 81 4.

Sejour a Osterode* 82 4.

Delivrance de Dantzick* 83 4.

Bataille de Friedland* 84 4.

La Victoire du 14 Juin* 85 4.

/ Occupation des trois Capitales* . 86 4.

( Conquete de la Silesie* 87 4.

Paix da Tilsit* 88 4.

Le grand Duche de Varsovie* . . 89 4.

Le Royaume de Westphalie* ... 90 4.

Mariage du Roi de Westphalie* 91 4.

Reunion de FEtrurie d I'Empire* 92 4.

Le Simplon* 93 4.

Route de Nice d Rome* 94 4.

\ L'Aigle couronnee* 95 4.

Campagne &'<pagne.

1808 $ Bataille de Sommo- Sierra . . . QQ 4

\L' Entree d Madrid 97



XI



Ordre

Chronologique.


ei0nation Oe l&e&aitteg.


Nombre
de
Medailles.


Dimension
par
Centimetres.




&etont>e Catopape fc'autnc^e.








- Rupture du TraitedePresbourg, et








Batailles d'Abensberg et d'Eck-








iniihl*


OR






Depart de Paris, et entree a


C7tJ


j




Vienne*


99






Bataille d'Essling, et Passage du











100


4.




Prise de Raab*


101


4.


1809 . . (


Attaque d'Anvers, et Sejour d






\


Schoenbrunn*


102


4.




Reunion de VEtat Rom a in d








tEmpire*


103


4.




Rome seconde Capitate*


104


4.






105


4.






106


4.




Paix de Vienne*


107


4.




Visite du Roi de Saxe d la Mon-








<- naie des Medailles*


108


4.




' "Visite du Roi et de la Reine de








Baviere d la Monnaie des Me-








dailles*


IftQ **






(I


J.Utf

110



4.


1810 . J


Mariage de I'Empereur ^ ^
(* ' '


111
112
113


3 a 4.
2 a 3.

1 a 2.




L' Amour emportant le Foudre* .


114


la 2.




Visite du Grand-Due de Wurtz-








bourg d la Monnaie des Me-








dailles*


-ii s


3 ft 4




Statue de Desaix* . .


J.AO
lift


U> *X

4.




V Le Canal de I'Ourcg* .


mMAM


4.











Xll



Ordre

Chronologique


Designation dc j&e&ailU.s.


Nombre
de

Med.,illes.


Dimension
par

Centimetres.


1810 . . <

1

1811 .. 4

1

1812 . . I

1813 . . J

1814 . .
1815 . .


'Orphelines de la Legion-d'Hon-
\ neur*


118
119

120
121
122
123
124

125
126
127

128

129
130

131

132
133
134

135
136


4.

6d7.

4.

6 a 7.
4.

3 a 4.
1 a 2.

4.
4.
4.

4.

4.
4.

5 a 6.

4.

4.
4.

4.
4.


1 Pompe Funebre du Due de Mon-
tebello


Na'issance du Roi de Rome* . .
Bapteme du Roi de Rome ....
f *
Le Roi de Rome ..<*..
(*....

Campagne t>e ftuftit.


' Prise de Wilna*


Bataille de la Moskowa* ....
Entree d Moscou*


Les Aigles Frangaises sur le Bo-
rysthene* . .


Les Aigles Francoises sur le Wol-
ga* .


Retraite de FArmee*


Fondation de CEcole des Beaux-
Arts d Rome


Bataille de Lntzen* ....


Bataille de Wurtchen* . . .


Le Monument du Mont-Cenis* .
Fevrier, 1814* ....


Retour de I'Empereur*



Xlll



Ordre

Chrooologique.


Designation des JEeDatlleS.


Kombre
de

Medailles.


Dimension
par

Centimetres.


fL'Imperatrice Marie-Louise* . .


137


2 a 3.


= ^ i La Princesse Elisa* .


138


2 a 3.


Petites Me. 1








dailies. < La Princesse. Pauline*


139


2 a 3.


K


La Heine de, Naples*


140
141


2 a 3.
2 a 3.


La Reine Hortense* .


Nota. Toutes hs Mtdailles marquees d'un








Asttrisque ont tie ordonnies par le








Gouvernementj compasses ft dirigtes








par M. Denon.







Dtapoleon



No. I.

BATAILLE DE MONTENOTTE.

Obverse Bust of General Bonaparte, his hair
en queue, coat embroidered with oak leaves
and acorns ; exergue, GAYRARD F. Reverse
Genius of War, flying over that part of
the Globe where the arms of the Republic
ivere then in the full tide of victory ; in her
right hand a drawn sword; in her left, a,
laurel crown and palm branches ; the redoubt
of Montenotte appears on the left side of the
globe. Legend, JEUFFROY F. DENON DIR. Ex-
ergue, BATAILLE DE MONTENOTTE, MDCCXCVI.

Dimensions, 1-rg inches.

B ARRAS being chosen to the office of Director, found
it inconvenient to continue his intimacy with Madame
Beauharnois, and she agreed to give her hand to Napo-
leon Bonaparte, then General of the Interior, if he
could be brought to offer her his vows of conjugal
affection. At this time the army of Italy had no leader,
Garnet had displaced General Scherer for habitual in-
toxication ; and Bonaparte having shewed his talents
both at Toulon and on the 13th Vendemaire, was re
commended by Barras to Carnot, as most likely to serve



the Republic faithfully in Italy. Carnot's high opinion
of the genius of Bonaparte seconded the nomination.
Barras offered the lady and 500,000 livres, and Carnot
the army ; and as the terms of the offer signified that
neither could be gratified without the other, he did not
long hesitate in obliging his friend Barras, and became
the husband of Madame Beauharnois, and the comman-
der in chief of the army of Italy.

Bonaparte arrived at head-quarters early in the
spring of 1796 ; his army was very inferior in numbers
to that of his enemies : " But if we are vanquished,"
said he, " I shall have too much ; if conquerors, we
stand in need of nothing."

The Austrians and Piedmontese occupied all those
parts of the Alps which command the shore of Genoa.
The French had their right supported by Savona, with
their left towards Montenotte, while two demi-brigades
were much advanced in front of their right at Voltri.

After some time spent in movements, intended to de-
ceive the French, hostilities were commenced by the
Imperialists. Beaulieu ordered 10,000 men to attack
the post of Voltri. General Cervoni, with 3000 men,
retreated in the night, in great order, to the church of
our Lady of Savona, and Bonaparte covered him with
1500 men, posted expressly in the avenues of Saspello,
and on the heights of Veraggio. On the 10th, Beaulieu,
with 15,000 men, attacked and drove in all which sup-
ported the centre of the French, and at one o'clock of
the day was before the redoubt of Montenotte, the last
of their entrenchments. In spite of repeated charges,
this redoubt arrested the progress of the enemy. The
Chief of Brigade, Rampon, who commanded these 1500
men, made his soldiers take an oath to perish in the re-
doubt, and for the whole night kept the enemy at the dis-



tance of pistol shot. During this time General Laharpe
took post behind the redoubt, and Bonaparte, followed
by the Generals Berthier and Massena, and the Com-
missioner Salicetti, brought up his centre and his left, at
one o'clock in the morning, by Altara, on the flank and
rear of the Austrians. On the llth, at day-break, Beau-
lieu and Laharpe attacked each other with vigour and
various success, when Massena appeared dealing death
and terror on the Austro-Sardinians, where General
Argenteau commanded. The enemy's Generals, Argen-
teau and Roccavino, were wounded, and the route was
complete. Fifteen hundred men were killed, and 2500
were made prisoners ; of which 60 were officers ; seve-
ral standards were taken ; and the French, by gaining
the battle of Montenotte, made themselves masters of
Carcara on the 12th, and also of Cairo.



No. II.
BATAILLE DE MILL^SIMO.

Obverse Hercules engaged with the Hydra;
the flaming torch of ivar lies under his left
foot. Legend, BATAILLE DE MILLESIMO .
COMBAT DE DEGO. Reverse, within a circle

LE PEUPLE FRAN9AIS A L'ARMEE D'lTALIE.

Legend, AN 4 ME> DE LA REP. LOI DU 6 FLO-
REAL. Size, Ifl inches.

THE battle of Millesimo, on account of which victory
this medal was struck, being the second in which



Bonaparte was engaged after being appointed to the
chief command, and being so closely connected with
the battle of Montenotte, we conceive we cannot do
better than continue the operations of the army after
that battle, in explanation of this.

Beaulieu was yet able to send assistance from his
right wing to the left of the Austro-Sardinian army.
Bonaparte changed his head-quarters to Carcara on the
12th, and ordered General Laharpe to march to Sozello,
in order to threaten the eight battalions of the enemy
stationed there, and on the day following, by a rapid
and concealed march, to get to the town of Cairo,
while General Massena was to gain the heights of Dego,
at the time that the Generals Menaud and Joubert occu-
pied one of the heights of Biestro, and the other the
position of St. Marguerite. This movement following
the battle of Montenotte, placed the French army on
the other side of the Alps.

General Augereau forced Millesimo, while the Gene-
rals Menaud and Joubert drove the enemy from all their
posts, and surrounded a corps of 1500 Austrian grena-
diers, commanded by Lieut-General Povera, a knight
of the order of Maria Theresa, who gallantly retired to
the mountain of Cossaria, and entrenched himself in an
old castle, extremely strong on account of its position.
Augereau ordered his artillery to advance, when a can-
nonade was kept up for several hours. In the course
of the day, Bonaparte, vexed at finding his march
checked by a handful of men, ordered General Povera
to be summoned to surrender. He requested to speak
with the Commander-in-Chief, but a lively cannonade
commencing on the right wing of the French, hindered
him from going to Povera, who then entered into treaty



with General Augereau, which lasted for several hours
without coming to a conclusion : Augereau at length
formed his men into four columns, and advanced against
the castle. Joubert entered the enemy's works with only
seven men; when, being wounded in the head, he fell to
the ground : his soldiers thinking him killed, his column
relaxed. The second column, under General Banel,
advanced in silence, when the General was killed. The
third column, under Adjutant-General Quenin, who
was also killed, was in like manner disconcerted.

Night approaching, Bonaparte fearing the enemy
would attempt to make their way sword in hand, made
dispositions to prevent them.

Next morning the hostile armies faced each other.
The French left, under Augereau, kept General Povera
blockaded. Several of the enemy's regiments strove to
penetrate the center of the French, but were repulsed
by General Menaud, who was then ordered to fall back
on the right wing. Before noon General Massena ex-
tended his line beyond the enemy's left, which occupied
the village of Dego, strongly entrenched. The French
pushed their light troops as far as the road leading from
Dego to Spino. General Laharpe's division marched
in three close columns ; the one on his left, under Gene-
ral Causse, crossed the Bormida, and attacked the right
of the enemy's left wing ; General Cervoni, with the
second column, also passed the Bormida, covered by
one of the French batteries, and advanced against the
enemy ; while the third column, under Adjutant- General
Boyer, turned a ravine, and cut off their retreat. The
enemy had not time to capitulate ; and the French co-
lumns, spreading terror and death, put them to the
route. General Povera, with the corps he commanded



-



6

at Cossaria, surrendered prisoners of war. By this
victory the French acquired from 7 to 9000 prisoners,
and the enemy had near 3000 killed on the field.

On the 15th, Beaulieu, with the flower of his army,
attacked the village of Dego and carried it. Massena,
when he had formed part of his troops, began the at-
tack, but was repulsed in three attempts. General
Causse was not more fortunate ; he attacked the enemy,
and was on the point of charging with the bayonet,
when he fell, mortally wounded. In this situation, ob-
serving General Bonaparte, he collected his strength,
and asked him if Dego was retaken ; " The posts are
our's," replied the General. Then said Causse, " Vive
la Republique ! I die content." The affair, however,
was not yet decided, and it was already two o'clock in
the afternoon. Bonaparte ordered a demi-brigade to
form under General Victor, whilst Adjutant- General
Lasnes rallying a demi-brigade of light infantry, threw
himself on the enemy's left. These movements carried
Dego ; the cavalry completed the route of the enemy,
who left 600 dead and 1400 prisoners. General Rusca
took the post of San Giovanni, which commands the
valley of Bormida. General Augereau, having drove
the enemy from the redoubts of Montezemo, commu-
nicated with the valley of Tanaro, which the division of
Serrurier had already occupied.

The Directory, in their dispatches to Bonaparte, ex-
pressed themselves thus : " To-day, General," said
they, " receive the tribute of national gratitude ; merit
it more and more, and prove to Europe, that Beaulieu,
by changing the scene of action, has not changed hig
opponent ; that, beaten in the North, he shall be con-
itantly defeated by the brave Army of Italy ; and that



with such defenders, liberty shall triumph over the im-
potent efforts of the enemies of the Republic."



No. III.
BATAILLE DE CASTIGL1ONE.

On the field of this medal, are represented three
naked Combatants, one of which lies dead on
the ground, over the body of ivhich the other
two are in close combat. Legend, BATAILLE

c? '

DE CASTIGLIONE, COMBAT DE PESCHIERA.

Exergue, name of the artist, LAVY. Reverse
A laurel wreath, with two antique trumpets
saltier; above the tvreath, on the field, A
L'ARMEE D'ITALIE : below the wreath, LOI

DU 27 THERMIDOR, AN 4 ME> REP. Size, Hi

inches.

THE accounts of the Battle of Castiglione, which we
have met with state?, that the successes of Wurmser,
who had succeeded General Beaulieu, had placed the
French armies in a very delicate situation. On the 1st
August, the army advanced, while the Austrians de-
tached a force to Castiglione, where General Valette
had been left with 1800 men to defend that important
post, and to keep the division of Wurmser at a dis-
tance ; but Valette was completely defeated, and es-
caped with only half his troops to Monte Chiaro.



8

Bonaparte, vexed by the issue of this affair, instantly
suspended General Valette.

The two armies faced each other on the morning of
the third, the Imperialists, not waiting the attack of
the French, surrounded the advanced guard of General
Massena, near Castiglione, and took General Pigeon
prisoner, with three pieces of flying artillery. The
French had hopes of penetrating the Austrian line,
and the latter extended it, in order to surround the
French; the Imperialists were thrown into disorder,
and retreated to Salo; but, that place being then in
the hands of the French, they wandered through the
mountains, and many of them were taken. Meantime,
General Augereau took Castiglione, and, during the
day, maintained several obstinate actions with the
enemy, who fought with great bravery and courage.

Bonaparte, being satisfied of the destruction of all
the hostile corps from Gavardo and Salo, on the 5th
August, ordered the whole army to make a retrograde
movement.




9

No. IV.

REDDITION DE MANTOUE.

Obverse An armed Warrior in Roman Cos-
tume, receiving the keys of Mantua from the
Genius of the City, represented allegorically
by a female with a turretted Crotvn on her
head: in the back-ground, a view of the
Aqueduct Bridge, and part of the Citadel of
Mantua: under the left foot of the Warrior,
the Artist's name, LAVY. Exergue, RED-
DITION DE MANTOUE. Reverse on the top
of the field a laurel wreath, under which,
A L'AKMEE D'ITALIE VICTORIEUSE. Beneath,
the thunderbolt of Jove, ivith LOI DU 24
PLUVIOSE, AN 5 ME - R. Size, JH inches.

AFTER the action of Borghetto, the passage of the
Mincio, the taking of Peschiera, and the flight of the
Austrians into the Tyrol, Bonaparte immediately in-
vested Mantua, which required from its strength a
formal siege, and at that time they had few means
wherewith to undertake it ; however, it was warmly
pressed forward, the garrison made a most gallant
resistance, about 4000 men, on the 16th July, sallied
from two of the gates, and drove in all the advanced
posts of the French, and retreated into the city.

After various successes, General Berthier summoned
the governor to surrender, observing, that as he was

c



10

attacked on all sides, he could not long defend the
town, and, that an ill-judged obstinacy would entirely
ruin the unfortunate city ; the laws of war, therefore,
prescribed to him to surrender it, and if not done, de-
nouncing on him and the garrison all the Republican
vengeance. The Count Canto D'Irles, general com-
mandant, answered : " That the laws of honour and of
duty compelled him to defend the city entrusted to his
command."

Field Marshal Wurmser directed a column towards
Salo, from which place, and from Brescia, he dislodged
the French, whilst another division of his army com-
pelled them to evacuate Verona, and raise the siege of
Mantua; the garrison destroyed the works of the
French, and carried into the place 140 pieces of heavy
artillery, which they had left in their trenches, with
provisions for a considerable period.

After some very obstinate encounters, the blockade
of Mantua was again commenced by the division of
General Sahuguet, and the retreat of the French armies
from Germany, left Bonaparte without hope of any
movement in his favour in the Tyrol, which he ex-
pected from Moreau; having completed his arrange-
ments for the campaign in Italy, he prepared to frus-
trate the attempts that the Austrians were making to
preserve Mantua.

After the battle of Arcola, in which the French were
victorious, Bonaparte wrote to the director Carnot,
and expressed his hope of being able in ten days to
address him from Mantua,

A sortie was made from Mantua on the 23rd, but
General Kilmaine obliged the troops to return, and


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Online LibraryJohn C LaskeyA description of the series of medals struck at the National medal mint by order of Napoleon Bonaparte, commemorating the most remarkable battles and events during his dynasty. By Captain J. C. Laskey → online text (page 1 of 13)