John Dunmore Lang.

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twenty-one pounds odd, and Mr. Mackenzie twenty-five pounds
odd.

7. Was that a considerable advance upon the previous rate of
wages 1 No, for the district has always been in want of labour,
and wages have risen since that ; the reason that my brother
paid the lowest wages was, that I had engaged a portion of his
men in Sydney.

8. Do you anticipate any advance in the rate of wages ? Yes,
decidedly; Mr. Balfour states in a letter to me that there is
scarcely a station in the district which is not from tliree to four
men short-handed.

9. Do you think the increase in the rate of wages is likely to
be considerable I So much so that we are now giving free pas-
sages to labourers from Sydney to Moreton Bay (one hundred
and twenty having been already sent), to be repaid by the set-
tlers, by a voluntary impost upon the stock, to meet the present
demand for labour.

1 0. By Captain Dumaresq — Is wheat grown at Moreton Bay ?
In some parts ; the only navigable part of the River Brisbane
upon which, to my knowledge, it has been tried, is at Limestone
Government sheep station, and I have never heard of a failure
of crops.

11. By the Chairman — What do you think of the country as
an eligible field for small farmers I I think it is more likely to
yield a certain return to the agriculturist than any other part of
the Colony ; but it is to be remembered that I am only acquaint-
ed intimately with the Hunter's River district as far as Patrick's
Plains.

12. Do you think a small farmer coming from England, with
say two hundred or three hundred pounds, and settling upon a
farm of one hundred and fifty or two hundred acres, which he
might cultivate with the assistance of his children, would have a
good prospect of success in that part of the Colony i AU would
depend upon the price of land, the distance from market, and the
convenience of water carriage.

1 3. Assuming that he settled on the alluvial fiats of the Bris-
bane I I have no doubt he would make it pay.



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254 COOKSLAND.

14. Do you think he ought to give one pound an acre for the
land 1 That of course would depend upon whether the land was
thickly timbered or not ; also upon the distance from water car-
riage ; if he had to be at the expense of clearing a dense scrub,
or incurring a heavy land-carriage, he could not afford to pay
that price.

19. By Dr. Lang — Do you think Moreton Bay would be a
favourable field for the production of those articles that are
raised in warmer climates, as the vine, the olive, and other pro-
ductions of the South of Europe ? Very favourable ; the vine,
pine apples, and bananas thrive in that district.



Thursday, 4th Skptkmber 1845.

Present.

Chai'les Nicholson, Esq., M.D., in the chair.

The Auditor-General. I Rev. Dr. Lang.

Charles CJowper, Esq. J Robert Lowe, Esq.

Rev. William Schmidt, called in and examined : —

1 . You are a native of Prussia, I believe % I am, of Pome-
rania, in Prussia.

2. And are you now engaged in the mission at Moreton Bay 1
I am.

3. You have been in this Colony some years, I believe 1 I
have, nearly eight years.

4. What do you think of the Colony generally, as a field for
immigration I I think it a most eligible field.

5. Your experience is chiefly restricted to Moreton Bay I Yes ;
but I have been over other parti^of the Colony.

6. Do you think immigrants might be introduced from Ger-
many, with advantage to themselves and to the Colony I It
would not be at all difficult to induce them to come to this part
of the world.

7. What class of immigrants might we obtain from that part
of Europe 1 Paii;icularly agriculturists and artizans.

8. From what parts of Germany I Both from the southern
and northern parts.

9. Of course, you are aware, that there are large immigrations
from Germany to the United States I I am aware there are.

10. Those Germans who emigrate to the United States of Ame-
rica supply the funds for their passage 1 They do ; the emi-
gration to America has arisen partly from religious persecution,
and that was also the case, with respect to those who emigrated
to South Australia. The emigrants to the United States, and to
South Australia, were principally from the provinces of Saxony,
Silesia, and Pomerania, in Prussia.

1 1 . Of what religion are they 1 Lutherans.

12. Do you conceive that the hope of improved circumstances



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ADAPTATION FOR COLONIZATION. 255

generally would be a sufficient inducement for persons to immi-
grate to this Colony ? I have not the least doubt of it, particu-
larly since very favourable intelligence has arrived from South
Australia.

' 13. Were you never out of the Prussian dominions till you
came to this Colony ? No.

14. What means would you suggest to the Committee, for the
introduction of your countrymen into this Colony ! I think if a
considerable sum were remitted, at any rate the amount of the
passage-money, in the purchase of land, that would be a suffi-
cient inducement.

15. You think they could pay their own passages ? The great-
er number, especially if the persecution in the Church should
continue ; if that should be discontinued a change would pro-
bably take place, and those who are able to pay their passages
might not be inclined to come.

16. By Dr. Lang : Are you aware what is the annual emi-
gration to the United States, from Germany ? I should think
about thirty thousand annually.

17. And that population pays the expense of its own emigra-
tion entirely ? Yes, those congregations who unite in emigrat-
ing have generally large funds. In a letter which I have re-
ceived recently, it is stated that a. single congregation have been
able to contribute, for the purchase of land in America, nineteen
thousand dollars. The amount of capital possessed by the emi-
n*ants to the United States is estimated at about five millions of
Prussian dollars, which at three shillings a dollar, would be about
seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling.

18. By the Chairman : Do you not think we ought to send an
agent to Germany, to establish a system of immigration in the fii'st
instance ? It would be doubtless a great advantage.

19. By Dr. Lang : Do you think if accurate information re-
specting the eligibility of this country, as a field for immigration
from Germany, were diffused in Germany from such a source as
would induce the people to give credit to it, they would be dis-
posed to come here rather than go to the United States ? I
think so, for many reasons ; on account of the climate, the soil,
and also from the news that have reached them from South Aus-
tralia, which have induced two new congregations to come out to
that place about six or eight months since.

20. They emigrate in entire congregations, establishing a com-
mon fund f Yes ; for my own part 1 should not endeavour to
induce my countrymen to come out except in that way, bringing
their minister and schoolmaster with them, because, coming out
singly, they would have disadvantages in many respects, ifrom
being unable to express themselves in the English language ;
from the difference of their habits, and other causes, and parti-
cularly from the want of a home ; if, however, they came out in
congregations, they would settle upon one spot, and the young



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256 COOKSLAND.

men and women, who were scattered about the district wotdd feel
that they had a home to which they might resort occasionally. ;

21. Do you think the district of Moreton Bay peculiarly eli-
gible for the settlement of such persons % I have not the least
doubt on the subject ; the soil is most fertile, and the climate is
milder than even that of this part of the Colony.

22. By the Chairman : Would you be apprehensive that the
penal chaittcter of the Colony would interfere to prevent persons
of that description from coming out 1 No.

23. By Dr. Lang : Especially if they came in communities !
Just so.

24. What kind of productions may be raised at Moreton Bay !
First of all, almost every kind of European vegetable, and also
the productions of tropical climates, vine, orange, peach, tobacco,
pine apples, bananas, sugar-cane, coffee, flax, maize, wheat, yams,
sweet potatoes j cotton thrives very well, and arrow-root is grow-
ing very fine. Persons are able to have two crops during one
year, of maize and sweet potatoes.

25. Is there a large extent of land in the district of Moreton
Bay, suitable for the settlement of small farmers I A large ex-
tent ; at least as large a tract as that of the Hunter's River, is
suitable for small settlers. It has come under my knowledge,
that a small settler not far from Brisbane Town has raised about
eighty bushels of maize from one acre.

26. By the Chairman : Was that circumstance well authenti-
cated 1 So I have been told ; there is more rain in that dis-
trict than here, and the heat of the sun is less oppressive.

27. By Mr. Cowper : What would be the expense of the pas-
sage of an individual from Hamburgh to this Colony 1 I am not
aware ; but I have not the least doubt if a Grerman vessel were
taken, immigrants might be brought at a less expense from thence
than they could from England.

28. Do you think the rate of wages paid here would be a suffi-
cient inducement to persons to immigrate to this Colony ! I
think so.

29. By the Chairman ; From the north of Germany we should
be more likely to have a Protestant community ! Yes, tiiey are
Lutherans and Calvinists there ; those who have settled at South
Australia are Lutherans.

30. Have those who have settled in South Australia brought
their clergyman with them 1 Yes, and they have their churches.

31. By Mr. Cowper : Did they purchase allotments of land
there I I am informed they settled in the neighbourhood of
Adelaide, and held land on a lease from the Company for seven
years. The seven years have now passed ; they have united
with the new arrivals, have bought land, and are now forming
little villages and towns.

32. By Dr. Lang : You are aware that there is a considerable
disposition to emigrate from Crermany, independently of religious
persecution ! From some of the States there is, but I do not



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ADAPTATION FOR COLONIZATION. 257

think the de&ire to emigrate from Prussia would be so great, but
for religious persecution.

33. Can you speak as to emigration from Bavaria ! During
five years, from the year 1835 to 1840, twenty-four thousand five
hundred emigrated to the United States from Bavaria, or nearly
five thousand a year ; and it was estimated that they carried
with them a capital of 7,000,000 florins, or six hundred and se-
venty-five thousand pounds. Bavaria is a Ronum Catholic State,
but with a large Protestant population, whose condition under a
Romish Government induced them to emigrate the more will-
ingly.

34. By the Chairman— Where did they embark 1 Chiefly at
Rotterdam and Havre-de-Gi'ace.

John Dobie, Esq., Surgeon, R.N., called in and examined :

1. You are a settler on the Clarence River ? I am.

2. And have been engaged in pastoral pursuits for some years I
Yes.

3. During which time you have had occasion to employ a num-
ber of shepherds and farm servants ? Yes.

4. You have seen a considerable part of the Colony, I believe,
have you not I Yes, both the northern and southern parts of
the Colony.

5. Will you state to the conmiittee what you consider to be the
capabilities of the Colony as a field for immigration from Europe

What advantage does it hold out to the immigrant } I think it

holds out many advantages, inasmuch as it not only provides him
with a comfortable competence, but with the means of becoming
comparatively opulent.

6. Do you think that the labouring man may, by the exercise
of industry, sobriety, and prudence, put by a sufficiency to main-
tain him during old age without labour 1 I do.

7. By the Auditor-General — Do you consider any climate in
the world to be superior to this ? I do not ; for I have been in
almost every country in Europe, in the East Indies, and in North
and South America.

8. By the Chairman — What do you think of the capability of
the country for supporting a considerable population — do you
think there are tracts in this Colony capable of supporting a dense
population i Certainly to the north there are, upon the banks of
the Richmond River, in the lower parts for instance, thousands
of acres fit for agricultural purposes.

9. What do you think of the Clarence 1 That is more a pas-
torsd than an agricultural district.

10. What is your opinion of New England ? That also is a
pastoral district.

11. By Dr. Lang — You have been on the Richmond River !
I have.

R



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258 COOKSLAND.

1 2. Is there not a good extent of alluvial land there I Ou the
lower part of it.

13. Capable of supporting a dense population ! I will not say
a dense population, but comparatively a large one.

26. By the Auditor-General — Do you think inunigration to
this Colony is equally advantageous to the mother-country and
to this Colony 1 I think it is of as much consequence to the
mother-country as it is to this Colony ; we both partake of the
benefit I think it is a perfect absurdity for any one to imagine
that it cannot be of advantage to the mother-country ; na}*, look-
ing at the frightful statement lately made in the House of Com-
mons, by Sir James Graham, of the amount of pauperism in
England, I think it criminal in the British Government in allow-
ing any part of its population to starve, when one of its colonies,
possessing such an abundance of food as we do, would be glad if
they will only send the people to work for it, and to eat it. Upon
the score of humanity, this cannot b^^ strongly urged upon the
Home Government ; this is, howeSj:ejr,' taking but a very limited
view of the advantages to ttie mother-country — that of merely
getting rid of its redundant population. Let tlM'fiome Govern-
ment send us a sound and healthy race, we shai^^oon turn their
labour into a source of profit to themselves, render Ihem happy,
comfortable, and contented, and the Home Goyei^toent will soon
be repaid by the increased demand for their manufactures.

27. By Dr. Lang — Have you visited any of the British colo-
nies of North America 1 Yes.

28. What do you tliink of the comparative advantages to free
immigrants coming to this Colony, or going to any of those ? The
advantages this country holds out to the immigrant are far be-
yond those presented by the North American colonies ; the two
countries cannot be compared in point of climate ; here we have
a splendid climate and mild weather, instead of a long dreary
winter ; there the people suffer very many privations. I have
been in North America when the people could not work for six
or eight months in the year ; during the greater part of that time
the country was covered with snow ; in this country there is no
interruption to a man's labour.

29. Which of these colonies have you been in 1 Canada, New
Brunswick, Nora Scotia, and also in the United States.

30. Do you think an immigrant coming to this country and
hiring himself out as a servant, has a much better prospect of
establishing himself comfortably on his own account, within a
limited period, than he would have in any of these North Ameri-
can colonies ! There cannot be a question about it.

31. And also as to the prospect of acquiring wealth ultimately I
Yes ; the article of clothing is very expensive in North America,
but that is a very trifling expense to men here ; the expense of
clothing in North America would take up half a man''s wages ;
the article of clothing is almost the only expense a man is put to
in this Colony.



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ADAPTATION FOE COLONIZATION. 269

32. Do you not think that the advantage to the immigrant of
having his labour made available for the estivation of the ground
for the whole year in this Colony is of great importance ? There
cannot be a doubt upon this point.

33. Can two crops be obtained in the most favourable situa-
tions of the North American colonies during their short summer 1
No, that is quite impossible in North America, inasmuch as the
summer is not above three or four months in duration ; we may
have two crops in this Colony.

34. By the Auditor-General — Might not fresh sources of in-
dustry be opened in your district ! The principal source of in-
dustry is pasturage.

35. Might not the vine be cultivated 1 No doubt it might; but
the district to which I belong is principally pastoral. I am not
aware that there is much agriculture there, it being chiefly con-
fined to individual stations.

36. By Dr. Lang — Do you consider the condition of the shep-
herd a comfortless one ? Certainly not ; I think it is a very
comfortable and easy life; a man has a comfortable hut, his
rations are regularly supplied him« and he has no laborious work.

37. And it affords him a prospect of a comfortable independ-
ence ! Yes, I have now men in my employment who have pur-
chased mares, and these mares are in the course of producing
stock ; these men have been only a short time with me, but have
saved their wages.

38. Are you aware whether it is generally the case that shep-
herds are possessed of stock, to a greater or less extent ? They
are principally possessed of horses ; their great object is to get a
mare ; there are a ffreat many of my men who have got money
in the Savings' Bank ; I seldom come to Sydney without paying
money into the Savings' Bank on account of my men.

39. By the Auditor-General — Do you find the shepherds em-
ployed by you generally save their earnings ! Some do, and it
IS within tne compass of all to do so; for they are furnished with
everything excepting clothes and tobacco, and they are clothed
with very little cost ; but some are indifferent about it.

40. By Dr. Lang — Is the climate to the north favourable for
field labour for European constitutions 1 It is ; I have seen no
country where a man may be exposed to the weather with less
danger than this ; indeed it is a climate very far superior to any
that I have been in.

In addition to these valuable items of information,
the reader will find various interesting and important
observations, both on the capabilities of the northern
division of the Colony and on the advantages to be
derived from an influx of emigrants into that part of



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260 COOKSLAND.

the territory from Germany, in the following letter;
which was written, at my suggestion, to the Chairman
of the Immigration Committee of the Legislative Coun-
cil, by the Rev. Christopher Eipper, for several years
a missionary to the Aborigines of Moreton Bay : —

Letter from the Rev. Christopher Eipper, Presbyterian Minis-
ter of Braidwood, to the Chairman of the Immigration Com-
mittee, 18th September 1845.

Sir, — Understanding that a Committee of the Honoorable the
Legislative Council has been appointed to take into consideration
the important subject of Immigration, and having been apprised,
by one of its members, that it would not be unwilling to receive
suggestions from persons possessed of local or other information
on the subject to come befoi-e it, I beg leave to submit to you the
following observations, on the eligibility of the District of More-
ton Bay for the settlement of numerous families and individuals
of the humbler and middle classes of the soil-cultivating popula-
tion of the south of Germany, who, I am satisfied, could be in-
duced, by a very little encouragement, to emigrate partially or
entirely at their own charges, and settle permanently either in
that District or in other parts of the Colony. I am a native of
Wirtemberg, in the south of Germany, myself, and have, be-
sides, some acquaintance with the inhabitants of the Grand Duchy
of Baden, Switzerland, and Alsatia. In the District of Moreton
Bay I have resided, as a missionary to the Aborigines, from the
month of April 1838, till October 1843, when the mission was
broken up.

The climate of Moreton Bay I have found peculiarly salubri-
ous, and more equable than that of the Colony generally ; the
severe drought of 1839, for instance, not having been felt in that
district. Its soil, from its very variety of lightness on ridges
with a substratum of clay, and of richness on ilats of black loam,
produces, in great abundance and perfection, sweet potatoes,
maize, wheat, pine apples, peaches, bananas, {plantains, mulber-
ries, sugar-cane, pumpkins, melons of every sort, arrow-root,
yams, limes, lemons, citrons, oranges, nectarines, coffee, tobacco,
millet, every sort of vegetables ; and, from its proximity to the
tropics, it would doubtless be found capable of producing most of
the plants growing in tropical parts.

The observation of its capabilities has frequently led me to
reflect, how well it would answer the various branches of culture
peculiar to the south of Grermany — such as the vine, tobacco, flax
and hemp, millet, rape, and poppies for oil, krapp, and other
weeds for dyeing, thistles for carding cloths, &c. And as many of
these productions, and chiefly the vine and tobacco, are not
raised in the British Isles, immigrants from Great Britain and



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ADAPTATION FOR COLONIZATION. 261

Ireland are less likely to turn such a soil and climate to proper
account. With a view, therefore, of developing the capabilities
of this Colony, it would seem desirable to introduce such immi-
grants as would, from their practical knowledge of the culture of
new branches, be best fitted to accomplish so desirable an object.
Without fear of being accused of partiality, I may say, that the
Germans have generally. been found to make good colonists, on
account of their industrious and frugal habits, their intelligence
and perseverance, in which assertion I am borne out by the
flourishing condition of the German settlements of South Aus-
tralia. This Colony would therefore unquestionably derive great
benefit from the formation of one or two settlements of German
agriculturists and vine-dressers at Moreton Bay, or in other parts
of the Colony, or from the general dispersion of such throughout
the Colony, should such a plan appear to be preferable. They
might, if successful, not only lead the way to others of their coun-
trymen, who might wish to follow them, but also set an example
of the culture of various new branches to British immigrants.

I am not aware that the disposition to emigrate has at all de-
clined in the south of Germany, or any where in that country, as
the same causes by which it was engendered — oppressive taxa-
tion, over-population, and want of religious and civil liberty —
are, to the best of my knowledge, still m existence. Emigrants
have, hitherto, chiefly gone to the United States ; but other parts
of the world — Poland at one time, the south of Russia at another,
and Algiers at a later period, all within the last forty years —
have attracted great numbers of emigrants from my native coun-
try ; in the Southern provinces of Russia, the Krimea, Bessar-
abia, Grusinia, the Caucasus, and Astrachan, there are upwards
of thirty parishes of Germans, many of whom are Wirtembergers.
Every opportunity, indeed, which offered, was eagerly, but often
to their bitter regret, embraced by many individuals and families
of my countrymen ; no matter what country they went to, if they
had but the means of reaching it, or of purchasing or otherwise
acquiring a small farm. Of the general eligibility of this Colony,
and its superior salubrity, my countrymen are, I may say, en-
tirely ignorant, with the exception of the few who may have re-
ceived some information either from myself or other German
missionaries. The main hinderance, however, to their emigra-
tion hither is its distance from Germany. The length of the
sea-voyage, as in itself it deters many, renders the expenses
of the emigrants so great as to cause them to dismiss every
thought of emigrating to this country from their mind ; for, on
an average, there will among ten emigrants not one half be found
who reach the place of embarkation with funds in their posses-
sion amounting to fifty pounds sterling —a sum hardly adequate
to defray the cost of a passage to New South Wales for a man
with a wife and one or two children. His prospects, on landing,
would consequently be only starvation in a strange land, or ser-



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262 COOKSLAND.

ritude ; a condition which, of course, is not his object or aim to
attain to, in leaving his country and kindred. ]But I have no
doubt emigration to this country from Germany, and the Con-
tinent of Europe in general, would at once commence, if its



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