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PREFACE.



It has, for several years, been the desire and in-
tention of the Rhode-Island Historical Society to
cause Callender's Historical Discourse, with ap-
propriate notes and a selection of documents requi-
site for its illustration, to be embodied in their pub-
lished Collections. The original edition of the
Discourse, which was published in 1739, has long
been out of print. Of that edition but few copies
remain perfect, and even those are extremely rare.
The propriety, and indeed necessity, of its repub-
lication has been rendered greater during each
succeeding year, by the increased attention which
has been paid to the early history of New-England,
among the memorials of which, this work has ever
been held in high and merited estimation.

In the accomplishment of this object, it has been
fortunate for the Society that the editorship of the
present edition, with the task of preparing such
notes and additions as it was desirable should ac-
company it, has been undertaken by one qualified
to discharge it with so much ability. The original
materials which Professor Elton has contributed,
the information contained in the notes, respecting
distinguished individuals whose names are con-
nected with the history of the Colony during the
first century, add much to the value of the work ;
and when it is considered how little has been



IV PREFACE.

known in relation to the life of Mr. Callendcr, we
feel confident that every reader of the Discourse
will be gratified to find so interesting a Memoir of
its author.

The Appendix of historical documents is exten-
sive and well selected. All the papers which it
contains, not only deserve a place in the Collections
of the Society, but are also particularly valuable
as explanatory of the facts narrated in the Dis-
course, conveying, as they do, full information on
many points to which brief references only could
he made in a work written for such an occasion.
With regard to the manner in which these docu-
ments are here published, the Committee are happy
in bearing testimony to the unwearied care and
minute examination which have been bestowed in
their preparation for the press. In every instance,
they have been carefully compared with the origi-
nals, and no pains have been spared to ensure their
correctness.

In presenting this volume, the Committee can
therefore speak with much confidence respecting
the manner in which Professor Elton has met the
wishes of the Historical Society. He is entitled to
the thanks of that Society, for the valuable ad-
dition which he has made to their Collections, and
deserves the grateful remembrance of the people
of our State, for the satisfactory manner in which
he has illustrated this history of their forefather. - .
Eor the Committee of Publication;

ALB RUT G. GREENE,
WILLIAM G. GODDARD.
Providence, April. 1838.



NTED BY
JBME IJAAC R. HHT,

WASHINGTON, I), c.

-193J



AN



HISTORICAL DISCOURSE,



TH E CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS

OF THE COLONY OF

RHODE-ISLAND.

BY JOHN CALLENDER, M. A.

WITH A MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR; BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OK SOME

OF HIS DISTINGUISHED CONTEMPORARIES :
AND ANNOTATIONS AND ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS, ILLUSTRATIVE OF
THE HISTORY OF RHODE-ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLAN-
TATIONS, FROM THE FIRST SETTLEMENT TO THE
END OF THE FIRST CENTURY.

BY ROMEO ELTON, M. A., F. S. U. S.,

Member of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, at Copenhagen;
one of the Vice Presidents of the Rhode-Island Historical Society ;
and Professor of the Latin and Greek Languages and Lite-
rature in Brown University.



Yeecife quid antea quam natus sis accidcrit, id est semper esse pacriu

Cicero.



SECOND REVISED EDITION.



PROVIDENCE:

KiNUWLES, VOSE&COMPANYi
1838.



F<8£



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1838, by Romeo
Elton, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
within and for the District of Rhode-Island.



Gift
Judge and Mrs.lsaac R.Hltt
July 6,18131



CONTENTS.

Pago
Memoir of the Rev. John Callenper, M. A. - - 9

Dr. Cotton Mather. — Letter sent to Dr. Mather's Church, on Mr.

Callender's ordination, - - - 27

Thomas Hollis, Esq. - - - - - -28

Professor Wigglesworth, - - - 29

Biographical sketch of Dean Berkeley, - - - - 30

Letter from the first Baptist Church in Boston to the Congrega-
tional Church in Cambridge, 37
Rev. John Comer, - - - - - - -38

Biographical notice of Rev. Nathaniel Clap, 39

Mary Callender. — Dr. Waterhouse's sketch of her character, 40

Callender's Historical Discourse, - - - - 47

No. APPENDIX.

1. Biographical notice of Rev. Thomas Prince, - - 177

2. Ante-Columbian Discoveries, .... 178
Biographical notice of President Stiles, ... 18G

3. Voyage of Verazzano to America, ... - 189

4. Roger Williams. — His address to the Clergy, - - 190

5. Rev. William Blackstone, - - - - - 202
C. Deed of the chief Sachems of Narragansett to Roger Williams, 204

7. Deed of Roger Williams to his twelve original associates, 20C>

8. Deposition of Roger Williams, ... - 207

9. Biographical notice of John Clarke, ... - 210

10. Form of Civil Compact agreed to by the first settlers on the Isl-

and of Rhode Island, - - - 212

11. Indian Deed of the Island of Aquetneck, - - - 214

12. Deposition of William Coddington, - - - 220

13. Reference to Simplicity's Defence; — and the Early History of

Narragansett, ..-.-. 221

14. The first Patent of Rhode-Island, - - - - 221

15. Letter to the Massachusetts Governor and Assistants, from mem-

bers of Parliament, in commendation of Roger Williams, 226



VIII CONTENTS.

Page

10. Laws of Rhode Island, 1047, - 228

17. Letter from Oliver Cromwell to Rhode-Island, - - 230

18. From the General Assembly to the Commissioners of the United

Colonies, 231

19. Letter of Commissioners to John Clarke, - - - 234

20. Commission to John Clarke, - - 23!)

21. The Charter granted by King Charles II. July 8, 1CG3, - 241

22. Derision of Carr, &c, relative to Misquamacock, 202
2)5. Commission from Carr, &c, 1 6(55, - - - 2015

24. Establishment of the Episcopal Church in Rhode-Island, 265

25. Phillip's War, 1075, - - - 267
20. List of Presidents and Governors of Rhode-Island, 268



MEMOIR

OF THE

REV. JOHN CALLENDER, A.M.



Biography, as well as history, is too frequently
employed in eulogizing men who have distinguished
themselves merely as crafty statesmen or as ambi-
tious warriors. The historian and the biographer
say little of those characters who are actuated by
christian principle, and who seek not the 'praise of
men, bat of God. Moral excellence, however, is
the most beneficial to mankind ; and it is but justice
to allow it to participate in those honors which are
more usually appropriated to men of great depravity
of heart, and who employ their fellow men only as
tools for advancing their own ambition. The biog-
raphy of a person of unostentatious piety and good-
ness, may afford more useful instruction to the ma-
jority of readers, than the dazzling exploits of an
Alexander the Great, a Julius Csesar, or a Buo-
naparte.

The subject of the following memoir, died nearly
a century ago, and it is to be regretted that the
materials to fill up his character are not more
ample ; particularly those parts of his private con-



10 MEMOIR OF

duct, which would have made us familiar with this
excellent man, and imparted a graphic reality to
the portrait. The imperfect sketch which follows,
will not do justice to the subject, but it may, at
least, furnish a few facts respecting a man who
possessed a mind of no ordinary vigor, and whose
memory is still precious.

The Rev. John Callender was born of reputable
parents, in the city of Boston, Mass., A. D. 1706.
His father, John Callender, Esq., was the son of the
Rev. Ellis Callender, the highly honored and es-
teemed minister of the first Baptist Church in
Boston from 1708 till 1726. Elisha Callender, his
son, uncle to the subject of this memoir, became
his successor in the pastoral office. This gentle-
man was educated at Harvard College, and was
one of the fourteen students who were graduated
in the year 1710. At his ordination, which took
place May 21, 1718, three Congregational ministers
gave their assistance, viz. Dr. Increase Mather,
Dr. Cotton Mather, and Rev. John Webb. Dr.
Cotton Mather preached the ordination sermon,
which was entitled, Good Men United*

This expression of Christian feeling on the part
of the Congregational ministers in Boston, and the
catholic spirit which existed at Cambridge, in-
duced Thomas Hollis, Esq. of London, a wealthy
merchant, of the Baptist denomination, to bestow

* See note A.



JOHN CALLENDER. 11

very large benefactions upon Harvard College.
Besides making large additions to its library and
philosophical apparatus, he founded two professor-
ships in that Institution, one of Divinity, and one of
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and endowed
the College to the amount of a hundred pounds a
year, to be distributed among ten scholars of good
character.*

Mr. Callender continued faithful and successful
in the pastoral office, till his death, March 31, 1738.
A few days before he died, he said, " When I look
on one hand, I see nothing but sin, guilt and dis-
couragement; but when I look on the other, I see
my glorious Saviour, and the merits of his precious
blood which cleanseth from all sin. I cannot say,
I have such transports of joy as some have had,
but through grace I can say, I have gotten the
victory over death and the grave." His obituary
in the public newspaper, three days after his death,
was in the following words: "On Friday morning
last, after a lingering sickness, deceased the Rev.
Mr. Elisha Callender, minister of the Baptist Church
in this town; a gentleman universally beloved by
people of all persuasions for his charitable and
catholic way of thinking. His life was unspotted,
and his conversation always affable, religious, and
truly manly. During his long illness, he was re-
markably patient, and, in his last hours, like the
blessed above, pacific and entirely serene; his

* See note B.



12 MEMOIR OF

senses were good to the last. ' I shall,' said he,
1 sleep in Jesus,' and that moment expired, very
much lamented by all that knew him." He pub-
lished a century sermon in the year 1720, com-
memorative of the landing of our forefathers at
Plymouth, which has furnished important informa-
tion for succeeding historians.

Of the early years of John Callender, the sub-
ject of the following narrative, we have little infor-
mation. At the age of thirteen he entered Harvard
College, where he received the benefit of Mr. Hollis's
donation. The Hon. John Leverett, F. R. S. was
at that time its President, a man whose mental
excellencies were adorned by the noblest moral
qualities. Here, his vigorous understanding was
cultivated, a proper direction given to his activity,
and his mind imbued with the principles of virtue
and religion. He graduated from that Institution in
1723. In the same year, he was baptised on a pro-
fession of faith, and united with the first Baptist
Church in Boston, of which his uncle was pastor.
He was licensed to preach by this church, in June,
1727. In August, 1728, he received and accepted
an invitation from the Baptist Church in Swansey,
the oldest in Massachusetts, to supply their pulpit,
and continued laboring among this people until
February 15, 1730. Soon after, he received a re-
quest from the first Baptist Church in Newport, to
visit and preach to them. This was the second
Baptist Church in America, and was founded in



JOHN CALLENDER. 13

1644. After long and mature deliberation and
earnest prayer, he accepted the invitation of that
Church to the pastoral office, and was ordained,
October 13, 1731. Rev. Elisha Callender, of Bos-
ton, preached on the occasion, from Matthew xxviii;
18, 19. Mr. Callender continued the faithful and
beloved pastor of this church and congregation, till
he was called to his final rest.

Soon after his settlement in Newport, he became
a member of a literary and philosophical society es-
tablished in that place. The celebrated Dean,
afterwards Bishop Berkeley, who resided there at
that time, is thought to have suggested its forma-
tion.* The society was select, and some of its
members were men of great intellectual power —
among whom were Judge Edward Scott, Hon.
Daniel Updike, Governor Josias Lyndon, Dr. John
Brett, Hon. Thomas Ward, Hon. William Ellery,
Rev. James Honyman, Rev. James Searing, Rev.
John Checkley, jun., and Rev. Jeremiah Condy, of
Boston. Among the occasional members were
Governor Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Johnson,
D. D., afterwards President of Columbia College,
New-York. As this was probably one of the
earliest societies of the kind in this country, we
have thought proper to subjoin a copy of its rules
and regulations, the original of which, (in the hand
writing of Judge Scott,) is in the archives of the
Rhode-Island Historical Society.

* See note C.



14 MEMOIR OF

"Whereas, A. D. 1730, Messrs. Daniel Updike,
Peter Bouts, James Searing, Edward Scott, Henry
Collins, Nathan Townsend, Jeremiah Condy and
James Honeyman, jun. did form a Society for the
promotion of Knowledge and Virtue, by a free con-
versation according to several regulations by them
agreed.

" We the present members of the said Society,
finding it necessary on many accounts for the more
effectual answering the end of our Institution, do
agree to enter into a more strict engagement, and
establish the following as the laws and orders to
be observed in this Society.

" 1. The members of the Society shall meet every
Monday evening, at the house of one of the mem-
bers, seriatim, and converse about and debate, some
useful question in Divinity, Morality, Philosophy,
History, &c.

"2. The member who proposed the question,
shall be moderator, (pro hac vice) and see that
order and decency be maintained in all the debates
and conversation.

"3. Every member in order shall freely give his
opinion with his reasons, having liberty to explain
the sense of the question, or his own expressions,
and to retract or alter his opinion as to him shall
seem right.



JOHN CALLENDER. 15

" 4. The member at whose house we meet shall
propose a question for the next evening's conver-
sation, the Society to judge of its propriety and
usefulness, only nothing shall ever be proposed or
debated which is a distinguishing religious tenet of
any one member.

" 5. No member shall divulge the opinion or ar-
guments of any particular member as to any sub-
ject debated in the Society, on penalty of a per-
petual exclusion. Nevertheless, any member may
gratify the curiosity of any that may inquire the
names, number, general design, method and laws
of the Society, and the opinions or conclusions of
the major part, without discovering how any par-
ticular member voted.

" 6. The moderator for the time being shall keep
a book, in which he shall register the questions and
the solutions or answers, and another for the fines
and forfeits that may become due.

"7. The question shall be propounded by the
moderator exactly at seven in the evening, or if
he be then absent, another shall be chosen in his
room, and whoever shall come after that, shall for-
feit one shilling; whoever is absent the whole
evening, shall forfeit two shillings and six pence ;
only the moderator shall forfeit double. Whoever
shall make it an excuse to avoid giving his opinion,
that he has not thought of the question, or has for-



16 MEMOIR OF

got what the question is, shall forfeit one shilling.
Whoever is unprovided of a proper question, on his
turn to propound it, shall forfeit one shilling. He
that omits to register the question or solution in his
turn, shall forfeit two shillings and six pence. A
treasurer shall be chosen once in three months, and
whoever shall refuse an office when chosen, shall
forfeit five shillings. And every treasurer that is
deficient in his duty in collecting the fines, shall
pay them himself. No excuse shall be taken for
absence but sickness in person, or family, or the
being out of town. The fines shall be gathered
every month, and be laid out in books, (fee, as the
Society shall think best. Whoever shall absent
himself a quarter of a year successively, Avithout
sufficient excuse, shall have his name struck out of
the list.

" 8. Any member may bring with him any friend
or stranger who shall desire it, and whom he may
think may not be offensive to any other member.

" 9. Any member may propose a candidate, but
none shall be admitted without the full and free
consent of every member, to be manifested in
written votes, after a month's probation. However,
the same person that has been negatived, may be
propounded again by another member.

" 10. If the Society incline to choose any gentle-
men at a distance to be occasional members, their



JOHN CALLENDER. 17

election shall be made in the same manner ; they
shall be subject to the same rules of secrecy, and
have the same liberty to speak and debate any sub-
ject with the other members, and shall vote in all
occasional matters.

"11. The laws shall be publicly read in the So-
ciety every three months, on the same evening that
the treasurer is chosen. And every member shall
then produce his copy, upon the forfeiture of two
shillings and six pence.

" 12. Every member shall promote the good of
the Society, as far as lies in his power.

" 13. Each of the present members shall sign
these articles in the book, and shall have a copy of
them, signed by the moderator for the time being,
to be and remain as a proof and token of our fellow-
ship and society. And every gentleman that may
hereafter be chosen a member, shall enter his name
in the same manner, and have a copy of the laws
signed as above, together with a list of the Society,
and a copy of the additional or explanatory laws
that may hereafter be made.

Newport, February 2, 1735.

DANIEL UPDIKE, JOHN BRETT,

PETER BOURS, CHARLES BARDIN,

EDWARD SCOTT, J. HONYMAN, jun. Feb. 9th.

NATHAN TOWNSEND, HEZ. CARPENTER, May 24, 1736

SAMUEL WICKHAM, JAMES SEARING,



18 MEMOIR OF

THOMAS WARD, JOSEPH JACOB,

JOSIAS LYNDON, WILLIAM ELLERY, Oct. 3, 1737

JOHN CALLENDER.jun. JOS. SYLVESTER,

SUETON GRANT, JOHN CHECKLEY, jun.

Occasional Members.
JOHN ADAMS, JOHN WALLACE,

DANIEL HUBBARD, STEPHEN HOPKINS,

JEREMIAH CONDY, SAMUEL JOHNSON.

" Oct. 3, 1737. Voted, That every member who
shall neglect to bring or send the book of fines,
shall forfeit two shillings and six pence. A true
copy, compared with the Society's book, by

EDWARD SCOTT, Moderator."

One of the objects of this Society was the col-
lection of valuable books. It was subsequently
joined by Abraham Redwood, Esq. who gave the
the sum of five hundred pounds sterling to increase
its library, on condition the Society would build a
suitable edifice. The Society obtained a charter
from the Colony in 1747, by the name of The
Company of the Redwood Library. In 1748, the
present classical building was erected, from a de-
sign by Harrison, the assistant architect of Blen-
heim House, England. This library contains many
choice and rare European editions.

Apart from his more ordinary employment and
influence as a minister of the gospel, Mr. Callender
acted an important part in relation to the more
general and public interests of the town and State,



JOHN CALLENDER. 19

In civil matters he was much consulted, and fre-
quent and honorable mention of his name appears
on the records of the town. His character com-
manded the respect and confidence not only of his
own church and society, but also of the State of
which he was an intelligent and useful citizen.

In 1739, Mr. Callender published a historical
discourse on the civil and religious affairs of the
Colony of Rhode-Island, from the settlement in
1638 to the end of the first century, usually known
by the name of the " Century Sermon." This is
the only history of the Colony or State of Rhode
Island, which has been written, and though small,
it is a noble and enduring monument to the talent
and piety of its author. It is written with great
fidelity, is distinguished by solid and profound phi-
losophical views, and by an ardent attachment to
the principles of civil and religious freedom. It
breathes a spirit of candor, impartiality, and en-
lightened piety, in ever page. Mr. Callender evi-
dently took great pains in investigating the sources
from which he drew his information, and his ob-
servations on men and things indicate an acute,
observant and reflecting mind.

In the same year, he published a sermon preached
at the ordination of Mr. Jeremiah Condy, A. M .,
to the pastoral care of the Baptist Church in Bos-
ton. In this sermon, the liberal sentiments of Mr.
Callender on the subject of free communion, are



20 MEMOIR OF

fully exhibited. After earnestly inculcating the
duty of all Christians loving one another as
brethren, he observes, " But I have trespassed too
much upon your patience already, and shall there-
fore only beg leave to add, that if that glorious
principle which was a fundamental article in the
constitution of the first Baptist Church, gathered
in this Province, could be fully acted upon, we
might with the utmost propriety, join the heavenly
host, and sing, Glory to God in the highest : Peace
on earth, and good will towards and among men.
For they declared in their church covenant, " That
union to Christ ivas the sole ground of their com-
munion with each other, and that they were ready
to accept of, receive to, and hold church-communion
with, all such, a* in a judgment of charity, were
fellow-members with them in their head Christ Jesus,
though differing in such controversial points, as are
not absolutely and essentially necessary to salvation.''''*

The religious sentiments of Mr. Callender were
ever thus fearlessly avowed and honestly main-
tained. His inflexible integrity did not permit him
to conceal the convictions of his mind on any sub-
ject which he thought affected the social, political
or moral interests of mankind.

Mr. Callender was ingenious in devising plans of
usefulness, and especially in endeavoring to pro-
mote the welfare of the young. In 1741, he pub-

" See note D.



JOHN CALLENDER. 21

lished a sermon on the advantages of early religion,
preached to a society of young men in Newport.
This sermon is replete with sound practical in-
struction, flowing from a heart warmed with the
love of God.

In the year 1745, Mr. Callender published a dis-
course occasioned by the death of his friend, the
Rev. Mr. Clap, in which he pays a tribute of affec-
tionate veneration to his memory. Mr. Callender's
sermon was founded on Hebrews xiii. 7, 8.

The prominent traits in the character of Mr.
Clap, are faithfully delineated in the following
extracts from that sermon :

" The main stroke in his character was his eminent
sanctity and piety, and an ardent desire to promote the
knowledge and practice of true godliness in others. As
his understanding was above the common level, so was
his learning, though he studiously concealed it. He
thought his station required more than common instances
of innocency, self-denial and caution.

" He was zealously attached to what he considered as
the true doctrines of grace, and to the forms of worship
he thought to be of divine institution. But his charity
embraced good men of all denominations. He had little
value for mere speculative, local, nominal Christianity,
and a form of godliness without the power. He insisted
most on those things on which our interest in Jesus Christ
and our title to eternal life must depend : that faith



22 MEMOIR OP

by which we are justified and have peace with God
through our Lord Jesus, and that repentance towards God
and neiif obedience, which are the necessary effect and
evidence of our regeneration, and the proper exercise of
Christianity.

" He abounded in contrivances to do good by scattering
books of piety and virtue, not such as minister questions
and strife, but godly edifying, and put himself to a very
considerable expense, that he might, in this method,
awaken the careless and secure, comfort the feeble mind-
ed, succor the tempted, instruct the ignorant, and quicken,
animate and encourage all.

" He abounded in acts of charity to the poor and ne-
cessitous — to whom he was a kind father and guardian.

" In fine, he was a public blessing, as an able minister
of the New Testament, an example of unsuspected piety,


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