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Nelson used against the French were made at Carron.

In 1779 an Admiralty minute says, " Experiments have
lately been made of the utility of small pieces of cannon called
Carronades, and the Comptroller of the Navy . . . [has]
recommended the use of them. In 1781 trial was made of
an hundred pound Carronade mounted on a battery at Leith."
Wellington, in one of his dispatches (1809) says, "You have
omitted to require carriages for the Carronades.'"

The officers of the different branches of the service engaged
in Wellington's army gave a decided preference to Carron over
all the other foundries which were employed, as Carronades were
said never to have been known to burst.

The Carronade was invented by General Robert Melville,
the eminent military officer and antiquary. The credit of the
invention was at one time given to another, but the fact that the
Carron Company presented to General Melville's family a small
model of the first piece cast at Carron in 1779, with the following
inscription on it, seems to place the matter beyond doubt : —
" Gift of the Carron Company to Lieut.-General Melville, inventor
of the 'Smashers' and lesser Carronades." . . . They were

1 Two of the Carronades made in 1797, and brought back from Singapore, are now
in the grounds of the manager's house at Carron. and an 18-pounder made at Carron in
1791, and brought home by Mr. H. M. Cadell of Grange from Bellary Fort, Central
India, iu 1900, is now in the Victoria Public Park, Bo'ness, having been presented
by him to the town in commemoration of the King's coronation in 1902.



Carron Company. i99

first used against the French ships in 1779.' Philologists arc
indebted to this Company for having created a word for the
English language.

During the Boer war many men were employed at Carron
turning out the deadly pom-pom shells.

The first managing-partner of the Carron Company was
William Cadell, junior, the son of the originator of the works.
He was a man of remarkable energy and ability, and was
appointed managing-partner of the Carron Company when only
in his twenty-third year. He managed the works with con-
spicuous ability during the first struggling decade of the
Company's history. Fortune certainly seemed to favour the
Cadells, as whatever enterprise they engaged in seemed to
flourish, whereas most of the other original partners of Carron
fell upon evil days. It is still said in the district that had
there been no Cadells there would have been no Carron, as
the Cadells are believed to have nursed the Company through
its early critical times. William Cadell, junior, purchased the
lands of North Broomage, on which a considerable part of
the town of Larbert was subsequently built. In 1767 Messrs.
W. Cadell & Sons purchased the estate of Banton, in the
parish of Kilsyth, on which William Cadell discovered a
valuable seam of blackband ironstone. The other Carron
partners do not appear to have approved of this purchase,
apparently on account of the withdrawal of capital. In 1770
William Cadell, junior, writes justifying the purchase, and
showing that they (the Cadells) might have it in their power to
accommodate the Carron Company if ever it should be in want
of ironstone. He adds at the foot of his memorandum — " I have
for many years made myself a slave, spent my money, and

' See "Industrial Biography," Smiles.;



200 Carron Company.

neglected my family affairs to save Carron and its partners from
ruin. I shall continue to give all attention to its welfare, though
I will not neglect my family affairs in the manner I have done."

William Cadell, junior, felt himself ill-used after all his
labours to keep the Company from ruin, and retired from the
management in 1769. He lived at the old house of Carronpark,
which he built in 1763.'

In 1786 Mr. Joseph Stainton, who then became manager,
greatly improved the works, and by unremitting diligence in the
execution of orders, and great attention to the quality of the
goods offered to the public, placed the foundry in the high
position which it now holds in the estimation of the commercial
world. Another member of the Stainton family was a title-holder
and director of Carron. He and Mr. Jobson (another director)
were both famous entomologists, who made the greater part
of their unrivalled British collection' at the gangways of the
Carron furnaces. Henry Tibbats Stainton was the eldest son of
Henry Stainton of Lewisham, and was born in London in 1822.
He was educated almost entirely at home, and for several years
was engaged in business with his father, when, it is said,
in order to pursue his studies, he rose at five o'clock in the
morning. He was author of many works, and is considered
the greatest standard authority on British entomology."

As the original capital of the Company proved insufficient,
and additional capital had to be obtained, the number of partners
was increased in 1771, and the capital raised to ;^i50,ooo in
shares of ;^250 each.

^ For the above information about the Messrs. Cadell I am indebted to H. M,
Cadell, Esq., of Grange.

= A very iuje collection of moths was also made by the late Mr. John Dawson of
the Carron Company.

' See Diet, of National Biography.



Carron Company. 201

Some interesting information was given to me by Mr. George
Heggie,' foreman in the Pattern Works at Carron. Mr. Heggie
lias an hereditary interest in Carron — his father and grandfather
both having been in the employment of the Company. He has
in his possession the contract between the Carron Company and
John Heggie, his grandfather, dated 3rd September, 1793.
This John Heggie was a fireman coker, and was bound for five
years at a wage of seven shillings a week, the penalty for either
side breaking the contract being ;^20 sterling. What would the
workman of the present day think of such an arrangement as this?

Mr. George Heggie, who has been for fifty-two years in the
employment of the Carron Company, told me that the patterns
for the Carronades were kept in the shop in which he served his
time. In 1877, when the new works were erected, Mr. Heggie
was ordered to destroy all accumulations of patterns and articles
which had become obsolete. Among other things which he
destroyed were the patterns of the once famous Carronades.
Some years after the works had been in activity, the celebrated
engineer, Smeaton, who built the Eddystone Lighthouse, put up
the first blowing machine in Carron, and William Symington,
another famous engineer, put up the first steam blowing engine
at Carron. The machinery for the first practical steam vessel
was built at the Carron Iron Works in 1801 by Alexander Hart
from a new patent invented by William Symington. The lade
which runs through the estate of Carronvale was originally made
to feed the water wheels for the blowing machinery of the blast
furnaces, also for the boring-mill for the guns. In dry seasons
when the lade was getting low an atmospheric engine was used
for lifting the water out of the Carron and throwing it into the lade.

• Some further notes of details by Mr. George Heggie and the late Mr. MacKenzie,
another employee of the Company, will be found in the Appendix.



202 Carron Company.

All the most famous travellers in Scotland have recorded
their interest in the Carron Company. Pennant, writing about
1767, says that the Carron Works are the greatest of the
kind in Europe. Before they were founded " there was not a
single house [in the district], and the country a mere moor.
This work has been of great service to the country by
teaching the people industry and a method of setting about
any sort of labour which before the common people had
scarce any notion of Carron Wharf lies on the Forth, and
is not only useful to the works but of great service to
Glasgow."

In his travels, published in 1799, the French traveller, Faujas
de St. Fond' gives a most interesting description of his visit to
Carron, which he also describes as the greatest iron foundry
in Europe. He was greatly struck with the thunderous sound
and belching flames, which reminded him of a volcano in actual
eruption. Alexander Campbell, who published his "Journey
Through Scotland " in 1802, was also struck by this similarity to
a volcano.

A traveller of a very different kind, Dorothy Wordsworth,
who published her " Recollections of a Tour made in Scotland "
in 1803, has a note, under date 14th September — " I do not
recollect anything remarkable after we were out of sight of
Stirling Castle except the Carron Iron Works, seen at a distance.
The sky above them was red with a fiery light."

Robert Burns arrived one Sunday, and hoped to see the
famous works, but the fourth commandment was in those days
at least kept rigidly in the letter, and he had to go without
admittance. His equanimity was rather upset, and he

1 A new edition of this work has recently been published by Wr. Hugh Hopkins
of Glasgow.



Carron Company. 203

relieved liis feelings by writing the following lines on the
window pane of the little inn opposite : —

" We cam na here to view your warks

In hopes to be mair wise,
But only, lest we gang to Hell,

It may be nae surprise :
But when we tirl'd at your door

Your porter dought na bear us :
Sae may, should we to Hell's yetts come,

Your billie, Satan, sair us."

In later times, the works have been visited by the Russian
Emperor, Nicholas, in 1821, and by King Edward (then Prince
of Wales) in 1859.

But the history of the Carron Company is not confined to
the prosaic story of a great and successful commercial enterprise.
It has also had its romantic incidents, and its employees have
had exciting times in the far-off days. During the war with
France in the early years of last century, the Carron boats were
eagerly watched by the French, and several crews had the
unpleasant experience of being seized and taken to France as
prisoners. But tradition tells of an incident that might be
entitled " The Biter Bit." The French had several privateers
at the mouth of the Forth. A Carron boat put out and was
captured ; the crew, with the exception of an old man and a
boy, were taken on board the privateer. Several of the French
crew came on board the Carron Company's boat. These
ordered the man and boy to follow the track of the privateer to
France, while they went down to sample the goods and
provisions in the cabin. All was going on smoothly, when the
boy — moulded in heroic temper — received an inspiration. Down
to the cabin went he, locked the French securely in, and turned



204 Carron Company.

the boat back up the Firth. The story goes on to relate that
the crew of the privateer, thinking the change of course was
some move of the French on board, also turned and followed.
In the meantime, a British ship gave chase, and, capturing the
privateer, escorted it up to Leith, where a company of soldiers
marched the Frenchmen off to Edinburgh Castle, and the rest
is left to the imagination.

The Carron Company now possesses considerable estates in
Fife and Stirlingshire, and has expanded in many directions.
It has an engineering department and iron foundry, and in its
various branches the business of the Company includes that of
iron and coalmasters, shippers and shipowners, and employment
is given to five or six thousand hands.'

The main entrance to the Carron Works is surmounted
by a clock tower, bearing the well-known arms of the Company
— crossed cannon, with the motto, " Esto ferpetua.'"

' For further particulars about the Carron Company see "The Founding of
Carron Iron Works,'' by Rev. A. Is. Bogle; "The Statistical Account of Scotland"
(Stirlingshire) ; Article in Scotsman, 17th September, 1904 ; " Encyclopedia Brltan-
nica " ; " Industrial Biography," Smiles ; " Some Professional KecoUectious," by a
former member of the Incorporated Law Society, London, Bcntley, 1870; Priscilla
Watefield's " A Family Tour through the British Empire."



Carron Company. 205

APPENDIX TO CARRON COMPANY.



The first machines used at Carron Works for blowing the furnaces were
driven by water wheels about three feet broad. Each wheel drove the
pistons of four cylinders which were open at the top and supplied the
requisite blast for one furnace. Four of these machines were used, as the
Company had erected four blast furnaces. These machines were designed
by Smeaton, the engineer of the present Eddystone Lighthouse. The second
blast engine was a steam engine, and was made at Carron according to the
designs of the great Symington, whose engines were much used before
James Watt's invention. The third blast engine was made at Carron, and
was erected about 1828 by a man of the name of Macdonald. Neither of
fhese two steam engines had a fly wheel. The latter of these two engines
was discarded early in the si.\ties. The third steam engine for working the
blast was of the James Watt type, and was erected in 1863. It had a fly
wheel, and is in use at the present time. It was also made at Carron.

Some of the older inhabitants of the district will remember a large
number of blocks of sandstone, measuring from three to four feet each way
lying on a piece of vacant ground outside the works, but which is now
within the walls. It was long a mystery what these stones were used for,
but it now appears that they were used for the bottom of the old cold blast
furnaces. The stones left over were probably used in the last reconstruction
of the works.

It has often been stated that the stones, of which " Arthur's Oon " was
built, were used to build a dam across the Carron to supply water power, but
this dam no longer e.\ists, having been washed away soon after it w^ts built.
Its site was just below that part of the present railway which connects the
Carron Works with the North British system near Grahamston.

At present there is only one water wheel in use at Carron, and it is
an old-fashioned horizontal turbine of a well-known type. The mill to
the south of Larbert House, where grates and other articles, after being
floated up the lade, were polished, and which was, with some land known as the
Volley, originally a feu off Dunipace estate, was within recent years bought
by Sir John Ciraham of Larbert, but is not now in use. Sir John acquired at
the same time the Dunipace Mill, which was also originally a feu by the
Carron Company from the proprietor of Dimipace. This mill was sold by



2o6 Carron Company.

Sir John Graham to Mr. Harvie-Brown. When it was used by the Carron
Company it was a Black Mill, i.e. a mill for grinding wood charcoal,
which is used with the sand in making castings.

It is also interesting to know that the dam or weir below the Manse at
Larbert House which supplies the water to the mill-lade leading to Carron
Works, soon after it was first built began to give way, and the great Scottish
engineer, Telford, was called in to put it right, and made the present dam.

There used to be a horse tramway from Carron to Bainsford Basin
which was connected with the Forth and Clyde Canal, and was chiefly used
for conveying castings from the works to the canal and bringing minerals
from the canal to the works. This tramway was led across the Carron River
on a cast-iron bridge. It was superseded in i860, when the present steam
railway was made, but it was only recently that the cast-iron bridge was
removed. Had the Falkirk and District Tramway Company started a
generation ago, when it was first suggested, the Company might have had
the use of this track as far as it runs parallel with the public road.'

1 The above notes were collected by Mr. George Shorriflf of Carronvale from
Mr. Hoggie and the late Mr. MacKenzle, employees of the Carron Company,



INDEX.



AcoRAMBONT, Marohese, 41 (n,)
Adnra, Aroliibald, I6G (n.)

Francis, Glasgow, 166

Sir Frank Forbes, 166

Jaraos Graham, Donovan, 166

— Jane, 166

Agnow, Sir Andrew, of Lochnaw, 24

Margaret, 24

Aikenhead, Mr. James, 98
Airlie, fifth Lord Ogilvio of, 101

David, sixth Earl of, 79

Aitken, James, of Darroch and Glen-

borvie, 74
Airth, Agnes, 189

Elizabeth, 189

Margaret, 189

Mariote, 189

Marjory, 189

Alexander, Lieutenaut-Colonel Edward

Mayne, of Westerton, 156

Tsar of Russia, 80

Janet, 10

William, of Menstrio, 10

Sir William, of Moustrie (Earl of

Stirling), 96
Allan, Adriana, 38

David, artist, 118 (n.)

Elizabeth, 118 and n.

James, 118

Jonet, 11

Ambrose, Catherine, 155

Angus, Earl of (Gilbert do Umfraville),85



Angus, second Earl of (Gilbert de Um-

fravillo), 85
third Earl of (Robert do Umfra-

villo), 85, 86

Matilda, Countess of, 85

Anno of Denmark, wife of James VI., 32
Argent, Adam de, 58

Marjor3', 58

Armstrong, iMajor William Bruce, 15

Arnot, Christian, 61

Arugibbou, Lauds of, 136

Arran, James, Earl of, 2

" /Vrthur's Oon," 24, 26, 27

Auchmoutie, Elizabeth, 59

James, 59



Baillib, Adam, 150

Alexander, 150

Bethia, 53

James, 149

James (afterwards Lord Forrester),

149, 150

John, of Letham, 20, 149

John, of Castlecary, 53

General William, of Torwoodhead,

xix, 21, 148-149

Sir William, of Lamington, 148

William, 150

Baird, Janet, 2

William, & Co., Ltd., Glasgow, 166 (n.)

Balfour, Gilbert, of Westraw, 129



Index.



Balfour, Michael, of Montquanny, 19

Ballok, Ann?, 2 (a.)

Barclay, David, of Mathers, 96-7

Sir David, of Brechin, 167

James Robertson, of Cavill, 71

Mary Robertson, 71

Barnes, Ven. George, D.D., Archdeacon

of Bombay, 184

Harriet Anne, 184

Barrett, Elizabeth, 72
Bartolucci, Vincencio, 56
Bateman, Rev. J. F., 184
Battoni, Pompeo, artist, 41 (n.)
Beaufort, Queen Joan (wife of James I,),

107 (n.;
Bell, John, 81
Bellenden, Katherine, 171
" Bellona," French Privateer, 116
Birnie, Sir Andrew, of Saline, 151

Margaret, 151

Bisset of Quarrell, 45-7

- — in Stirlingshire, 45, 46 (n.)

Alexander, of Quarrell, 46

John, of Quarrell, 47

Katherine, 47

Robert, of Quarrell, 57

Robert (2), of Quarrell, 47

- — Robert, senr., of Quarrell, 46

Thomas, yr., of Quarrell, 46

Thomas, of Quarrell, 46, 47

Blackadder, Sir John, of Tulliallan, 179

Blunt of Kempshott Park, 118 (n.)

Bogball House, 107 (n.)

Bogle, Rov. A. N., 197

Boig, John, of Bumhouse, 124

Bolton, Edwin, of Carbrook, 152, 188

Joseph Cheney, of Carbrook, 152, 188

Borthwick, Alexander, 176

Elizabeth, 170

Hon. Maiy Catherine, or Spens, 73

John, 17G

William, third Lord, 170

Bothkonnar, Lauds of, 51



Bothwell, Dame Margaret, 136, 137

Boultbee, Charlotte Anne, 55

Joseph, of SprLngBeld, Wanvickshire,

.55

Boyd, Isabel, 125

John, of Trochrig, 23

Margaret, 23

Robert, 37 (n.)

Robert, in Drum, 31

Robert, Lord, 125

Brisbane, Thomas, 25

Brooke, Mary, 8

Sir Richard, of Norton, 8

Broomage, Lands of (Bnimeinch, Bremis,
&c.), 76, 77

North, Lands of, 82

Broun, Edmond, " pyper," 3

Brown of Hartree, 1 29

of Quarter, 189-191

Alexander, 21

- — Alexander (1), portioner of Broom-
age, 77

Alexander (2), 77, 78

Elizabeth, of Quarter, 191

Frances, 188

Helen (wodwyf), 129

James, of Broomage, 77, 78

John, Glasgow, 188

John Alexander Harvie-, of Quarter

and Dunipace, 118, 119,121 (n.), 191

John Harvie-, of Quarter, 119, 191

Margaret, of Crofthead, 77

Marian, 182

Sir Patrick, of Coalston, 21

T., of Langside, Glasgow, 182

William, of Aikenhead, 190

Browning, Mrs Barrett, 72

Bruce of Kinnaird, xv, 30-42

of Stenhouse, xv, 15-28

of Woodside and Lethbertschiells,

59-64, 75

Major Alexander, of Airth, 26

Sir Alexander, of Airth, 143



Index.



209



Brace, Alexander, of Bangonr, 19, 20

Sir Alexander, of Brigheame, 16

Alexander, fourth of Kinnaird, 37

Sir Alexander, fifth of Stenhouse, 19,

20,31

Alexander, of Stenhouse(c. 1451), 59

Alexander, of Stenhouse, 15, 16 and

n., 30

Andrew, 17 (n.)

Lt.-Colonel Andrew, 21

Mr. Andrew, sixth of Woodside

(Alloa), 61 (n.)

Anna, 21

Anthony, lil

Archibald, of Keunet, 161

Beatrix, 75

Catherine, 75

Christian, 75

Sir David of Clackmannan, 19

Sir David, second of Kinnaird, 30

David, sixth of Kinnaird, 38

Edward, of Kinnaird, 16, 30

Edward, first of Kinnaird, 30

Edward, of Kinnaird, 19 (n.)

Edward, fourth of Kinnaird, 30, 31

Lady Elma, of Kinnaird (See Lady

Thurlow), 42

Helen, 37

Helen, fifth of Kinnaird, 37 and n.

James, seventh of Kinnaird (the

" Traveller "), xix, xx, 38-41, 54

James, eighth of Kinnaird, 41

— — James, of Capelrig, 18

James, 75.

Janet, of Letham, 20

Janet, 148

John, of Airth, 20

Sir John, of Airth and Stenhouse,

16 and n., 17

John, 75

Captain John, ninth of Woodside

(Alloa), 75

Sir John, of Kincavil, 19

14



Bruce, Lucas, of Cultmalundie, 16

Marian, 18

Mary Elizabeth, ninth of Kinnaird

(Mrs. Cumming-Bruce), 42, passim

Mary, 48, 49

Michael, 24 and n.

Sir Michael, sixth Bart, of Sten-
house, 24

Sir Michael, eighth Bart, of Sten-
house, 25

Ninian, third of Kinnaird, 30

Patrick, of Coraebruik, 61

Patrick Crawford, of Glenelg, 24

Patrick, 143

Patrick, of Newton, 20

Rachel, 50

Robert, of Airth, 17

Sir Robert, of Airth, 15

Robert, of Auchenbowie and Car-
nock, 16

Sir Robert, of Clackmannan, 37

Mr. Robert, first of Kinnaird, xvii,

xviii, xix, 19 and n., 20, 31-36, 37,
48, 147

Mr. Robert, second of Kinnaird, 37

Colonel Robert, third of Kinnaird, 37

Robert, of Kinnaird, 21

Robert, third of Stenhouse, 17

Robert, fourth of Stenhouse, 18

and n.

Sir Robert, fifth Bart, of Stenhouse,

24

Robert, a priest, 20

Robert, third of Woodside, 61

Robert, of Woodside, 75, 144

Robert, seventh of Woodside (Alloa),

75

Robert, eighth of Woodside (Alloa),

75

Mr. Thomas, first of Lethbert-

schiells and Woodside, 17, 59

Thomas, second of Lethbertschiells

ajid Woodside, 59-60



Index.






Bruce, Thomas, fourth of Lethbertschiells
and Woodside, 61

Thomas, of Woodside (Alloa), 75

William, 23

William, apparent of Airth, 19, 20

William, younger of Airth, 142

Sir William, first Bart, of Sten-

house, 20, 50, 149

Sir William, second Bart, of Sten-

house, 21

Sir William, third Bart, of Sten-

house, 22

Sir William, fourth Bart, of Sten-

house, 22 and n.

Sir William, seventh Bart, of Sten-

house, 25, 40, 56

Sir William, ninth Bart, of Sten-

house, 25
Brumeinche (See Broomage), 2
Buchanan, A. W. Gray, of Parkhill, 47 (n.),
72 (n.)

John, M.D., 112. His wife, 112

Susan, 112

Burn, List in Appendix of simdry
families and members of families of
the name from 1480 onwards, 10-13
Burn or Bume family of Larbert, 5-6

Agnes, 6

Edward, of Lisbon, 12

James, of Chalmerstone, Quoiggs,

&c., 12, 156

James, Bailie, 12

James, 156

John, in Gogar, 12

John, of Larbert, 77

John (1), portioner of Larbert, 5

John (2), of Larbert, 5

John (3), 6

John (4), 6

John, epitaph on, in Larbert church-
yard, 6

Marion, 12, 156

of HiU, 11



Bum or Burne, Robert, merchant burgess
of Stirling, 12, 156

Robert, burgess of Stirling, 5, 162

Thomas, 5

WiUiam, of Coldoch, 12

Bum-Callendar of Preston Hall, Wester-
ton, &c., 12

Bum-Murdoch of Gartincaber, Neuck,
and Greenyards, 12

Burns, Robert, 202, 203

Bumey, Fanny, quoted re James Bruce of
Kinnaird, 41

Butter Cor Butler), John, of Kirkland, 21



Cadell of North Broomage, &c., 82-3.

James John, of Grange, 83

John, of Cockenzie, 82 (n.)

Henry, of North Broomage, 83

Henry Mowbray, of North Broom-
age, &c., 83 and n.

Robert, of Ratho, 82 (n.)

Colonel Thomas, V.G., C.B., 194

WUliam Archibald, 82

William, of Cockenzie, 82

William, of North Broomage, 82

WilUam, W.S., of North Broomage,

83

William, senior of Cockenzie, 82, 194

William, junior, 82, 194-197

WUliam, Haddington, 194

" Caich," game of, 136
Caithness, Lady (Lady ilargaret Prim-
rose) 110 and n.

WiUiam, second Earl of, 170

Callendar, Alexander, Earl of, 2

Alexander, Lord Livingstone of, 90

Ann, Countess of, 2

James, Earl of, 2, 99

Cambusbarron, I.ands of, 138
Camera, Herbert de, 85, 122, 186

Herbert de, son of Herbert de C, 86

Campbell, Mr Adam, of Gargunnock, 5 1, 52



Index.



Campbell, Alexander, traveller, 202

Anna, 51

Colonel Dugald, 8

Elizabeth, 190

Edward, of Denovan, 160

Captain Gunning, G. J., ISi

James, 190

James, sou of John of Moy, 37

Jane Mayne, 188

John, Collector of Excise, 188

John, tertius, W.S„ of Carbrook, 187

John, of Moy, 37

Margaret, 8

Carbrook, 187

Carnegie, Lady, of Pitarrow, 104 (n.)

Carron Co., xx, 193-206

Carronades, 198, 201

Carron Hall, Lands of, 43

Carronvale, 76

Carstairs, Euphan, 50

Sir John, of Kilconquhar, 50

Cathcart, Marion Harriet, 25


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