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der without rain ; the remainder of the month clear and cool.

April. — No rain during this month ; the weather fine, dear,
and warm.



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208


COOK8LAND.






May 1846,


3 days rain.


3 days showery.


June,


2


f*


1


'
"


July,





»


2




August,





»


3


99


September,





»


4


99


October,





9J


4


99


November,


4





2




December,


5





6




January 1846, .


1


99


2


91


February,





99


5


99


March,


. 2


»





99


April,



17


99




32
17

49


99








John Kinchbli.



Tblunon, Logan Riybr, 2Zd May 1846.



To these valuable documents, I would add the fol-
lowing abstract of a Meteorological Journal kept on the
Upper Brisbane, exhibiting a comparative view of the
weather in that part of the territory for the months of
February, March, and April, during the years 1844,
1845, and 1846, extracted from the Sydney Herald: —

Meteorological Report for the Upper Brisbane District, More-
ton Bay, for the Month ofF^trnM/ry, (corresponding to July
in Europe,) of the years 1844, 1846, and 1846.

February, 1844.

ThermoTneter.

Mean daily temperature for the month, 72®, 16 Fahrenheit.

Wind.
Direction. Direction.

N. . . . ] days S. ... 4 days

N.E. . . . 6 „ S.W. . . . 2 „

E. ... 5 „ W. . . . „

S.E. . . . 11 99 N.W. . . . „

Force — Calm . . 6 days.
Moderate . 19 99
Strong breeze 5 „

Weather,
Sun shone out 7 days ; rain fell 18 days ; thunder 7 days.



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NATURE AND SAHJBRITY OF THE CLIMATE. 209



February, 1845.






Thermometer.






Mean daily temperature for the month 70<>, 6, Fahrenheit.
Wind,
Direction. Direction.
N. . . . 1 days S. ... 3 days
N.E. . . 2 „ S.W. . . . 2 „
E. ... 4 „ W. . . . 3 ^
S.E. . . . 9 „ N.W. . . . 4 „


Force — ^Calm

Moderate


. 13 days.
. 12 „







Strong breeze 3 „

Weather.
Sun shone out 27 days ; rain fell 1 1 days ; thunder 7 days.



February, 1846.

Thermometer,

Mean daily temperature for the month 83^, 1 3 Fahrenheit

Wind.

Direction. Direction.



S. ... /2day8

&W. . . . „

W. . . . 1 „

N.W. . . . 1 „



N. ... 5 days

N.E. ... 5

E. ... 9

S.E. ... 5

Force — Calm . . 5 days.
Moderate . 15 „

Strong breeze 8 „

Weather.
Sun shone out 25 days ; rain fell 9 days ; thunder 6 days.



Upper Brishaihe River Meteorological Report for the Months
of March, 1844, 1845, 1846.
March, 1844.
Thermometer.
Mean daily temperature for the month, 73-29 degrees.

Wind.
Direction. _ Direction.



S. ... 4 days

S^W. . . . 7 „

W. . . . ^



N. . . . 2 days

N.E. . 13 „

E. . . . I „

S.E. . . 4 „ ' N.W. . . .0

Force — Calm . . 5 days
Moderate . 17 „

Strong breeze 9 „

Weather.
Sun shone out 31 days ; rain fell 9 days ; thunder 5 days.
O



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210 COOKSLAND.



March,


1845. J


Therimmeter.


Mean daily temperature for the month 75*29 degrees.


Wind,


Direction. Direction.


N. . . . 3 days


S. ... 2 days


N.E. . . . 3 „


S.W. . . . „


E. ... 5 „


W. . . . 2 „


S.E. . . . 12 „


N.W. . . . 4 ^



Force — Calm . . 4 days.
Moderate . 20 ^
Strong breeze 7 „

Weather.
San shone out 30 days ; rain fell 10 days ; thunder 4 daya



March, 1846^.

Thermometer,

Mean daily temperature for the month 8 1*5 degrees.

Wind.
Direction. Direction.



S. ... 6 days

S.W. -, . . 1 „

W. . . . 2 „

N.W. . . . 2 ,,



N. ... 5 days

N.E. ... 7

E. ... 3

S.E. . . .5

Force — Calm . . 1 days.

Moderate . 23 „

Strong breeze 7 «

Weather.
Sun shone out 31 days ; rain fell 6 days ; thunder 1 1 days.



Upper Brisbcme River Meteorological Report for the Months

of April 1844, 1845, 1846.

April, 1844.

Thermometer,

Mean daily temperature for the month, 68*12 degrees.

Wind,
Direction. Direction.



S. ... 4 days

S.W. . . . 2 „

W. . . . 3 „

N.W. . . 8 „



N. ... days

N.E. ... 4

E. ...

S.E. ... 9

Force — Calm . . 3 days.
Moderate . 21 „
Strong breeze 6 „

Weather.
Sun shone out 27 days ; rain fell 12 days ; thunder 3 days.



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NATURE AND SALrBRTTY OF THE CLIMATE. 211



April,


1845.




Thermoineter,




Mean daily temperature for the month 71*8 degrees.


Wind,




Direction. Direction.




N. . . . 1 days S. ...


2 days


N.E. . . . 3 „ S.W.


I „


E. . . . 2 „ W. . . .


4 „


aE. ... 13 „ -N.W.


4 „


Force — Calm . . 5 days.




Moderate , 23 „




Strong breeze 2 „




Weather.




Sun shone out 27 days ; rain fell 9 days ; thunder 5


days.


April, 1846.




Thermometer,




Mean daily temperatm*e for the month 74*3 degrees.


Wind,




Direction. Direction.




N. ... 2 days


S. . . .


4 days


N.E. . . „


S.W.


6 „


E. ... 11 „


W. . . .


2 „


S.E. . . . 3 „ N.W.


2 „


Force — Calm . 1 days.




Moderate . 21 „




Strong breeze


8 n





Weather.
Sun shone out 30 days ; rain feU 3 days ; thunder 3 days.

From these documents it will be evident to the rea-
der, that the temperature at Moreton Bay, even in the
heat of summer, is comparatively moderate — that the
rains are regular and abundant, and that the climate
is remarkably equable, and by no means unfavourable
to a European constitution. It is a remarkable cir-
cumstance in the meteorology of this part of the coast
as compared with that of New South Wales, that while
the sea-breeze is much more regular at Moreton Bay
than in Sydney, the hot north-west winds, which are so
oppressive in Sydney, and occasionally fatal to vege-
tation, are not experienced at Moreton Bay ; the re-
gion in which they* originate — in all probability the de-
sert in the interior recently discovered by Captain

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



212 COOKSLAND.

Sturt — being too far to the westward for a northerly
wind passing over it to reach that part of the coast.
In confirmation of this opinion, a respectable Squatter
on the Darling Down?, where the winds are always
either easterly or westerly, has informed me that they
do occasionally experience a hot wind in that part of
the district, and that such winds are uniformly from
the west.

But the grand distinguishing feature in the meteo-
rology of the entire east coast of Australia, is the re-
markable dryness of the atmosphere, and the absence
of that entire class of diseases originating principally
in the malaria generated by stagnant water — agues, in-
termittent fevers, yellow fever, &c., &c. — that are so
prevalent and so fatal in the Southern and Western
States of America. In the neighbourhood of an ex-
tensive swamp of 50,000 acres on the MacLeay Eiver,
in New South Wales, and at Eagle Farm, a IcTw
swampy tract of country towards the mouth of the
Brisbane River, slight attacks of fever and ague, but
in no case of a fatal character, have been experienced ;
but these are only remarkable exceptions, the occur-
rence of which rather confirms the general rule I have
stated, than militates against it. If there were any
doubts on the subject, however, the following letter
from Dr. Ballow, the Colonial Surgeon at Brisbane,
with the accompanjdng report of the Hospital practice
in that locality, will surely be sufficient to set them at
rest : —

To the Rev. Dr. Lang, M.C. Sydney.

Brisbane, Moreton Bay, Dec, 17, 1845.

Mt Dear Sir, — In compliance with your request, I proceed
to give you some information, touching the medical statistics of
this highly-salubrious and promising portion of the colony of
New South Wales.

I have sent herewith a statement showing the number of cases
treated annually in Her Majesty's General Hospital at this
Station, during the la«t seven years.

The column headed « free persons" comprises individuals pay-
ing at the rate of 3s. per diem for their treatment, as well as
free persons in tlie service of Government. J



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NATURE AND SALUBRITY OP THE CLIMATE. 213

The District of Moreton Bay is, altogether, an extremely
healthy one, very few deaths occurring from disease of any kind.

Intermittent fever prevails at times in certain localities, more
particularly in the neighbourhood of swampy grounds, and in
situations where there is no free cuiTent of air to drive off
the miasmata arising from the decaying vegetable matter.

This malady occurs at times only, chiefly after long-continued
rains, and in most cases is mild in its attacks, soon yields to
treatment, leaves no permanent bad effects, and has never to my
knowledge been fatal.

Rheumatic affections are probably more frequent than any
other form of disease ; but these also, at least in my experience,
soon give way under a use of remedies, and subsequent attacks
may be guarded against by a moderate degree of precaution.

Diseases of the liver, and of the stomach and bowels are, I
think, considering the latitude (27® 30') by no means frequent ;
and in those cases where the first named viscus is affected, there
is generally merely functional derangement, organic disease being
rarely met with.

Women generally get over their confinements easily, puerperal
or childbed fever being seldom known. Indeed, I recollect but
one case only, during my eight years' practice here, and in that
one the woman had been ailing for some time previous to delivery.

Children thrive well, and all the ailments and diseases incident
to infancy and childhood are mild in their attacks and soon got
over.

Any diseases we have at all generally occur in the spring and
autumn, as at these seasons the nights and mornings are cold and
the middle of the days hot, the thermometer averaging about 50
in the morning and about 80 at noon.

The climate here during what is called the winter season is,
perhaps, about one of the finest in the world, the middle part of
the day being just pleasantly warm, and the evening cold enough
to enable us to have a fire.

I think the best character I can give the District is to say of
it, that it is by no means a profitable field for practitioners of
medicine.

I shall now conclude by wishing you a speedy and pleasant
passage to Old England, and that your arduous and highly im-
portant mission may be crowned with success ; and believe me.
My Dear Sib,

Yours very truly,

D. Keith Ballow.



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NATUKE AND SALUBRITT OF THE CLIMATE. 215

To this testimony of a witness so highly competent
and so unexceptionable, in regard to the remarkable
salubrity of the climate of Cooksland, I would subjoin
that of another professional gentleman in that district
The following, therefore, is an extract of a letter from
which I shall have occasion to quote more at large in
the sequel, on the subject of the capabilities of More-
ton Bay as a field for emigration, and with which I
was favoured by William Dorsey, Esq., a medical prac-
titioner at Ipswich, whose brother is well known in the
literary world as the head of an Educational Establish-
ment of high character in the city of Glasgow : —

Ipswich, February 26, 1846.

My Dbar Sib,.— You are pleased to Ask ray opinion as to the
tslimate of this District and its fitness for European labour. No
doubt it is hot ; but although the temperature is high, as indi-
cated by the thermometer, still it has not the depressing effect
of the same degree of heat in other parts of the world. The
men work all day in the sun, and the average of health is the
same as in other parts of the colony.

We have few diseases that are not as common at home, and
we are exempt from many that are frequent there. On our first
settlement, many cases of ague occurred, but noUe proved fatal ;
and I have not seen a case for a period of nearly three years.

Women and children are subject to few diseases ; parturition
is easy, and rarely requires assistance ; indeed, my practice is
in most cases confined to disease brought on by intemperance or
caused by accident. I do not apprehend that the duration of life
will be longer here than the ** threescore years and ten ;" but, as
far as climate is concerned, we have nothing to dread. In short,
It is almost too healthy for the Doctors.

Ejiowing well the great importance that would ne-
cessarily be attached in Europe to the question of cli-
mate in reference to the capabilities for European emi-
gration, of a country lying between the 30th parallel
of South latitude and the Tropic of Capricorn, I ad-
dressed the following letter on the subject to my es-
teemed friend and brother, the Rev. Carl Wilhelm
Schmidt, of the German IVIission to the Aborigines at
Moreton Bay, who had himself had seven years* expe-
rience of the climate, and to that letter I had the plea-
sure of receiving the subjoined reply :—



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216 COOKSLAND.

To the Rev. Carl Wilhelm Schmidt, &c., Ac.

Sydney, 29th Dec,, 1845.
Rev. and Dear Sir, — As you have had seven years' experi-
ence of the climate of Moreton Bay, I should feel obliged by
your giving me your opinion in writing as to the genend salu-
brity of the District, and also as to uie ability of a European
constitution to stand such out-of-door labour as might be neces-
sary in carrying on agricultural operations of any kind in that
climate ; the nature and peculiarities of which must, you are
well aware, be quite unknown to our respective fellow-country-
men at home.

I am, Rev. Dear Sir,

Your friend and brother,

John Dunmorb Lano.

To the Rev. Dr. Lano, M.C.

Sydney, ZXst Dec, 1845.

Rev. and Dear Dr. — In reply to your kind letter of the 29th
instant, I beg leave to state that my residence at Moreton Bay
during seven years has afforded me ample opportunity to become
acquainted with the nature of the climate of that District

Without fear of contradiction, I give you, therefore, my
opinion, that there can scarcely be any other climate in the
world superior to that of Moreton Bay. The summer b hot, it
is true, but the heat is greatly modified by fine sea-breezes.
The excellency of the climate may be shown by the very circum-
stance, that it is neither subject to sudden changes nor to hot
winds. This steadiness of the climate enables even Europeans
to be engaged in every agricultural operation, without endaiiger-
ing their health. I, for my own part, have been working with
my own hands, both winter and summer, and generally all day
long, although I was not accustomed to manual labour from my
youth, and I never enjoyed better health in my life.

There is another fact which may support my opinion. Our
Missionary Establishment consisted, as you are aware, of 1 9 in-
dividuals, of whom only one was removed to the heavenly man-
sions by a malignant tumour in the cheek ; but not a single death
has occurred as yet amongst the 25 children that were bom at
our station.

The winter doubtless is the finest season ; it resembles more
the summer of Europe. The nights are sometimes rather cold,
and even ice is seen here and there, but only a few tender plants
suffer from the effects of the cold. Vegetation in general is not
impaired ; in fact, of the seven winters during which I lived at
Moreton Bay, there passed three which were so mild that even
not a leaf of the tenderest plant was nipped.

In such a climate, of course, as may be expected, not only



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NATURE AND SALUBRITY OF THE CLIMATE. 217

almost every species of European vegetables is growing most
luxuriantly, but also all the tropical plants.

I have the honour to be,

Rev. and Dear Dr.,

Your most obedient an^ humble servant,

C. W. E. SCHIMDT.

In regard to the ability of Europeans generally to
stand field-labour of any kind with impunity in the
climate of Moreton Bay, I was enabled, from having
visited the district in the months of November and
December, the hottest season of the year, to form a
pretty correct judgment on the subject from my own
feelings and observation. At that season, therefore, I
found European carpenters, bricklayers, and other
handicraftsmen, whose occupations required them to
be much in the sun, pursuing their accustomed labours
just as they do in Sydney. On conversing with some
of them who had been for years in the Southern Settle-
ments of the Colony, they told me they knew no diffe-
rence in the climate, as far as their ability to pursue
their usual occupations was concerned, from that of
Sydney and Hunter's River; while others admitted
that they felt it rather hot at first, but they soon got
used to it, and the heat did them no harm. Captain
Griffin's sons were regularly at the plough, whenever
the weather, which was then very much broken from
the commencement of the rains, permitted them, in the
middle of December, and they told me that they could
work as freely, and with quite as little risk in the open
air at their Station in latitude 27°, as they could in
any other part of the Colony. It is customary, how-
ever, for persons labouring in the field in the heat of
summer to " knock off," as it is termed, or to intermit
their labour at noon, and to recommence at four, p.m.
In short, there is no difficulty in the way of the intro-
duction and employment of European free-labour in
any part of the territory of Cooksland, arising from the
heat of the Climate. Europeans arriving in the hot



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218 COOKSLAND.

season will, doubtless, find their system somewhat re-
laxed at first, and be tempted to give way to lassitude ;
but the human body soon becomes accustomed to any
degree of temperature that can be borne without inju-
rious efi*ects. At all events, there are eight months in
the year delightfully cool and pleasant, and by appro-
priating to out-of-door-labour the early portion, and
the close of the day during the four hot months, as
is done universally in the South of Europe, any un-
pleasantness arising from the excessive heat of the cli-
mate, during the four months of a semi-tropical Aus-
tralian summer, may easily be obviated.



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CHAPTER Vni.



PECULIAR ADAPTATION OP THE TERRITORY OP COOKSLAMD FOR
IMMEDIATE AMD EXTENSIVE COLONIZATION.



Tot& regione potitas . . . multitudinein, qiuim secum
duxerat, in agris collocayit Corn. Nbp. Milt. II.

Having seized the whole of the Crimea, Governor Miltiades
settled the large body of emigrants, whom he had carried out
with him from Athens, on the Waste Lands.



The title of this Chapter suggests the inference
which, it appears to me, we are fullj waiTanted to
draw from the facts and statements contained in the
previous Chapters of this Work. Indeed, I question
whether there has ever been any portion of the vast
Colonial Empire of Great Britain so admirably adapt-
ed for immediate and extensive colonization — bs well
from its soil and climate, and from the extent and va-
riety of its productions, as from the facilities it affords
for' an extensive internal communication by means of
steam-liavigation — as the territory of Cooksland. With
a steam-vessel plying daily, perhaps, between the fu-
ture commercial capital of the Territory, and each of the
navigable rivers that empty themselves along the whole
line of coast, how very different would be the situation
of an industrious family of free immigrants, possessed
of a moderate extent of land on one of these rivers,
from that of almost any settler of the same class in
society and possessing the same extent of land in any



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220 COOKSLAND.

of the British Provinces of North America ? Suppos-
ing, for example, that the emigrant were settled near the
head of the navigation of the Clarence River, the far-
thest southward from the capital, the steamboat would
leave his immediate vicinity for the latter early in the
morning, and without employing an agent, he would
embark himself with his parcel of wheat, maize, or
barley ; his sweet potatoes, pine apples, or bananas ;
his fatted pigs or poultry ; his honey and bees'-wax,
or his raw-silk and cotton, or perhaps with his pine or
cedar boards and shingles, for the first market in the
Colony. Stopping at the principal localities on the
beautiful stream, to take in passengers and cargo, the
steamboat would reach the mouth of the river some-
time in the afternoon, and performing the ocean part of
the voyage during the night, she would reach Toorbal
Point early on the following morning. The settler would
thus have the whole day before him to dispose of his
produce in the chief town of the Territory, and to pro-
cure his supplies ; and having transacted his business,
he would be ready to embark again on his return, pro-
bably at six or eight in the evening, to enable the
steamer to perform the ocean part of the voyage dur-
ing the night, and to reach the mouth of the Clarence
at break of day. The sail up the river would only oc-
cupy from five to eight hours longer, according to the
number of stopping-places on the banks, and the settler
would thus return to the bosom of his family in the
course of the third day from his departure, with all his
produce sold, and all his farm-supplies along with him,
while the whole expense to and fro would be a mere
trifle.

This is by no means an imaginary picture, but one
that has already been realized in the Colony of New
South Wales, wherever the benefits and blessings of
steam-navigation are available in that colony. My
brother, Mr Andrew Lang, J.P., of Dunmore, Hun-
ter's River, is settled about forty miles from the mouth
of the River Hunter, which disembogues at Newcastle,
about seventy miles to the northward of Sydney; and



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ADAPTATION FOR COLONIZATION. 221

about fifteen or twenty years ago, when I had occasion
to visit that part of the country, it took me regularly
three days' hard riding over a rugged mountainous
country to reach his place overland, the distance being
upwards of 110 miles ; and on that journey I have re-
peatedly been out two nights by the way, sleeping on
the grass, wrapped up in a boat-cloak, by a fire we had
kindled in the open forest. And when I contrived to
go by water, the weekly sailing-packet, which would
frequently occupy several days on the voyage, going*
only to the mouth of the river, I had to be rowed up
or down by two boatmen the rest of the way, bivouack-
ing generally for a few hours on the banks during the
night, till the tide turned. In either case the delay,
fatigue, and annoyances of the journey were great, and
the expense serious. Now, however, there are four
steamboats plying regularly on this c<)urse, making two
voyages each, to and fro, every week; and as they start
from Sydney at 10 p.m., when the business of the day
is over, to perform the ocean part of the voyage duiing
the night, and to ascend the river in the morning, I
reach my brother s place, three miles from the head of
the navigation of the river, before noon next day;
while the whole expense of the trip is a mere trifle.
The only interruption to this species of navigation is
during the prevalence of a strong southerly or south-
easterly gale, for at such times the steamboat bound to
Sydney must remain at the mouth of the Hunter till
the gale abates. This interruption, however, would be
less felt along the coast of Cooksland ; for in conse-
quence of the superior mildness of the climate, the
southerly gales are both less frequent and less violent
there than Ihey are to the southward.

Settlers located on any of the rivers within the Bay,
— the Kumera-Kumera, the Logan, the Brisbane and
its tributaries, the Pine River, and the Cabulture River,
— would all be still more favourably situated for frequent
and rapid intercourse with the capital than those on
the Clarence, the Richmond, and the Tweed; as steam



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222 C00KSLAN1>.

communication with any of these rivers would never
be interrupted by any winds that blow in the Pacific.

I have already observed that Normanby Plains — a
tract of 50,000 acres of land of the first quality for cul-
tivation — are only eighteen miles, along a level coun-
try admirably adapted for a wooden railway, from the
head of the navigation of the Brisbane and the Bre-
mer, at Ipswich ; and the Darling Downs — a splendid



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