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Ex Libris
C. K. OGDEN





THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES




INTIMATE SOCIETY LETTERS OF
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

VOL. I



INTIMATE SOCIETY
LETTERS

OF THE

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY



EDITED BY

THE DUKE OF ARGYLL, K.T.



WITH PORTRAITS, FACSIMILES, AND OTHER
ILLUSTRATIONS



IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. I



LONDON

STANLEY PAUL & CO.
1 CLIFFORD'S INN



PRINTED BY

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINBT, LD.
LONDON AND AYLMBURY.



H&S



v, 1



PREFACE

LETTERS, grave or gay, have always a freshness
about them, a reality of expression, which we
too often look for in vain in historical narrative.
We may feel that we have no right to listen,
and human nature unfortunately finds in this
an extra interest. Curiosity may be an im-
pudent jade, prying where she has no business
to gaze, or staring where she ought only to take
a discreet glance, but she is listened to and even
courted. It is innate in us to like to know the
world as it was in the days of our ancestors and
ancestresses, not only through the pompous
phrases of orators or historians, but through the
everyday tittle-tattle as well as through the
political letters of years long gone by. The
mental picture is not complete without these
details. And if no living person's character
or feelings be hurt, there can be no harm in
gratifying a curiosity that is certainly more
pleasing than would be any attempt to know
too much of our modern next-door neighbour's
private affairs.

Interest grows with growing similarity in



-* .m



vi PREFACE

surroundings, and we love to compare the
immediate Past with the conventionalities, and
faults and virtues, of those whose portraits we
have on our walls, and of whose actions History
tells us, and who were responsible for our own
existence in a society they largely prepared
for us. Often they may have borne the same
names we bear. We have a lawful desire
to see them as they moved throughout that
century when the quiet of social life was
broken to listen to the thunder of the wars
of which Marlborough and Eugene were the
heroes beloved in Britain, and then of the
campaigns of the Great Frederick, of our
own Stuart insurrection, and of the events
ending in the Independence of our American
Colonies.

It was the century of mighty commanders,
culminating in Bonaparte, as all the world
then called " the Corsican Ogre." It is fortunate
so many letters survive to enable us to live again
with those who then told each other their
thoughts during those days, and we can thus
estimate their dangers, and the spirit with which
they encountered them.

To turn to lighter contrasts, it is curious to
see that some of the expressions we suppose
to be modern date back so far. " Jolly," for
instance, is of old use. But we do not now say
" vastly " so often as they did in the eighteenth
century, and " awfully " is almost unknown except
with its real meaning. " Mighty " is another
adjective which was wrongly used by our great-



PREFACE vii

grandparents. The forms of distant and formal
civility were employed between the nearest
relatives, and it might have been possible for a
Duchess of those days in addressing her husband
to make the mistake said lately to have been
made by a hospitable City merchant who was
entertaining a Scottish Duke at the merchant's
newly acquired Northern estate, when the Duke,
to his surprise, was twice asked to partake of
" moorfowl " with the words " Grace, your
Grouse ? ' Much port and claret was drunk,
but little if any liqueurs, so that any eccle-
siastic grown sleepy during a dinner that began
at 4 p.m. would not be under the temptation,
when nearly asleep and hearing the servant
ask him if he would have Chartreuse or Bene-
dictine, of dreaming that the word " Benedictine "
was a call to say grace, and to jump up, as a
modern clergyman did, in the middle of dinner
and call out " Benedictus Benedicat," to the
astonishment of the company, who had long
begun, and meant to be equally long before
finishing, dinner. Domestic comforts were in
some respects wanting, and a Highland laird
invited to a new house in which they had
been provided, replied to the hostess, when
asked if his rooms were comfortable, by saying,
" Yes, Madam, but the washstand is rather
low." People did most of their ablutions
outside the house in summer, and troubled
themselves little about any in winter. In
woods outside the house were cottages with
dressing-rooms where men could warm them-



viii PREFACE

selves after a plunge into cold water in a
submerged tank.

The following letters were all written in the
eighteenth century, or by persons born before
its end.

ARGYLL.

March 1910.



CONTENTS

VOL. I

PAQE

PREFACE v

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY xiii

THE UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND

FOREWORD TO LETTERS FROM JOHN 2ND DUKE OF
ARGYLL, LORD LEVEN, AND MR. COCKBURNE,

LORD JUSTICE CLERK 1

CORRESPONDENCE 5

NOTES 59

DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE JACOBITE WARS IN
1716 AND 1745

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. 63

DOMESTIC DOCUMENTS

HOLYROOD ABBEY ACCOUNTS 78

WRECK WINE 86

INSTRUCTIONS FROM His GRACE THE DUKE OF

ARGYLL TO DONALD CAMPBELL OF AIRDS . . 89

POPULATION OF ARGYLL ESTATES . 95



x CONTENTS

LETTERS FROM ANDREW STUART RELATING TO
THE DOUGLAS CASE

MM

INTRODUCTION 96

CORRESPONDENCE 98



ELIZABETH DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND ARGYLL

INTRODUCTION 122

CORRESPONDENCE 129

LETTERS FROM AUGUSTA DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK
TO DUCHESS OF ARGYLL

INTRODUCTION . . . . . .218
CORRESPONDENCE 242

COUNT VIRY
CORRESPONDENCE 261

LETTERS OF LADY DERBY

INTRODUCTION 267

CORRESPONDENCE 267

LETTERS FROM LADY DALKEITH AND OTHER
PERSONS OF RANK

INTRODUCTION 290

CORRESPONDENCE 290



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VOL. I
THB DUKE OF ARGYLL, K.T. (Photogravure) . .

FACING PAQE
LETTEB PROM MR. COCKBURNE, LORD JUSTICE CLERK . 8

LETTER FROM THE DUKE OF ARGYLL TO QUEEN ANNE . 9

LETTER FROM LORD LEVEN .52

TICKET OF ADMISSION TO THE TRIAL OF WARREN HASTINGS 86
ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND ARGYLL . . 96

After a portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds

HAMILTON PALACE .100

BOTHWELL CASTLE, ON THE DISPUTED DOUGLAS ESTATES . 102

HAMILTON PALACE .112

BOTHWELL CASTLE 116

Another view

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON 122

After a portrait by Oavin Hamilton, about 1753

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL, DAUGHTER OF DUCHESS OF

HAMILTON AND ARGYLL, AS AURORA . . . .124

After Hoppner

FALLS OF THE CLYDE, NEAR HAMILTON PALACE . . . 128
LETTER FROM DUCHESS OF HAMILTON TO QUEEN CHARLOTTE,
ANNOUNCING DECISION OF SCOTS COURT IN FAVOUR OF
HER SON 132

ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND ARGYLL . .142
FALLS OF THE CLYDE, NEAR HAMILTON PALACE . .144
ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF HAMILTON 164

After Reynold*



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAQE

ELIZABETH, DTJOHESS OF HAMILTON AND ARGYLL . .176

After Cotes

SONG : WORDS WRITTEN BY GENERAL WOLFE . .198

LETTER FROM THE DUCHESS OF HAMILTON AND ARGYLL . 210
LETTER FROM THE DUCHESS OF GLOUCESTER
LETTER FROM QUEEN CHARLOTTE TO THE DUCHESS OF

ARGYLL 212

LETTER FROM EDMUND BURKE TO THE DUCHESS OF ARGYLL 214

LETTER FROM LORD ERSKINE .

AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK .

" RICHMOND," A PALACE AT BRUNSWICK, OFTEN USED BY

PRINCESS AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK . . 224
AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK .
AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK .
THE PALACE dF BRUNSWICK
AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF BRUNSWICK .
ELIZABETH, COUNTESS OF DERBY
COUNTESS OF COVENTRY ...

After Gavin Hamilton

LETTER FROM LORD BUTE .... 296

LETTER FROM HENRY DUNDAS .

OLD WORLD Music .

LETTER FROM WILLIAM PITT ...... 326



THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY



OF all the centuries that lie
Beneath us in the dust of Time,

I like the eighteenth, and I try
To paint in thought its fame, and crime.

II

A wondrous rich mosaic seems

Revealed in its last layer of earth :

Then rare Invention bade the dreams
Of bygone ages move to birth;

III

And what had Fancies been, became

The living children of a day,
Bright with all Love's ethereal flame,

Or black with terror and dismay.

IV

Then rose at last the mental might
Of Man to dominate the power

That Nature gives in Light and Heat,
Volcano's blaze, or vernal shower.

V

And Liberty, in Lace, or Rags,
Led her ensanguined columns on ;

When Paris fouled her gorgeous flags,
Raised to the stars by Washington.

VI

Then spread the Press its potent wing,
And Thought was crystallised in storm.



xiv THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

The Marseillaise's chant could wring
From Chaos Order's altered form.

VII

Then Music made the Stage sublime
Where Painters and the Poets met :

When Courtesy half veiled a crime
And manners moved in minuette !

VIII

Then even Insult, neatly phrased,

Made Passion bear some pleasing fruit ;

And ere the flame of battle blazed
Men greeted foes with gay salute.*

IX

A century of Wars and Arts,

Of colour, character, and song,
Out of whose lurid background starts

Ideas that bear our barques along.

X

And from its greatest captains we
May learn to wed the pride of race

To stronger Empire, till we be

Proud of no pride of meaner place ;

XI

And from its drama learn anew

That classic glory had no vice
So great as that which leaves to few

The duty of self-sacrifice.

XII

So while we on its stage disclose

A scene of colour, it may spell,
Through Ladies, Warriors, Belles and Beaux,

" My great grandchildren, fare you well ! "

* At the battle of Fontenoy the French Guards' officers saluted
and called on their enemy to fire first.



Intimate Society Letters of the
Eighteenth Century



Foreword to Letters from John 2nd Duke of

Argyll, Lord Leven, and Mr. Cockburne,

Lord Justice Clerk

THESE letters came from the collection of the
Duke of Leeds, the representative of Lord
Godolphin, Queen Anne's Lord Treasurer and
Prime Minister.

The series includes twenty-one autograph
letters of John second Duke of Argyll, two
addressed to Queen Anne when he was her
High Commissioner to the Scots Parliament in
1705, and the others (excepting two dated in
1706) written to Lord Godolphin in 1705, and
containing his confidential opinion and advice
as to the course of business, and giving his
views of the character of the persons engaged
in affairs of state at Edinburgh.

It will be remembered that the writer was
given the English dukedom of Greenwich, and
the borough of Greenwich still carries his coat-
of-arms. He was the great-grandson of the
Marquis of Argyll executed in the reign of
Charles II. for having entertained Cromwell at

VOL. i. 1



Edinburgh. He was the grandson of the Earl of
Argyll whose invasion of Scotland in 1685, in
concert with Monmouth's invasion of the west
of England, had the like unfortunate ending,
both leaders having been deceived as to the
amount of support they would receive in oppo-
sition to the Government of James II. The
Duke was also grandson of the Duchess of
Lauderdale, whose family name was Murray,
and who was Countess of Dysart in her own
right. He was born at that beautiful Ham
House near Richmond, and one of his residences
was Sudbrook on the river, where his arms may
still be seen in the central hall of the building,
now the headquarters of a golf club.

He succeeded to the dukedom of Argyll on the
28th September 1703. His father had been chosen
to place the Scottish crown on King William's
head at Whitehall. Throughout his great
career he worked for the union of the two
kingdoms and the Protestant succession to the
throne the cause, as he believed, of civil and
religious freedom. In April 1705 he was ap-
pointed the Lord Commissioner to the Parlia-
ment of Scotland for the promotion of the
Union. It was at this time that nearly all these
letters were written. He carried successfully
the Act empowering the Queen to name Com-
missioners from Scotland for the purpose of
negotiating a Treaty with the English statesmen
appointed for the same purpose. On his return
from Scotland he was received with much honour
in London, and made an English Earl.

The Edinburgh mob was against him. The
old nobles of Scotland were against him. The
action of the Government in London itself did
not help the Union cause. But he persevered,



UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 3

advising this and that concession, and pointing
out the manner in which important men might
be influenced to throw their weight against the
ancient separatism and enmity and warfare.

The very curious incident which put an
end to the conferences of that year, and post-
poned the fruition of the hopes of Union, is
alluded to in the letters. This untoward
accident was due to the idea that an English
vessel which anchored in Leith Roads was the
same vessel that had been guilty of acts of
piracy against a Scottish ship in the Southern
Seas. It was very unlikely that any captain
knowing himself to be guilty of attacking a
Scottish vessel should place himself in the power
of the people he had injured. But when some
amateur police seized the officers of the English
vessel, and charged them with high-sea piracy,
the captain confessed to some such act, though
it is very improbable that it was the one of which
he was accused. The Government of Queen
Anne in London heard of the seizure of the ship,
and fearing what afterwards happened, that the
feelings of Scots and English would be irritated
afresh by a trial, sent down commands to free
the captain. It was too late. He had been
quickly tried, condemned, and hanged. The
negotiations were broken off, and it was only
two years after the date of the writing of these
letters that the Duke of Hamilton was able to
bring the completed Treaty of Union for the
Queen's signature as she sat on the terrace in
front of the Orangery at Kensington Palace
in 1707.

In 1706 the Duke made the campaign against
the French with Marlborough and fought at
Ramillies, and later, in 1708, led a division at



4 INTIMATE SOCIETY LETTERS

Oudenarde and Malplaquet, where at the head
of the Buffs he carried and held the wood the
capture of which virtually decided the battle
in favour of the allies.

In 1707 he was present in the Scots Union
Parliament, and was the most trusted leader of
the Presbyterians in Scotland. He was one of
the best of the Whig orators at Westminster.
When Queen Anne was dying it was owing to
his entry into the council room at Kensington,
and to his prompt action in bringing up troops,
that the Protestant succession was assured.
He had not been summoned, and the Council
desired to proclaim Queen Anne's brother, but
by moving that the assembly should include all
members of the Privy Council the design was
frustrated.

On the breaking out of Mar's rebellion in 1715,
Argyll was made Commander-in-Chief in Scot-
land, and led in person at Sheriffmuir, scattering
the left wing of the Stuart forces, which in number
greatly exceeded his own. When he had chased
them past Dunblane, he found that the Dragoons
on his own left had given way before the Clans,
and he faced round, intending again to attack
the hills on which the Highland host had partly
rallied. The darkness made him wait till morn-
ing, when he found the rebels had fled, abandon-
ing guns and colours. After the war he and
his brother Lord Islay had paramount influence
in Scotland, and greatly contributed to the
course of policy in England, being chiefly instru-
mental in driving Walpole from power in 1742.

He died in 1743, and was buried in West-
minster Abbey, where his monument by Rou-
billac in the southern transept is so well known.

A strong Jacobite and political opponent of



UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 5

the Duke says of him : " His word was so sacred
that one might assuredly depend upon it. His
head ran more upon the camp than the court.
He was endowed with that cheerful and lively
temper and personal valour esteemed and neces-
sary in the army. In Scotland he gained the
leading of the Presbyterians, as his father had
done before him."

Lord Leven. There are letters from this Earl
to Godolphin in this collection, and one to
another Minister in England, probably Harley.
Leven was one of Godolphin's most trusted
Scots statesmen. He was the third bearer of the
title and was the second Earl of Melville. He
was born in 1660 and died in 1728. He was a
second son, and succeeded to the Melville title
in 1707. He was a Presbyterian Whig of the
purest blood. His father had fled to Holland
before the revolution, and had become a con-
fidant of William of Orange. On the revo-
lution taking place in Britain, Lord Leven was
made colonel of a regiment at the head of which
he distinguished himself at the fight of Killie-
crankie, by maintaining his ground in the face
of the furious attack of the Highlanders which
swept off the field all the other regiments of
Mackay except one. His courage on that day
was warmly praised by Mackay in his letters.

Mr. Cockburne to Lord Godolphin.

EDINBURGH,

1th April, 1705.
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR LORDSHIP,

Not to impute my silence to any want
of respect for your Lordship or that due regard
I ought to have for her Majesty's service.



6 INTIMATE SOCIETY LETTERS

Upon my arrival in this place I took occa-
sion to discourse [with] several members of
parliament, and found them not so positive for
a previous treaty with England before the
succession should be settled, providing there
were conditions granted as was insinuat last
year there would have been, and they seemed
apprehensive they had then neglected an op-
portunity might not offer again. While this
opinion appeared with not a few, a rumour
came abroad that the Duke of Hamilton
was immediately to be employed in the post
of greatest trust under her Majesty; this
being grounded upon letters from your Lord-
ship to the Lord Bielhaven, seemed to leave
no place to doubt the truth of it. How far
that Lord was allowed to make public your
Lordship's letters I'm not to enquire, only
your Lordship must know it put men under
an unresolvedness what measures to take-
especially several of those had joined with his
grace last year.

Things standing thus, we had advice of her
Majesty's having named the Duke of Argyll
Commissioner to the parliament, and that
the Earl of Seafield, now Chancellor, and the
Earl of Roxburgh were to be in Scotland as
soon as possible ; when they came everybody
was desirous to understand the measures.
I learnt none, but that they expected the
Commissioner would quickly follow them,
and then matters would be concerted ; upon
which I went to the country for some days,
and at my return I understood there \vas a
great flame raised against the Duke of
Argyll : the occasion for it was taken from
a letter he wrote to the Chancellor by her



UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 7

Majesty's order about a reprieve to Captain
Green * and his crew. However this letter
might be written not altogether agreeable to
our form, yet I cannot think so great occasion
needed be taken to expose his grace in an
affair so popular as this is, as altogether tends
to ruin his interest, especially while he stood
under the character of her Majesty's Commis-
sioner ; and ever anything looked like an
escape in form, would have been overlooked,
was it not that those got the management of
affairs the beginning of winter, easily hearken
to informations, as that the Duke of Argyll
will not be satisfied, till he has a thorough
change in the Ministry. Of this they are ac-
quainted by one was sent down last summer
by her Majesty and is now at London still in
possession of a good post of this kingdom ;
his advices do not tend to beget a good under-
standing : 'tis to be regretted that those had
the management last year, and neither then
could nor yet can by their own interest do the
business, should not show more willingness to
join in the measures with those are ready and
can be helpful to carry on business if allowed
a share in the management, to show that the
Queen trusts them. Your Lordship knows the
Duke of Argyll's humour and disposition ;
his warmness has not wanted incitement from
opposition a grant her Majesty gave him met
with in the Thesaurie laitly, which makes it
no wonder he desire to have more interest at
that board.

I have here troubled your Lordship with

* Captain Green was the captain of the English vessel accused
of piracy, for which he was hanged, in spite of the remonstrances
of Queen Anne's Government.



8 INTIMATE SOCIETY LETTERS

too long a letter considering it gives no pleasing
view of our affairs. But if it can any waves be
helpful to direct your Lordship how to look
into matters, in order to your giving some
seasonable advice to prevent our ruining our-
selves, I will expect your Lordship's pardon,
and if this freedom I take in writing be dis-
allowed by your Lordship be pleased by an
early check to put a stop to it ; only allow me
to beg your Lordship will believe I retaine a
graitfull sense of your Lordship's favour, and
wherein I can be useful for her Majesty's service
there shall nothing be wanting lyes in the power
of him who is with all respect, My Lord,
Your Lordship's most humble and
most obliged servant,

A. COCKBURNE.



The Duke of Argyll to Queen Anne.

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,

I send your Majesty enclosed the copy of
all the papers delivered me in presence of some
of your Majesty's servants, by one McDaniell,
an Irishman, perfectly unknown to every-
body here, who pretended to make a dis-
covery. We all thought it our duty since
such papers were delivered to us, that they
should be laid before your Majesty, though
indeed we are all of opinion that it is highly
probable that this fellow is a rogue and im-
postor, who has contrived this story out of
hopes of getting a reward. The great number
of considerable noblemen and gentlemen of
good reputation he accuses, the simplicity of
the ciphered letters, his letter wherein he talks
so much of a reward, Steward who he mentions




LETTER FROM MR. COCKBURNE^ LORD JUSTICE CLERK



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LETTER FROM THE DUKE OF ARGYLL TO QUEEN ANNE



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UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 9

in his papers not coming as he positively asserted
he would before last night, and lastly his not
appearing these two days, are all arguments
against there being credit given to what he
says. We humbly think it absolutely necessary
for your Majesty's service that your Majesty
would be pleased not to let the names of those
he pretends to accuse be known unless there
should appear much stronger reasons to believe
what he says than do at present.

May it please your Majesty, I am just now
informed that this McDaniell is run away, so
those of your Majesty's servants who are now
present believe it is all a cheat.

I am, your Majesty's
Most dutiful and most obedient humble
Subject and Servant,

ARGYLL.

To THE QUEEN.

May 2, 1705.

The Duke of Argyll to Lord Godolphin.
MY LORD,

I have obeyed the Queen's commands
in consulting with such of her Majesty's servants
whom I could trust about her affairs in this
Kingdom, and I find them perfectly of the
opinion I always entertained that the Govern-
ment would never recover its strength, but be
ever feeble so long as it was not of a piece. I
consulted in particular with the Marquess of
Annandell, ye Earle of Leaven, ye Earle of
Glascow, and the Register : we considered the
matter very deliberately and argued the diffi-
culties on all sides with the calmness requisite
in affairs of this nature and consequence, and I
think I may venture to be positive all incon-



10 INTIMATE SOCIETY LETTERS

veniences were made appear that can possibly
happen ; at last we unanimously agreed that it
was impossible the Queen's Service could be
carried on by any other method than by her
Majesty being pleased to lay aside the new
Party as they are pleased to call themselves,
consisting of half a dozen, and put their places
in the hands of such as have always been firm
to a Revolution and who have ten times the
interest and fifty times the inclination to serve
her Majesty.

Some few of the many reasons that were
given for this method are these, that those
gentlemen took all pains imaginable to dis-
appoint the Queen's measures the last session
of Parliament, and indeed contributed more
towards it than even the opposing party, as an
unfaithful friend is much abler to undo a man
than an open professed enemy ; some instances
of this I had the honour to lay before your
Lordship, such as their underhand promoting
the Barons Act ; and the Act for free voting in
Parliament, perhaps the worst service that ever


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