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John Collins Warren.

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in thier first and last stages. 2. Because his talents are
better fitted to unite the people of America into one body
than to give them afterwards a national complexion. 3. Be-
cause his talents are unequal to those degrees of discipline
and decision, which alone can render an army finally suc-
cessful. 4. Because he is idolised by the people of America,
and is tho't to be absolutely necessary for us to enable us to
carry on the w^[ar].

The tories may be subdivided into —

1. Advocates for supremacy of parliament.



Jlisiorical JS'ofcs of Dr. Jjcnjamin Fd(sh, 1777. 147

2. Advocates for 1763.

3. Enemies to iiidepeudaiice. All alike enciiues to the
cau.se of America.

The "Whigs may be divided into —

1. Sucli as contend for power.

2. iSucli as contend from resentnih

3. Such as contend for mili^ g^ory.

4. Such as contend for liberty.

5. Such as aim only at interest.

Capt: Leslie's grave in Pluckamin churchyard, near the
grave of Eliz'" Mclick, daughter of Aaron, and Charlotte

^rtlick.

During the ^var between G. B : & America, all reports
proved false that were 1", picked up at sea; 2''^^ on the road
or at ferries, & 3, from Frenchmen.

1777 Octob' 10^''— Dined with the commander in chief of
American army— no wine— only grog— knives & forks eno'
fv-r only half the company — one half the company eat
after the other had dined at the same table. The General
gave the head of his table to one of his aids-de-camp, and
8at 2^ or 3"* from him on his left side.

State and Disorders in the American army OctoV 1777.

1. The commander-in-chief at this time the idol of A'r,ierica
—governed by Gen' Greene— Gen. Knox & Col. Hamilton,
one of his aids, a young man of 21 years of age.

2. 4 Major Generals,— Greene, Sullivan, Stirling & Ste-
vens. The 1'* a sycophant to the general, timid, speculative,
^vitllout enterprise; the 2°^ weak, vain, without dignity,
fund of ecribling, in the field a madman. The 3^ a proud,
vain, lazy, ignorant, drunkard. The 4'", a sordid, boasting
cowardly sot.

The troops dirty, undisciplined, & ragged, guns fired 100
" <^ay ; pickets left 5 days & sentries 24 hours, without re-
l:<-f; bad bread; no order ; universal disgust.



148 Historical Notes of Dr. Benjamin n>f.sh, 1777.

Aco/t of American army at Valley Forge ^farcli 1778.

The encainpmeiit Jirty i^- stinking, no forage for 7 days —
1500 horses died from y* want of it. 3 ounces of meal &
3 pounds of flour in 7 days. Men dirty k ragged. The
commander-in-chief and all y^ Major Generals lived in
bouses out of y' Camp.

1777^ Xocembcr 9. — Came to Burlington [Xew Jersey].^

Noi-emhcr 11.— Went to Red Sank.

KovembtT 12. — Returned today.

November 16. — Left Burlington, and lodged at Pet.
Talmans.

November 17. — Came to Princetown.

December 1. — To, Trenton and returned.

177S, Jaavar-j 2. — Left Princetown and lodged at Rush
Hill.

January 3. — Lodged at General Sullivan's quarters.*

January If.. — Lodged at Charles Risk's.

January 5. — Lodged at Lancaster.^

January 8. — Came to Yorktown.

* This diary describes the movements of Dr. Rush during the occupa-
tion of Philadelphia by the British army. A number of the annota-
tions have been taken from his manuscripts.

' Dr. Rush made the following copy of a paper he saw hung up in
General Sullivan's quarters :

Names of Officers who distinguished themselves in building y' bridge
over Shuilkill 1778.

His Ex^ Gen' Honb" Major Gen'

Washington. Sullivan.

Major Pollard, Col. Charlton,

Major Thayer, Lieut. Mason,

Capt. Chadwick, Maj^ Cortland,

Lieut. Parker, Maj' Brum,

Col. Chandler, Col. Basset,

Capt. Frye, Lieut, [torn].

Capt. Smith,
Lieut, Jewet.

* On the 7th he took tea and spent the evening at the home of Chris-
topher Marshall.



JUsiorical Notc^ of Dr. Bcnjainm Bush, 1777. 140

JaiiUanj SO. — Eesigncd my Commission ; left Yorktown
and came to Lancaster,'

Fthruvnj 13. — Came to Reading.

Fdraary lo. — To Allentown.

Fibnony 16. — To Betlilelicm.*

Fthraari/ IS. — To Johnsons.

Fcbnony 19. — To Princetown.

March 11. — Left Princeto^vn.

March 13. — Lodged at Dr. Moore's.

^farr]. IS. — Arrived in Camp at A'alley Forge, and lodged
witli General Poor.^

March i.;.— Lodged at Moore Hall, ^ntli Col. [Clement]
liiddle and the Commissioners from Cono-ress for reformino-
ye Army.

March 16. — Lodged at Gen. Greene's.

March 17. — Lodged at Capt. [Harry] Lee's near Camp.

March 26". —Lodged at D^ [Nicholas]" Way's at Wilming-
ton [Delaware].

March 23. — Came to Mr. Joseph Mifflins at Xotingham.

March 3S.—M Halls."'

March 3^. — Returned to Wilmington.

Afrll l.—To Mr. Mifflin's.

^^nV^^— ToMr. Smith's.

April 4. — Cochran's Tavern ; fall of wagoners ; no liquor ;
a quiet house.

April 5. — To Elijah Ward's.

April 6. — Andrew Bunners.

April 7. — At Xewtown : supped with the Commissioners,
\Tz: Amcriroii.?, Colonels Hamilton, Harrison, Grayson, and
Mr. Boudinot— i?AfcA ; Colonels O'Hara and Stevens, and
Capt, Fitzpatrick.*

' Surgeon and Physician-General of the Middle District, Continental
army.

* He lodged at the Sun Inn.

* General Poor's brigade was located next to that of General Wayne.

* Klihu Uall, Mount Welcome, Cecil County, Maryland. The estate
i« now owned by Mr. P. S. P. Conner.

-f. PEXNeVLVAXIA Maga2i:?e, VoI. XXIV. p. 291.



I ri



150 Historical Notes of Dr. Bc))J(y.nim Iiush, 1777.

Ajml llf. — To Burlington,

Ay>ril 16. — To Princetowii.

April i?0. — Left Prineetowii and came to Mr. Evans' two
miles from the Meetinghouse, in com})any with Major Hop-
kins, Duval and Capt. .

3Ta}/ 5. — Came to Wilmington.

May 7. — At Mrs. Barclay's.

May c9._To Dan Smith's.

3Iay 9. — To Cochran's tavern. • -

3Iay 10. — To ray brothers.

May 12. — Mr Evans'.

May 13. — To Priucetown.

May 27. — Left PrincetoAvn with my ^^^fe and lodged at
^Ir. Hood's near Howell's Ferry.

May ^.S".— Lodged at Mr. Evans'.

May 29. — Came to my brothers,

Juiie 6. — AVent to Capt. Alisons',^ . .

June 8. — Pcturned to my brothers.

June 10.— Sat off for Mr, Hall's and lodged at Mr. Mii-
flins,

June 11. — Reached Mr, Hall's.

June 17. — Left Mr. Hall's, and lodged at Mr. Smith's.

Jane 18. — Returned to my brother's.

June 20. — Set off, for Philadelphia, lodged at Mr. Craw-
ford's.

June 21. — Arrived in Philadelphia.

July 17. — Returned with Mrs. Rush and settled again in
our old house in Philadelphia.-

* A nephew of Eev. Dr. Francis Alison, of the University of Pennsyl-
vania, living in Chester County.

* "Dr. Benjamin Rush and Julia Stockton were married January 11,
177C, at Princeton, by the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon ;" and he further re-
cords, "John Rush, son of the above, born July 17, 1777, between the
Lours of 12 and 1 in the morning, at Elihu Hall's Esq., at Mount Wel-
come, Cecil County, Mary<* and baptised July 20"' following by the
Rev"^ Dr, John Ewing." John "stood alone at 6 months supported
by a wall," Dr, Rush lived in the house formerly Chief-Justice Ship-
pen's, on Fourth Street opposite Willings Alley,



Some Letters of Franklin's G.vresjyondents. 151



SOME LETTEES OF FRAXKLIN'S COEIJESPOXDEXTS.

[From tlie Franklin Papers in the American riiilosopbical Society.]

Portsmouth April 17th. 1775.
Pear Sir :

As Major Trent is the Bearer of this Letter, it is the less
necessary for me now to be very particular in my Commu-
nications. I presented, as you desired, your Respects to
Lord Camden, and his Lordship requested me to tell you,
that he should have been much pleased to have seen you, be-
fore you embarked ; — That the Chancellor's Decision in your
Case, is entirely political, and that, if during the Adminis-
tration of the present Men, — An Appeal should be made,
from the Court of Chancery to the House of Lords, — you
would certainly meet ^^•ith the same Fate there, as you had
below. — Li a few Days al^er the Hollidays, His Lordship
moves for the total Eepeal of the Quebeck Act; and if
Lord Chatham's Health ^-ill admit of it, — He ^vill certainly
second the Motion : — And in the House of Commons, Sir
George Saville — moves to amend this shameful Act. — There
have been several Conferences, between Lord Camden and
Sir George upon the Subject; But although the latter
wishes the total Repeal, — yet some of the Rockinghams
think it is too much to attempt, and therefore, in a friendly
way, it is settled between them, — To move in the ditlerent
Houses, in the different "Ways, I have mentioned The Fate
of these Motions, tliere can be no doubt about ; — But yet, it
is thought Right to lay a proper Ground for Repeal — In
Case our Countrymen shall act so unitedly and decisively,—
in their Plans of Xon Exportation &c. — as to compel the
Court to abandon the present Set of Ministers. I am realy
grieved at the Publication of Mr. Galloway's extraordinary
Pamphlet. Our great Friends in both Houses, are ex-
tremely angry at it, and ex-press themselves in most resentful



15-2 Some Letters of lyimkUns Correspondents.

Terms, againpt the Author ; — While the Courtiers rejoice
at that Part of the Pamphlet, wliicli represents our Divisions
and Controvei-sys, as to Boundaries and Modes of Keligion,
our Incompetency to resist the Power of this Country
And tlie undecided State of the Congress, — for several
"Weeks, — as to what realy were the' Eights of America ; — yet
the Courtiers at the same Time treat with inetiable Contempt,
the Plan of Union proposed, and which they say, by not
being adopted — offended the Author's Pride, and has been
the happy means, of their being satisfoctorily confirmed in
their Ideas, of the Weakness and Division of the Colonies;
and by perseverance, — They shall unquestionably obtain, a
perfect Submission. M' Pope, you remember, has wisely
Baid "How shall we reason but from what we know" — On
Trhich I shall only make this short observation, that if our
Friend M"" Galloway, had properly known, — The real Plans
of this arbitrary Administration, He would never, I am
persuaded, — have committed lEmself, in the very indiscreet
Manner, that He has done. — Major Trent carrys out with
Him, the restraining Act for Pennsylvania, Xew Jersey &c.
And lest any Xews, unfavorable to the Designs of Govern-
ment, — might arrive from Governor Colden, — Administra-
tion used great Industry, in accelerating it through the
House of Lords, — In Order, that is'ew York might not, if
possible, be inserted in it; They placing much confidence in
the Fidelity and Loyalty of the Delancey's and their Friends,
to dissolve the LTnion of America. The Generals, Burgoyne,
Howe and Clinton are nov/ here, waiting only for a favor-
able Wind, — To sail for Boston. — There it is to be deter-
mined, — How two of them are to be disposed of; — One of
them, %vith two or three Regiments, it being here decided,
shall be stationed at Xew York, to support the King's
Friends, so called, in that Colony. — Several persons, as
Spies are sent to each of the Pro\dncc8, to collect Intelli-
gence, — and observe and report the Conduct of People
in general, and some in particular. — Major Skeene returns
for that, or some other such servile, and dishonorable



Some Letters of Frank' in' s Corrcsiyondents. 163

rarpo?c. He is in the same Skip witli Major Trent. — It
wouid surely be presnini>tiou in me to ofter any Intimations
to you, as to what Part, — America ought immediately to
take; ]>ut it is 'Sl^ Levy's and M'' Steady's sincere Opinion,
tliat if the new Congress will firmly insist on and see
inviolably maintained throughout America, — The Non Ex-
portation and Xon Lnportatiou Plans, — and at the same
Time will eftectually arm in C:ise of the worst, — that the
Magnitude of these Meiisures will infallibly force its own
AVay ; and American Freedom will be soon fixed on an im-
movable Basis. — "Whenever any Thing material occurs, —
you may depend upon having it immediately communi-
cated to you ; And in the mean Time, — give me leave to
inform you that I have obtained a very full and satisfactory
0].inion from Serjeant Glynn ( — The best Lawyer, Lord
Camden assures me, in England) — Upon the Title to our
Indian Lands, — (which M'' Trent "Will shew you) And
permit me to ask the favor of you, — To assist this Gentle-
man in obtaining concurrant Opinions from M'' Galloway, —
M' Dickinson, and the La\vyers from Virginia &c. who may
be at the Congress; As this is certainly the favorable
Crisis, to establish Titles for Lands, fairly obtained from
tlic native Proprietors. — I am Dear Sir with the sincerest
Esteem

Your most obd' & faithful Serv'

S. Wharton.
Bear Sir :

Some time since M"" W"" Lee forwarded my letter to you
a«l vising the payment of £100 from the Constitutional
Society into the hands of your Bankers ^Mess'' Brown,
Collinson & Co. towards relie%-ing the distressed Lihabitants
of Boston.

On the 23** Ins* they voted £100 more for their relief
wliich is also paid into the hands of the same Gentlemen on
your Ace' and both sums wait your demand and appli-
cation.

Kecent accounts from America srlve information of an



154 Some Letters of Drin kiln's Correspondents.

unprovoked attack by a detaclnnont from the regular troops
at Boston against the Provincials wliicli as far as we yet
know reflects as little honour on the British Military as our
Politicks do on the British Legislature.

I entertain the best hopes that America directed by
wisdom similar to your own will act with sulficient firmness
to maintain the rights of free tho loyal subjects.

AW reasonable men with whom I converse still continue
fixed in opinion against the right of taxing America not
represented in Parliament. I am with much respect and
great Esteem

Dear Sir

Your very obedient
Humble Servant

Ricii^ Oliver.

LONDOX 31" May 1775.
July 6th, 1775.

Dear Sir :

I -vsTite to you more to prove my remembrance of you,
than for the importance of an}i;hing I have to com-
municate.

The two defeats near Boston seem to have made little im-
pression on the ^liuistry. They still talk of great things
to be expected from their generals & troops when united.
One of your judgment \vi\\ draw more information from
the single word Rebels used in the Gazette, than from any-
thing I can say. Far from retracting they mean to ex-
asperate, in perfect confidence of being successful. It is
the curse of fools to be secure ; & I trust their fate will
prove, that the end of the wicked is punishment.

L"* G. Germaine, the Father of the military murder Bill,
18 Dictator in all the military operations against America.
As Cowards are often confident when danger is at a dis-
tance, this man is not only bold himseh" but inspires the
King & his Ministers with equal confidence.

The report is that L* John Murray's Regiment of High-



Some. Letters cf Franklin's C<>rrespo})da}t$. 155

laiul'jr.-. vt others to be raised by Col. Fraser arc to bo sent
over. The former I believe is true. The Scoteh will tio;ht
witli two times the rancour .'c not half the bravery of the
cn^ish. I cannot conceive them to be formidable foes if
bravely opposed. Against timid or flying enemies they
r.ct licroJcally.

Tlie dissatisfaction of the Public here certainly increases
every day. Shortly it will arrive to that degree at which
an untoward event or national calamity will kindle a flame
destructive to all those who have planned tliese fatal meas-
ures. You will see by the proceedings of the Common
Jhdl what are the sentiments of the City of London. I
am nmch deceived or the Nation in general v^all speak the
eame language in a little time. Ilappily however America
is capable of working her own salvation, or the influence of
corruption & dissipation here would render escape from the
liand of tyranny extremely doubtful.

Tlie Revolutions of great Empires have often been forc'd
by the follies of weak & wicked men ; but never before I
think, did the folly of man sin so obstinately against the
evidence of accumulated instruction. An overruling Provi-
dence seems to emjfloy their ignorance & rashness for pur-
poses which wisdom would foresee Sc shrink from.

It will be of great use in proHng the propriety of our
proceedings to state the number of Petitions from all the
Provinces which have been presented in vain. Xot being
in possession of them, nor knowing how to get them but
by the Speaker of each Province sending the part of their
Journals which contain them, I must beg the favor of you
to endeavor to obtain that for me. ^There will be a
inoment, I am sure, when stating the repeatedly rejected
Petitions of America here, will bring down vengeance
upon the heads of her inveterate enemies.
^ Some Gentlemen here have lately found by experiments
t.int man can bear 180 degrees of heat & a dog 230, with-
out injury for 30 minutes. The heat of the Dog's body
examined immediately did not exceed 130. This proves



156 Some Letters of D-ankliti's Correspondenis.

what I long ago ohserv'd in some experiments on Frogs that
the animal Body, when living, wa? endued with a power of
generating Cold as well as heat. A. L.

GoLDEX Square July 31, 1775
Dear Sir :

I am very glad to collect by a Phrase in the letter from
the Congress to the Canadians, that they think once more
of imploring the Attention of their Sovereign. I can give
you no information of the State of the Ministry, I shd be
one of the last to be informed of their counsels. The
great fear that I entertain is least they shd make things
desperate with America, in order to screen themselves. I
can easily foresee, that in short time, we shall have very
little communication or intelligence from America, but
what the Ministry please to retail out to us and that modi-
fied as they shall think proper. K they act the part of Go-
betweens making mischief and can intercept the Communi-
cations between the two Countries, they may make each
Country think ill of the other by a course of mutual mis-
representations. All the accounts that were laid upon the
table of the House of Commons last year were garbled
just for the purpose of misleading our judgments ; And
the same will probably all ways be the Conduct of men who
have an interest to foment a quarrel between the two Coun-
tries, with a view to justify themselves ex post facto and
upon subsequent acts of violence and ill blood, w'*" are
inseparable from a st<^te of war to deceive the people of
England into a persuasion, that our brethren in America
were from the first ill disposed to this Country. The min-
istry have the Command of the sea and thereby of all cor-
respondence. They will permit none but the most violent
libels against the Americans to be sent over to you in order
to make you believe, that the Spirit of this Country is
against 3'ou. They may, on the other hand, give to us just
what accounts they please. Both Countries must be at their
pleasure for the representation of things. For instance



Some Letters of Fi-anklias Correspondents. 167

in the Gazette account of the 19th of April they say :
Sucli v.-as the Cruelty & barbarity of the rel>ols, that tliey
scalped and cut oft* the ears of some of the u'ouuded men
who fell into their hands. The worst impressions must be
expected to arise upon the minds of tlie people of both
countries from such articles as these, w*** can only be calcu-
lated to foment ill blood. For these Considerations, I most
earnestly entreat, that our brethren in America will not give
credit to any unf.ivorable reports that may be sent over to
thc-m, when a free communication of intelligence is inter-
cepted. Disbelieve all such reports and trust to the gener-
osity and justice of tlie minds of the people. You will
certainly find the nation just, generous & affectionate to
you. The general sentiments and feelings of this country
Lave been greatly shocked by the Gazettes of blood, not
that of enemies but of our brethren & fellow subjects. I
hope that even these horrid events will not turn oft'
the General Congress from making some proposals for
accommodation. The people of England cannot be alienated
from those of their own blood, their own brethren and
friends in America if they still find you earnest for recon-
cilement. You know that the heart of this Country was
not alienated from you when you left us. Your friends,
Mess"* Osborne, Falconer & Read bring you more recent
intelligence; being discreet and intelligent persons, they
can judge of the temper of this Country and they ^vill tell
you, that it is not unfavorable to you. Whatever you hear
to the contrary believe it not Rely on the Candour of the
people of England and state facta. I hear particularly of
great remittances daily coming over. Shew us how scrupu-
lous you liave been to pay your debts, and collect if you
can an Estimate of the remittances made this year. Any
pains and labour will be well bestowed to vindicate your-
selves and your character to this country and to pos-
tenty. Passion may sway for a while but reason must
prevail in the end. Let your friends here have all possible
materials to do justice to your Cause. Votes of assemblies



158 So/ne Letters of F'ranJdiifs Coyrcspondnits.

petitions addresses fiicts dates, and the historical evidence of
all transactions from the very beginning of these nnfur-
tunate troubles. I fear that I shall repeat the same things
over & over, in all my letters, till I weary you, but I am
most earnest to leave no chance untried, and to exert every
possible means of reconciliation. Let your friends here
have all possible materials to do justice to your cause and
to strengthen their endeavours to restore harmony and con-
fidence between the two Countries. Let us strive to the
last. Let us leave nothing undone. All is lost if we
despair. I remain Dear Sir

with the greatest respect

to your person and character
your much obliged friend

G. E.
To Doctor Franklin.

Dear Sir :

I had lately the honour of acquainting you by Capt.
Read with some particulars v*'hich I now confirm, and
although but little of importance has since occurred I am
induced to trouble yon again with a few suggestions
respecting the title of the diflerent Indian tribes of America
to the property and jurisdiction of their Territories.

You will doubtless remember that our friend !M- YvTiarton
had collected and put together some important facts &
observations relating to this subject & as his sentiments
thereon were perfectly agreable to my own we composed
and printed, soon after your departure, a small Pamphlet, in
Vindication of the Eights of the Aborigines of America;
one of which, M'' Thom' Wharton was desired to shew you,
and lest that may have miscarried another is herewith
sent for your acceptance ; not that I suppose any new argu-
ments will be necessary for your Conviction on this topic ;
being satisfied from the liberality and extensive circuit of
your reflections, as well as from particular conversations
w^th which you have favoured me that you have long per-
ceived the absurdity of all distinctions between the temporal



S'jme Litters of F)\inkUn''s Corre^jwndaits. 159

rights of mankind founded on any supposed defect in their
ro]ii,nous opinions, and have rejected those pretensions on
which former Popes availing themselves of the ignorance i<:
superstition then prevaihng over all Europe, arrogantlv
assumed a riglit to dispose of the persons & countries of unbc-
lie\-irig nations in Asia, Africa ct America; a right which
is now universally ridiculed by all whose minds are eman-
cipated from the shackles of superstitious prejudice. And
indeed the aborigines of America being the primitive
occupiers of tliat continent and having obtained tlie posses-
sion of it from the Creator & most rightful disposer of the
Earth, without that injustice & violence by which other
nations have frequently acquired their territories, were by
the laws of Xature & Nations justly intituled to the full
and absolute dominion Sz property of that continent.

Before America had been discovered the inhabitants
could not possibly have owed any allegiance or sul)jection
to any foreign state, and nothing could be acquired by a
discovery of countries previously inhabited and possessed —
and therefore the American Indians must still have an
indisputable title to the jurisdiction and property of all



Online LibraryJohn Collins WarrenGenealogy of Warren, with some historical sketches → online text (page 12 of 39)