John Collins Warren.

Genealogy of Warren, with some historical sketches online

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Achenwall's Observations on North An^erica, 1767. By J. G. Roscn-

garten ............ \

The Journal of Isaac Norris, during a Trip to Albany in 1745, and '.^'■''' :

an Account of a Treaty held there in October of that Year . 20 ' >.

The Society of the Sons of Saint Tammany of Philadelphia. By ...y,'

Francis von A. Caheen. {Concluded.) 29 ^

Excerpts from the Day-Books of David Evans, Cabinet-Maker, t

Philadelphia, 1774-1811 49

How President Jefferson was informed of Burr's Conspiracy. By .; 'r

James Morrh Monjan 56 '•

Unpublished Letters of Abraham Lincoln. By J/a/or Willkun H. tc,*

Lambert . . . . . . . . . . 60 ,,

Selected List of Xaval Matter in the Library of the Historical I v, ;-»

Society of Pennsylvania. By Albert J. Edmunds . . . 63 ^

The Taking Over of the Xicholites by the Friends. By Henry D. f ;.}S

Crannr ............ 76

Abstracts of Gloucester County, New Jersey, Records. By William ,, ;4;- '

M. Mervine 80

Letter from a Committee of Merchants in Philadelphia to the Com-
mittee of Merchants in London, 1769 84

The Mount Regiile Fishing Company of Philadelphia ... 88

Biographical Sketch of William Henry, of Lancaster County, Penn-
sylvania. (Portrait.) 91

Letter of President John Adams to Governor Thomas Miflflin, of

Pennsylvania 108

Ship Registers for the Port of Philadelphia, 1726-1775. [Con-
tinued.) 94,238,346,482

Notes and Queries 109, 248, 371, 499

Book Notices 127,256,381,511

Historical Notes of Dr. Benjamin Rush, 1777. By Dr. S. Weir i

MitcheU 129 /

Some Letters of Franklin's Correspondents 151

Losses of the Military and Naval Forces engaged in the War of the

American Revolution 176



M. vm'j

rs ,::,.V '.'.]


iv Contents of Vohuac XXVII.


A London Tavern in 1699 203

Thomas Janney, Provincial Councillor. By Miles White, Jr. . . 212
How the News of the Battle of Lexiiigton reached Philadelphia . 257
Sketch of the Life of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader. By Charles Wimlow

DiiUe.", M.D 262

Trinity Church, Oxford, Philadelphia. By George Harrison Fisher. 279

Some Love-Letters of William Penn 296

Selected Letters from the Leiter-Book of Richard-Hockley, of

Philadelphia, 1739-1742. [Coutinned.) . . . .305,421
The American Philosophical Society, 1743-1903 . . . .329
James Logan as a Poet. By Amelia Mott Garnmere .... 337
Friends and their Meeting-Houses at Cro.sswicks, New Jersey. By

Josejyh S. Middleton 340

The Generals of the Continental Line in the Revolutionary AVar.

By Si.non Grotz. { Facsimile.) 3S-5

Journal of Lieutenant Robert Parker, of the Second Continental

Artillery, 1779. By Hon. TJiomas R. Bard. ( To be cuidinued) . 404
Mrs. Washington's "Book of Cookery." By Miss J. C. Wylie.

{Portrait.) 436

Extracts from the Journal of Rev. James Sproat, Hospital Chaplain

of the Middle Department, 1778. By John \V. Jordan . 441

Biographical Sketch of Luke Wills Brodhead, of T-Ionroe County,

Pennsylvania 446

Pennsylvania Soldiers of the Revolution entitled to Depreciation

Pay. ( To be continued. ) 449

The Fellowship Fire Company of Philadelphia, organized 1738.

By John W. Jordan 472

OflBcers of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania .... 513
Index 537


A ■. ( 7.7 ,hMV-






;-^!, ■- - ■ OF ' ..


\ Vol. XXYII. 1903. No. 1.



[Franklin paid a short visit to Germany in the summer of 176G, and
at Gottingen met a number of the professors of the University. One
of them, Professor Achenwall, published in the ''Hanoverian Magazine,"'
in the volume beginning 1767, p. 258, etc., "Some Observations on
North America and the British Colonies from verbal information of
Dr. Franklin," and this article was reprinted in Frankfort and Leipsic
in 1769. There is a copy of this reprint in the Loganian Library,
from which the following translation was made. There is a copy of the
Magazine in the Astor Librar}', New York. It is of interest as showing
the impression made by Franklin on his German auditors, although it
is clear that Achenwall did not report quite correctly. — J. G. R.]

The most complete \%'ork on the British Colonies in Xorth
America is the Summary historical and political by William
Douglas, of which the second improved edition was pul>-
lished in London, 1760, in two 8vo. volumes. That doctor
collected material for many years and was in America, and
gives valuable intelligence, especially of the Colonies he
visited, but his book has no system. Prof. Kalm has much
that is good in his travels in Xorth America, and often cites
Franklin, but did not altogether understand what he said,

VOL. XXVII. — 1 ( 1 )

2 AchenwaU's Obsn-vafions on Xorth America, 1767.

and Franklin never saw Kalm's book until he came across
a German translation in Hanover.

The east coast of Xorth America, where the British
Colonies lie, is generally colder than the countries on the
same stretch in Europe, nor has it been observed that owing
to the decay of forests and cultivation the climate is be-
coming noticeably milder. Almost the whole eastern coast
of North America is sandy, many little islands along the
coast are sand banks, thrown up gradually by the sea. The
coast of Florida is sandy and unfruitful, but the interior is
good land. The native Indians consist of many small
nations, each with its own language, quite different from
that of their neighbors. They are all of one figure as if
descended from a common ancestor, — all brown in color,
with straight black hair, eyes all of one color, and all beard-
less, and they call Europeans the bearded nation. They
live in the wilds, except a few that have been gathered in
villages and are partly civilized. They live on plants and
by hunting, without farms or cattle, chickens, horses etc.

Before the arrival of Europeans, their important plants
were Turkish corn or maize ; a sort of beans ; tobacco.
Maize and Tobacco are found only in America, and were
brought from the new world to the old. ^Maize and Beans
they cook and use bear fat in place of butter as dressing, but
no salt. Smoking tobacco is an old custom, especially at
their national gatherings. These three plants they look on
as a special gift of heaven. According to an old tradition,
an American found a handsome young woman sitting on a
hill, — who in acknowledging a deep bow, said she came from
above and at the end of a year would come again to the same
hill. She was there again at that time, on her right hand
Maize, on her left Beans, and on her lap Tobacco, and these
three she left as a present for the American. Before Euro-
peans brought them, there were no other grain or vegetables
known than maize and beans, but all like the newcomers
have increased wonderfully. The Spanish historian de
Solis is altogether wrong in saying that Mexico at the time


AchcmralVs Observations on jSWth America, 1767, 3

of the invasion, was a populous and mighty state. The
Mexicans were savages, without art or knowledge, and how
could they form a great state ? They had neither farming
nor cattle and could not find food for a large population nor
had they any means of transportation. The weapons ot
the savages in Xorth America are bows and arrows, and
they shoot with the teeth of w^ld animals. They recog-
nize some of the principles of natural law and observe
them even with their enemies. They scalp usually only the
dead, — then they cut it oiF with a sharp weapon and keep
it as a sign of victory. Sometimes the victim comes to
life, — some such are in Pennsylvania, for scalping is not
necessarily mortal. They fight on foot, for they have no
horses. The savages living in western Pennsylvania were
called by the French Iroquois. The English call them the
Five Illations or the Confederate Indians, — they are united
and were so long before the English settled. The Mohawks
first united with another nation and others joined later,
Now there are seven altogether so united. They have
their regular stated meetings and their great council con-
siders the general good. The members are known only by
their difierent languages. They are called subjects of the
King, but they are not subject to British laws, and pay no
taxes, but the Colonists give them a tribute of presents.
Their number does not increase. Those living near the
Europeans steadily diminish in numbers and strength.
Their two sexes are of a cold nature, — the mothers live alone
at and after the birth of children and during the years
they suckle them, — often (owing to the absence of soft
food) until their young can eat meat. Small pox and rum
have played sad havoc among them.

The Enghsh settlements in Xorth America have grovni
much more slowly than those in the West Indies, where
they came about 1640, and in twenty years had flourishing
Colonies, such as Barbadoes. In ]Srorth America the Colo-
nists came sixty years before, but at the end of the 17th Cen-
tury were small in number and in exports. This is due to the

4 AchenwaWs Observations on North America, 1767.

rich production of the Sugar Islands, the absence of Indians,
and tlie contraband trade with Spain. The :N"orth American
Colonies have in the 18th Century greatly increased in
popidation and wealth, far beyond the West India Islands.

Franklin in a book published in 1751 showed that the
native born foreigners double every 25 years, in addition
is the steady emigration, and some Colonies thus double
their population in 18, some in 16, and some in 14 years.
This vn\\ go on as long as there is plenty of farm land,
and this increases largely with the acquisition of Canada
and Louisiana. In 1750 there were a million, Douglas
in his book estimated that in 1760 there were 1.051.000,
besides blacks and soldiers, — on that basis in 1775 there
will be 2 millions, and at the close of the 18th Century, 4
miUions. To attract foreigners, an Act of Parliament
granted English citizenship to every Protestant after seven
years' residence, a right that in England can only be
obtained ^ith great expense and trouble by a special Act
of Parliament. The Certificate of the Provincial authorities
costs only a few shillings and is good through all England.

Near the coast and some miles beyond, all the Middle
Colonies are settled, and new improvements are extend-
ing deeper in the interior. In Pennsylvania, where the
Penn family own all the land, any one who wants to im-
prove the land, chooses a piece, pays the landlord for 100
acres 10 Pound Sterling local money, and binds himself to
pay an annual rent of half a penny for each acre, — he
then becomes absolute owner, and the little ground rent can
never be increased. Sometimes the hunter builds a wooden
hut, and the nearest neighbors in the wilderness help cut
the timber, build the log hut, fill the crevices with mud, put
on the roof and put in windows and doors, and in return the
owner pays them with a gallon of brandy, and by a like good
serdce in turn. Then he lays out his garden and pasture
and fields, cuts out the underbrush, tops the big trees and
strips the bark, so that he can sow and reap, the trees die
and hurt neither land nor crops. Many hunters have thus

AchenwcdVs Observations on Kortk America, 1767. 5

settled the wilderness, — they are soon followed by poor
Scotch or Irish who are looking for homes, — these they find
in this half improved condition, — they buy from the
hunters, get a patent from the Proprietors, paying the usual
charge. The hunter moves off into the wilderness and goes
to work again. The Scotch or Irishman completes the half
finished task, builds a better house of sawed timber, uses the
old log hut for a stable, later builds a house of brick and
his timber house is a good barn. Scotch and Irish often
sell to the Germans, of whom from 90 to 100.000 live in
Pennsylvania, and prefer to put all their earnings into land
and improvements. The Scotch or Irish are satisfied with
a fair profit, put the capital into another farm, leaving the
Germans owners of the old farms. In_ Pennsylvania there
is no law to prevent cutting up a farm into very small
holdings nor to forbid the purchase ot very large bodies oi
land. There is no danger from either course, for there is land
enough for rich and poor, and the former prefer the larger
profits from trade to the small return from land. In New
England, unlike Pennsylvania, a good deal of land is let to
farmers, for there are many rich owners of large estates, —
this is so too in the Carolinas, and in other Colonies where
owners of 10 or 20 or more thousands of acres bring settlei-s
at their own expense to improve their land. Kalm mentions
similar cases in New York.

When an owner of land dies intestate, and there are many
children to inherit the father's farm, it is generally taken by
the eldest son, and the younger children get in money
their share of its appraised value, — the eldest son gets two
shares, the other children only one apiece. The father of a
large family takes from the Proprietary a large tract of land,
which on his death can be divided among all his children.
In New England improvement of the land is made in a
more regular way than in Pennsylvania, — whole towns are
laid out, and as soon as sixty families agree to build a
church and support a Minister and a Schoolmaster, the
Provincial government gives them the required privilege,

6 AchmicalVs Obsenafions on North America, 1767.

carrying with it the right to elect two deputies to the Legis-
lature, from the grant of 6 English square miles. Then
the towTi or village is laid out in a square, with the church
in the centre. The land is divided and each works his own,
leaving however the forest in common, and with the privi-
lege of laying out another \illage in time. In this w^ay
new settlements grow in Xew England in regular order and
succession, — every new village touching on an old one, and
all steadily increasing in w^ealth and numbers. Xothing of
this kind is done in Pennsylvania, where the Proprie-
tor wants only to sell land and as much as any one wants
and wherever he likes. The mistake of this was shown in
the Lidian wars. On the border were scattered houses and
farms, which could not help one another, and they were
attacked singly, plundered and destroyed, and the ruined
owners with their families took refuge \\ith the older settle-
ments, which became burthened with their care.

Blacks are found in Virginia, Maryland and the two
Carolinas in large numbers, but very few in Pennsylvania
and further north. In Pennsylvania, on -principle they
were prevented coming as much as possible, partly because
there was no such hard work as they were fitted for in
raising tobacco, rice and indigo. In Pennsylvania, every
negro must pay a tax of 10 pounds sterling and this the
master who brings him must pay. These negroes are pro-
tected by law in all the Colonies, as much as free men.
A Colonist, even if he is the owner, who kills a blackman,
is mstantly sentenced to death, — if he overworks or ill
treats his slave, the latter can -complain to the judge. Then
in their owti interest the masters are obliged not to give
their slaves excessive tasks or insufficient food, for their
death is a loss. The negro slaves have all the general
rights of humanity except fi-eedom and property, neither of
which they possess.

The free in the Colonies are of two kinds, the one servant
and maid, bound for a half or a whole year, and the term
ends by mutual agreement. The other class consists ot

AchemcaWs Observations on JS'ortk Ameiica, 1767. 7

poor Scotch, Irish and Germans, who to get to America
come \\'ithout paying their passage, and the ship captain
finds them a master who pays it and thus secures their
service for food and lodging and clothing, without pay,
but only for a term of years, never for life. Sometimes a
father sells the services of his children to a master, who
must teach them some useful trade, tarming, carpentering,
cooking. This lasts until majority, — \N'ith boys at 21,
with girls at 18, and in some cases for 8 years, but not
longer. Then the children are by law free, and their
master is bound to give them the needful articles for house-
keeping, a cow, farming implements, tools etc. In this
way all poor children have the hope of estabhshing them-
selves on their majority in freedom. The poor fathers find
their comfort in this expectation, are relieved of the care of
their children in the interval, and know that they are
learning something useful and vaW start out in life vAth
money in hand ^^^thout having to pay anything to the
master. The masters in turn are satisfied with the cheap
service. This law has been introduced to cure the old need
of servants and apprentices.

There is a special class of servants in the Colonies, be-
tween peasants and slaves, those transported from Great
Britain for certain crimes for from 7 to 14 years. It is an
exile from Great Britain under penalty of prison in case
of return. Such an offender is sold by the Courts to a
Ship's Captain who takes him to the Colonies and sells him
as a slave for a limited period. That over he is free.
Formerly such servants were welcomed on account of the
demand for laborers, but now they are no longer needed in
the populous Colonies, they remain worthless and are soon
sent to prison for fresh offences.

The constitutions of the British Colonies differ according
to the original grants, 1^' Royal, 2°^ Proprietary, 3"* Charter
Governments, and the British Parhamentary Statutes call
them Plantations under Proprietors, under Charters, under
his majesty's immediate commission, Stat. 6 Anne, cap. 30,

8 AcheiacaWs Ohscnations on I^'orth America, 1767.

sec. 2. The 1" class are arranged strictly according to the
British Constitution, with a Governor, who represents the
King, and two legislative branches, 1'* the Council, called
the Royal Council, 2""^ Representatives of towns or counties,
belonging to one Colony, these two are like the two houses
of the British Parliament, and the Council is called the Up-
per House, and the body of representatives of the people the
Lower House. In these three branches are vested the law
making powers of the Colony, but subject to the Crown,
hence united they are called the Assembly, although that is
popularly limited to the two Houses and often to the Lower
or popular House. The King appoints the Governor and
recalls him at pleasure. The Council also consists of royal
officials dependent on the King as to terms and nature of
appointment, but generally selected from the principal per-
sons of the Colony, legal, financial and military officers.
Governor and Councillors have fixed salaries and certain
fees, the Governor a large fixed salary, provided in advance
by the Colonies, thus the Governor of Barbadoes has £2000,
the Governor of Virginia £1000. The popular represent-
atives are elected annually and receive a fixed per diem
allowance. They look after the rights and privileges ot
the people, just as do the Council and the Governor after
those of the Crown, Every measure approved by the three
bodies becomes a law, but only provisionally, for it must
be sent to the King for approval, but if not vetoed -svithin
three years, it is final. This is the usual rule for Colonial
governments, (with some local exceptions) in all the West
India Islands, Xew York, Xew Jersey, Virginia, both Caro-
linas, Xew Georgia, New Scotland, Xew Hampshire, and I
believe Quebec, East and "West Florida, and the newly
acquired Caribbean Islands, and the English consider it
the best way of securing the rights of the Mother Coun-
try, that is. Great Britain. The 2""^ class is that of heredi-
tary Proprietors, such as those of Pennsylvania and Mary-
land. In the former the English family of Penn, in the
latter the Irish Lords Baltimore are the hereditary Pro-

AchmicalVs Observations on North America, 1767. 9

prietors and Governors, as over lords tliey draw a certaui
income from all the Colonists in proportion to their land,
and all improved land is sold at a fixed price. Both tax and
price are low, bnt the growth of both Colonies has made
both fomilies rich. Lord Baltimore has the right of patron
of all churches in Maryland. As hereditary Proprietors
both appoint their Lieutenant Governors, who are confirmed
by the King, and reside in the Provinces. In both Colonies
there are Assemblies, — that in Maryland consists of the
Council and the House of Commons, and subject to the
right of the Proprietor, has the same jurisdiction as that of
any other Colony.

The third kind of government is the Chartered or Free
government. This is nearest a Democracy, and is less
dependent on the Crown. This form of constitution exists
in the three Colonies of New England, completely in Con-
necticut and Rhode Island, — in Massachusetts with cer-
tain restrictions. The two first named Colonies have the
right to elect all their own officers, including the Gov-
ernor and Council, and to make all needful laws \vithout
royal approval, nor can the decisions of their Courts be
appealed from. In Rhode Island even the ministers of the
Churches can be removed at the end of a year, so that they
hold ofiice only for one year's salarv'.

Massachusetts Bay formerly had these popular rights, but
owing to abuses their former pri\-ileges and freedom were
repealed by the King's Bench under Charles the Second,
and only partly restored by a new Charter from Wil-
liam the Third. Since then the King appoints the Gov-
ernor and the chief law and treasury and all military
officers. The representatives have the right to elect Coun-
cillors, but subject to a negative veto of the Governor.
This election in Massachusetts as well as in Connecticut
and Rhode Island, is made by both Houses, annually,
because the members ol the Council hold office only for a

Laws passed by the Assembly must have royal approval,

10 AchenwaWs Observations on JS'orth America, 1767.

and in casea involving over £300, there is an appeal to the
Privy Council in Loudon.

The Governor of Massachusetts has no fixed salary, but
it is fixed every year by the Assembly. (Kalm says this is
so in Xew York also.) He must therefore be popular with
the Assembly or the King vdW replace ■ him by another
likely to be so. This uncertain tenure is unpopular in Europe
because it aflects unfavorably the interests of the Colony
and makes that of Great Britain dependent on the Colony.
The Colonists answer that a fixed salary would enable the
Governor to live abroad and send only a Lieutenant
Governor as substitute.

Pennsylvania has its own Constitution. Penn as Pro-
prietor draws a revenue of a half penny sterling local
currency for every acre of improved land, and every pur-
chaser of wild land can buy a hundred acres for £10 and
the usual quit rent. As Proprietor he sends a Deputy,
whom he pays, and appoints all Judges, but ministers are
chosen by their own congregations in every County. The
meeting of the Pennsylvania Legislature consists of only one
House, (because there is no Council) made up of repre-
sentatives of the various Counties. These are elected
annually October 1, each County holding its own meetings
for the purpose, — every inhabitant worth £50, resident for
12 years, has a vote, — these meetings elect 8 Deputies to the
Assembly, — every elector is eligible, but mostly well to do
citizens are elected. The County gives its representatives
six sliillings a day, but the Deputies have to spend more out
of their own pockets. There is no bribery. Every voter de-
posits a written ballot, and the persons who have the highest
number are declared elected. The purchase of votes would
be very unsafe, as the voter could always write another
name on his ballot. This House with the Lieutenant

Online LibraryJohn Collins WarrenGenealogy of Warren, with some historical sketches → online text (page 1 of 39)