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tichi. Saggio di lingua Etrusca Epilogo, 8fc. Vol. i.

" In the midst of congregated Europe there continue to
exist populations, whose languages extend no farther than
themselves ; in the mountains of Vicenza is still found the
Celtic of the barbarians, who established themselves there in
the time of Marius ; in Wallachia, the Latin of the garrisons
who were placed there by Trajan ; in some parts of Switzer-
land, the Romance of the ancient French."

Non e stato fuor di proposito il distendersi alquanto nel
racconto della spedizione de' Cimbri si per distinguerne i
tempi ed i fatti, si perch^ oltre all' essere di quella famosa
guerra il paese nostro stato teatro, un avanzo di quella gente
rimase per sempre nelle montagne del Veronese, del Vicen-
tino, e del Trentino, mantenendo ancora in questi territorj la
discendenza ed una lingua difFerente da tutti i circostanti
paesi. Si e trovato Tedesco veramente essere il linguaggio,
e simile pure la pronuncia, non pero a quella de' Tedeschi
piu limitrofi dell' Italia, ma a quella de Sassoni e de' popoli
situati verso il mar Baltico ; il che fu studiosamente riconos-
ciuto da Federico IV. Re di Danimarca, che onoro con sua
dimora di dieci giorni la citt^ di Verona nel 1708. Non
s' inganna dunque il nostro popolo, quando per immemorabil
USD Cimbri chiama gli abitatori di que' boschi e di quelle
montagne. — Maffe; Verona illustrata, Lib. ill.

" It has not been foreign to the purpose to discuss at some
length the account of the expedition of the Cimbri, as well
for the sake of distinguishing the period at which it took
place, and the transactions connected with it, as because,



144 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. III.

The hills, called the Colics Bejici, in the neigh-
borhood of Vicenza, present some natural grottos,
of great extent, and of surprizing variety. Mon-
sieu?' de la Lande speaks of a little temple of the
form of the Pantheon, which he represents as a
master-piece of the kind ; if it be such, I regret
that we had not an opportunity of visiting it,
though not above twenty miles from Vicenza.
Bassano, seven leagues to the north, merits a visit
without doubt, if the traveller has time at his
disposal.



besides that our country was the theatre of that famous war,
a remnant of that nation has always continued in the moun-
tains in the neighborhood of Verona, Vicenza, and Trent,
still keeping up in those territories an unmixed descent, and
a language different from all the surrounding countries. The
language has been discovered to be actually Teutonic,
and the pronunciation moreover similar, not to that of the
Teutonic tribes who border upon Italy, but to that of the
Saxons, and of the nations situated near the Baltic ; which
was diligently ascertained by Frederic IV. king of Denmark,
who honored the city of Verona with a stay of ten days in
I7O8. Our people therefore are not deceived, when, from
immemorial usage, they call the inhabitants of these woods
and mountains, Cimbrians."

With two such vouchers, the author thinks himself justified
in preferring the opinion expressed in the text to that of some
writers of inferior reputation.

There are several works for the information of travellers
with regard to the curiosities of this town, among others I
recommend " Descrizzione delta Architetture" 2 vols, with
prints.



Ch. III. THROUGH ITALY. 145

From Vicenza to Padua it is eighteen miles.
About three miles from the former is a bridge
over a stream, a branch of the Meduacus, now
Bacchiglione^ erected by Palladio, which will not
fail to attract the attention of the curious tra-
veller.

Late in the evening we entered Padua

Urbem Patavi Sedesque Teucrorum *,

and reflected with some exultation that we stood,
as it were, on the confines of Greek and Latin
literature, in a city that derives its origin from a
catastrophe celebrated in itself or in its conse-
quences, by the two greatest poets of antiquity.
Few cities can boast of an origin so ancient and
so honorable, and not many can pretend to have
enjoyed for so long a period so much glory and
prosperity as Padua. We learn from Tacitus "f*
that it was accustomed to celebrate the antiquity
of its origin and the name of its founder in annual
games said to have been instituted by that hero.
Livy informs us that a Nauraachia exhibited an-
nually on one of the rivers which water the town,
perpetuated the memory of a signal victory ob-
tained by the Paduans long before their union with



* The city of Padua, and the settlements of the Trojans,
t Tacit: Annal. lib. xtvi. c. 21.

VOL. I. L



Ike CLASSICAL TOUR. Ch.llL

Rome, over a Lacedemonian fleet commanded by
Cleonyraus*. They are also said to have not un-
frequently assisted the Romans, and contributed
in no small degree to their victories, particularly
over the Gauls, the common enemy of both states;
while an immense population furnished them with
the means of giving effect to their measures, by
sending powerful armies into the field.

Padua afterwards submitted to the genius of
Rome, but submitted with dignity, and was ac-
cordingly treated not as a conquered but an allied
republic. She was admitted at an early period to
all the privileges and honors of the great Capital,
and shared, it seems, not only the franchises but
even the riches of Rome ; as she could count at
one period five hundred Roman knights among
her citizens, and drew by her manufactures, from
the emporium of the world, no small portion of
the tribute of the provinces.

After having shared the glory of Rome, Padua
partook of her disasters ; was, like her, assaulted
and plundered by Alaric and Attila; like her, was
hatf unpeopled by the flight of her dismayed in-
habitants, and obliged to bend under the yoke of a
succession of barbarian invaders. After the expul-
sion of the Goths, Rome recovered her indepen-



* And Liv. book x, c. 2.



Ch. III. THROUGH ITALY. 147

dence; not so Padua, which was subject succes-
sively to the Lombards, to the Franks, and to the
Germans. During this long period of disastrous
vicissitude, Padua sometimes enjoyed the favor
and sometimes felt the fury of its wayward tyrants.
At length it shook off the yoke, and with its sister
states, Verona, Vicenza, Ferrara, and Mantua, ex-
perienced the advantages and disadvantages of
republicanism, occasionally blessed with the full
enjoyment of freedom, and occasionally, with all
its forms, smarting under the rod of a powerful
usurper*. At length, in the fifteenth century,
Padua united itself to the Venetian territory, and
under the influence of its own laws acknowledged
the supreme authority of that republic. The con-
sideration that Venice was founded by citizens of
Padua, who flying from the ravaging armies of
Alaric and Attila took refuge in the solitary isles
of the Adriatic, might perhaps have lightened the
yoke of submission, or facilitated the arrangements
of union.

As fire and sword, aided by earthquakes and



* In the foui-teenth century Padua owned the sway of the
Carrara family ; Pandolfo di Carrara was the friend of Pe-
trarca. This family and their rivals in power and place, the
Scaglieri were among the many patrons and supporters of
literature that graced Italy in that and the succeeding cen-
turies.



148 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. IIL

pestilence, have been employed more than once
during so many ages of convulsion, in the destruc-
tion of Padua, we are not to expect many monu-
ments of the Roman colony, within its walls, or to
wonder so much at its decline as at its existence.
However it is still a great, and in many respects a
beautiful city, as its circumferenoe is near seven
miles, its population about fifty thousand persons,
and notwithstanding the general narrowness of its
streets, many of its buildings both public and pri-
vate, are truly magnificent.

The abbey of St. Ginstina deserves particular
attention. Its church, planned by Palladio, and
built by Andrea Riccio ; its library, hall or re-
fectory, and cloister are all in the highest style of
architecture*. The piazza before it called Prato
della Valky is perhaps one of the largest and noblest
in Europe. The cathedral, though not remarkable



* Dimensions of the church of St. Giustina.

The length 500 feet.

Breadth 140

The Transept 350

Height 120

The central dome (there are several) 265
The pavement is laid out in compartments of white and
red marble, its various altars with their decorations are of
beautiful marble. The whole is kept in a style of neatness
and repair, that gives it the appearance of a church just
finished. The outside was never completed.



CA.m. THROUGH ITALY. 149

for its architecture, still deserves to be ranked
among buildings of eminence, and contains several
objects worthy of notice. The church denominated
11 Santo (The Holy), a title given by way of emi-
nence to St. Anthony of Padua, though the most
frequented, is not by any means the most beauti-
ful ; it is of Gothic architecture, of great magni-
tude, and was, before the late French invasion,
enriched with a valuable treasury. That treasury
consisting of church plate, gold and silver candle-
sticks to a vast amount, was seized and carried off
by the French ; but the most remarkable object
still remains — the tomb of the saint, adorned with
fine marbles and most exquisite sculpture. In
Addison's days, ointments, it seems, distilled from
the body, celestial perfumes breathed around the
shrine, and a thousand devout catholics were seen
pressing their lips against the cold marble, while
votive tablets hung over and disfigured the altar.
When we visited the Santo.> the source of ointment
had long been dried, the perfumes were evaporated,
the crowds of votaries had disappeared, and no-
thing remained to certify the veracity of our illus-
trious traveller but a few petty pictures hanging
on one side of the monument. But the excellency
of the sculpture makes amends for the wretched-
ness of the painting, and small must the taste of
that man be, who derives no satisfaction from the
examination of the marble pannels that line the



150 CLASSICAL TOUR C7». III.

chapel. Each pannel represents some miraculous
event of the Saint's life; and however strange or
chimerical the subject may be, yet the skill of the
artist finds means to make it interesting. The
rich materials and ornaments of the altar and of
the shrine, the bronze candelabra and lamps, will
not escape the attentive observer. On the whole,
though the style of architecture is bad, yet this
church, from its size and furniture, deserves
attention.

M Salone, or the town-hall remarkable for its
vast magnitude*", contains a monument in honor
of Titus Livins, with an ancient bust. This
author, as is well known, was a native of Padua,
and is supposed to have retained in his style some
of the provincial peculiarities of his countryf,
perceptible indeed only to the refined critics of
the Augustan aera. The Italian towns in general,
are not apt to forget such of their natives as have
distinguished themselves in ancient or modern
story ; and Padua, amongst others, is not wanting
in the honors which she pays to the memory of
her illustrious citizens. The inscription under the



* It is three hundred and twelve feet in length, one hun-
dred and eight in breadth, and one hundred and eight in
height, and consequently the largest hall in Europe.

t Pollio, says Quintilian, reprehendit in Livio pativini-
tatem. L. i. — Pollio censures Livy for his Paduan style.



Ch. III. THROUGH ITALY. 1^1

bust of the historian is not remarkable for its
beauty. The last line expresses at least the gene-
rosity of the Paduans, who, if their means were
adequate to their zeal, would have converted the
marble statue into one of gold.

Hoc totus stares aureus ipse loco ! *

They shew a house which, as they pretend, be-
longed to him, and, whether it was built upon
the spot which traditionary report represented as
the site of the historian's dwelling ; or whether
it was erected on the ruin of some ancient edifice
that bore a name resembling his ; or whether,
in short, some inscription favorable to such an
opinion, may have been found in or near it, I
could not discover; but every object connected
in the most distant manner with so eminent an
author, inspires interest and claims some atten-
tion, I need not observe, that the pretended
tomb of Antenor, though it recals to mind the
antiquity of the city, and at the same time some
very beautiful verses'}-,'^ is a monument of some
prince of the middle ages, discovered in 1274.



* Thou should'st stand here iii soUd gold.

t Antenor potuit mediis elapsus Achivis,
lUyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus
Regna Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi ;
Unde per ora novem magno cum murraure raontis
It mare proruptum et pelai^o premit arva souanti.



152 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. III.

Padua was famous in ancient times for its
woollen manufactures celebrated in prose by
Strabo and in verse by Martial. It still retains
much of its reputation in this respect, and its
wool and woollen articles are considered as the
best in Italy. But the principal glory of Padua
arises from its literary pursuits, and from an
ancient and well directed propensity to liberal
science. The prince of Roman history (perhaps,
if we consider the extent of his plan, and the
masterly manner in which he has executed it,
we may add, the first of historians) was not only
born, but, as we may fairly conjecture from the
local peculiarities of language, which adhered to
him during life, was educated at Padua. Silius
Italicus, among the various chieftains whom he
introduces, represents Pedianus the leader of the



Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit
Teucrorum et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit
Troia; nunc placida compostus pace quiescit.

JEneid. i.

Antenor from the midst of Grecian hosts

Could pass secure, and pierce th' Illyrian coasts,

Where roUing down the steep, Timavus raves,

And thro' nine channels disembogues his waves.

At length he founded Padua's happy seat.

And gave his Trojans a secure retreat.

There fix'd their arms, and there renew'd their name.

And there in quiet rules, and crovvn'd with fame.

Dryden.



Ch. III. THROUGH ITALY. 158

Euganeaiis and Paduans (Apom gaudem pojjulus*)

as equally excelling in the arts of war and of

peace, and dear alike to Mars and to the Mases.

As the verses are composed in the best style of

Silius, and likely to please the reader, I insert

them.

Polydamanteis juvenis Pedianus in armis

Bella agitabat atrox, Trojanaque semina et ortus,

Atque Antenorea sese de stirpe ferebat :

Haud levior generis fama, sacroque Timavo

Gloria et Euganeis dilectum nomen in oris.

Huic pater Eridanus, Venetaeque ex ordine gentes,

Atque Apono gaudens populus, eu bella cieret,

Sue Musas placidus, doctaeque silentia vitae

Mallet, et Aonio plectro raulcere labores,

Non uUum dixere parera ; nee notior alter

Gradivo juvenis, nee Phoebo notior alterf. xii. 215.



* The tribes that boast the possession of Aponus.

t Young Pedianus grasp'd his shining arms.
And wak'd the war, exulting in alarms :
From old Antenor he rejoie'd to trace.
And great Polydamas, his Trojan race.
Nor less his deeds : th' Euganean mountains o'er
His praises sung, and on Timavus' shore.
The warlike tenants of Venetia's coast,
And Po's proud river, and the tribes that boast
Their healing Aponus, no Chieftain own'd
Like Pedianus honor'd and renown'd.
Whether to war, the science of the brave,
Or to the modest Muse his thoughts he gave,
'Mid learned ease pursued his silent way,
Life's labors soothing with th' Aonian lay ;
Alike to him did either crown belong.
The battle's laurel, and the wreath of song.



154 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. III.

The love of knowledge, the partiality to learned
ease here alluded to, was probably attributed to
the Chief, because in some degree characteristic of
the people ; so much at least we should infer from
a similar passage in Homer or in Virgil.

During the various revolutions that followed
the fall and dismemberment of the Roman em-
pire, Padua, in the intervals of repose that fol-
lowed each successive shock, endeavored to re-
pair the shattered temple of the Muses, and to
revive the sacred fire of knowledge. Some suc-
cess always attended these laudable exertions,
and a beam of science occasionally broke through
the gloom of war and of barbarism. At length,
the University was founded about the end of
the eleventh century, and its foundation w^as to
Padua the commencement of an era of glory and
of prosperity. Its fame soon spread over Europe,
and attracted to its schools prodigious numbers of
students from all, even the most remote coun-
tries ; while the reputation of its professors was
so great, and their station so honorable, that even
nobles, at a time when nobles were considered as
beings of a more elevated nature, were ambitious
to be enrolled in their number. Eighteen thou-
sand students are said to have crowded the schools
during ages ; and amidst the multitude were seen,
not Italians and Dalmatians, Greek and Latin
Christians onlyj but even Turks^ Persians and



Ch. III. THRO.UGH ITALY. 155

Arabians are said to have travelled from the dis-
tant regions of the East to improve their know-
ledge of medicine and botany, by the lectures of
the learned Paduans. Hence the catalogue of
the students of this University is rich in numbers
and in illustrious names. Petrarca, Galileo, and
Christopher Columbus applied here, each to his
favorite art, and in classics, astronomy, and navi-
gation, collected the materials that were to form
their future fame and fortune.

But Universities, like empires, have their aeras
of prosperity, and their periods of decline;
science, as commerce, often abandons its favorite
seat; and those very arts of medicine and ana-
tiomy which flourished for so many centuries in
Salerno and in Padua, have long since migrated
to the North, and seem to have fixed their tem-
porary residence at Gdttmgen and Edinburgh.
Of eighteen thousand students six hundred only
remain, a number, which thinly scattered over the
benches, is barely suflicient to shew the deserted
state of the once crowded schools of Padua. This
diminution of numbers is not to be attributed
either to the ignorance or to the negligence of
the professors ; to the defects of the system of
instruction, or to the want of means of improve-
ment. The lecturers are men of zeal and abilities;
the plan of studies is the result of long and suc-
cessful experience ; and libraries, collections, and



156 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. IIL

cabinets of every kind are numerous and magni-
ficent. Moreover, encouragement is not wanting,
as the places of professors are both lucrative and
honorable, and the directors, till the late disastrous
revolution, were three Venetian senators. The
decrease of numbers, therefore, at Padua, and in
other ancient Universities, is to be attributed to
the establishment of similar institutions in other
countries, and to the general multiplication of the
means of knowledge over the Christian world.
Knowledge is now fortunately placed within the
reach of almost every village ; the most abstruse
science may be learned in the most remote corners;
colleges and seminaries have been planted and
flourish even in the polar circles ; and youth in
almost every country, may enjoy that, which an
eloquent ancient justly considers as one of the
greatest blessings of early life — home education*.

The architecture of the schools or University
is admired, and, I believe, said to be of Pal-
ladio ; the observatory, the botanical garden in
particular, the cabinet of natural philosophy, con-



* Ubi enim aut jucundius morarentur quam in patrid?
aut pudicius coiitinerentur quam sub oculis parentum ! aut
minore sumptu quam domi ? iv. Ep. xiii.

For where could they dwell more pleasantly than in
their own country ? where more confijied within the bounds
of temperance and modesty, than under the eyes of their
parents ? where with less expence, than at home ?



Ch. III. THROUGH ITALY. 157

taining a peculiarly curious collection of fossils,
the hall of midwifery, and indeed most of the
dependencies of the University, are grand in
their kind, well furnished and well supported.
An agricultural lecture is, I believe, peculiar to
Padua, and consequently very honorable to it ;
especially as so large a space as fifteen acres is
allotted to the professor for experiments. It is
singular that no such lecture exists in any Bri-
tish University, when we consider the bent of
the national character to a rural life, and the
great encouragement and countenance given by
the higher classes, and indeed by the Nation at
large, to every species of agricultural improve-
ment*.

Besides the University, there are in Padua,
for the propagation of taste and of literature,
several academies, some of which were opened
so early as the beginning of the sixteenth century.
At that time, the love of knowledge and of clas-
sical distinction seems to have been the predomi-
nant passion of the Italians, who were then like
the ancient Greeks — prccter laudem niiUius avari'f,

* " There has been such a lecture for many years in the
University of Edinburgh; and to those who know with what
distinguished success and ability the duties of that office
are discharged, no apology will appear necessary for having
stopped to notice this mistake." — Edinburgh Review.

t Only covetous of praise. — Francis.



158 CLASSICAL TOUR Ch. IIL

Others have been established in the last century,
particularly the Academy of Sciences founded by
the senate of Venice. Most of these institutions
are supported with spirit, not only by the clergy,
but moreover by the gentry of Padua, who seem
to take an honorable pride in the literary reputa-
tion of their city.

The following beautiful lines of Naiigerim, a
poet of Leds golden days, contain a fine, though
concise encomium, on Padua, and may be con-
sidered as an abridgment of its history, even to
the present period, when war has again ravaged
its vicinity, and disfigured its edifices.

Urbs, quam vetusto vectus ab Ilio

Post fata Troum tristia, post graves

Tot patriae exhaustos iniquo

Tempore, tot pelago labores,
Ducente demum Pallade, qua rapax

Cultos per agros Medoacus fluit,

Diis fretus Antenor secundis

Condidit, Euganeis in oris.
Tu nuper & flos, & decus urbium,

Quascumque tellus Itala continet:

Magnas tot artes, tot virorum

Ingenia, & studia una alebas.
Te, septicornis Danubii accola,

Te fulva potant flumina qui Tagi, ,

Longeque semoti Britanni

Cultum animi ad capiendum adibant.
At nunc, acerbi heu sseva necessitas

Fati, severas ut pateris vices !

Ut te ipse vastatam vel hosti

Conspicio miserandam iniquo !



ek. III. THROUGH ITALY. 159

Quid culta tot pomaria conquerar ?
Tot pulchra flammis hausta suburbia ?
Quid glande deturbata ahena
Moenia * ?



Fair Town ! which on th' Euganean shore

Renown'd Antenor built of yore,

Where swift Medoacus is seen

Hurrying through the meadows green.

He, after Ilium's fatal day.

Took from his native realm his way ;

Though many a woe severe he knew.

When his lov'd Troy the fates o'erthrew,

And many a toil was doom'd to brave,

Tost on the angry ocean's wave.

His steps at length Minerva led.

And fav'ring Gods his labours sped.

Padua ! 'twas late thy boast to stand

The glory of Ausonia's land,

And 'twas thine envied, honor'd part.

To foster genius, learning, art.

The tribes that dwell by Danube's waves.

And those which golden Tagus laves.

The hardy Britons, far remote,

Thee, favor'd nurse of science, sought !

Attracted by thy matchless fame,

To drink at learning's fount, they came.

But now what change has fall'n on thee !

Ah ! unrelenting destiny !

I see thee ravag'd and laid low.

The victim of a cruel foe.

Why shall I mourn thy groves consum'd.

Thy gardens where Pomona bloom'd ?

Or why thy beauteous suburbs name,

Devote to ruin, wrapt in flame ?

Thy walls, adorn'd with many 9, tow'r,

They to the thund'ring cannon's pow'r ?



160 CLASSICAL TOUF Ch. IV.



CHAP. IV.



The Brenta — Venice ; its Magnijicence ; Pcmer ;
Degeneracy ; and Fall — Return to Padua — the
Environs of that City — the Fons Aponus — Colles
Euganei^— Arquato — Villa and Tomb of Petr ar-
ea ; Observations on his Character.

We deferred the consideration of the neigh-
borhood of Padua, till our return from Venice,
whither we hastened in order to enjoy the few
remaining days of the expiring carnival. We


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