John Edgar Coover.

Formal discipline from the standpoint of experimental psychology .. online

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Tests



Aw.



Na.



Ya.



Cr.



Total

56.9
66.0



Diflference


+4-4


+6.7





+27.5


+9.1


Training in Sound












Per cent R Beginning


36.7


36.7


43.3


45-0


40.4


Per cent R End


51-7


41-7


40.0


56.7


47.5



+H.7 +7.1



Total



Per cent U Before
Per cent U After


17.8
14.4


42.2
21.1


244
31.1


33.7

7.5


29.4
19


Difference
Training in Sound
Per cent U Beginning
Per cent U at End


—3.4

30
IS


— 21. 1

38.3
26.7


+6.7

26.7
33.3


—26.2

26.7
13.3


— 104

30.4
22


Difference


—15


—1 1.6


+6.6


—13-4


-8.4


C.


Control 'Reagents
R and U Judgments








Tests

Before and After Interval

Without Training
Per cent R Before
Per cent R After


Rl.

68.3
63.3


An.

51-7
50




Wr.
717


Total

65.5
61.7


Diflference


-5


—1.7


-


-5


-3.8


Per cent U Before
Per cent U After


16.7
21.7


26.7

25




11.7


15.5
19.4



Difference



+5



—1.7



+84



+3.9



274



APPENDIX A



TABLE XX

(Text, p. SI)
Orders for Cards
12362145346315425641324352651652615342314

Continue Orders i & 4 — 612451364
Continue Orders 2 & 5 — 652361346
Continue Orders 3 & 6 — 652451362

Changes of Equivalence





R.


Y.




G.


B.


Br.


Bl.


Order i


I


2




3


4


5


6


Order 2


6


I




2


3


4


5


Order 3


5


6




I


2


3


4


Order 4


4


5




6


I


2


3


Order 5


3


4




5


6


I





Order 6


2


3


Coloi


4

^ed

Fellow

Green

B\ne

Brown

Black


5


6


I



By reversing the above 6 Orders the 12 Orders were made up.



APPENDIX A 275

TABLE XXI

(Text, pp. 53, 54, 56, 57)

Reactions on Typewriter (per lOo)

A, Before Training

CI. AI. Cr. Bs.







I


»






/




Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


71


2


94





73


3


/o5.5


8


71





104


4-5


74


4


105.4


2


7Z


I


102


5


71.6


I


99.3


3


79


I


85


I


83


4


99-7


7


8i


1-5


81


5


75


3.5


96.4


6


79


0.5


86


2


7^.5


3


87.7


5


72





78


I


71.2


4-5


79-4


4


75


2


82


5


71


4.5


88.2


I


71





80


I


69.8


4-5


83.2


3


71


I


79


6


71


4


94-7


4


73


3


76


3


71.5


I


89.7





66


I


75-6


8


73.2


4


93-2


5


66.8


2.6


75.4


5-5


68.2


4


82.S


4


68.4





75.8


7


69.5


3.5


80.8


3


69.4





70.4


5


69


2


71.8


I


68





70.8


6


67.4





lOI.I


4-5


65.8


2


70.4


7


674


6


84.S


4


73-1





82.2


4


69.4


3


85.S


6


70.4





81.2


5


71.3


5


84.1


4


69


o.S


81.7


4-5


67.8


6


79-6


3


64.8


I


79.1


4.5


68.4


6


81


2


70.4


2.5


77-9


7.5


66.8


3


78.6


5


66.1


1-5


73.8


3


68.1


2


74-3


4


65-7


0.5


69-5


7


67.1


3


85.5


II


59-4





7A.(>


6


66.4


4


81.6


7


64.8


2.5


73.8


10


68.1


2


74-5


2


63.8


0.6


74-7


8


65.3


I


75.8


3


63.5


I


73.1


8






80.9


6


62.4





70.5


2.5






82.6
77.1
76.3


7
5
3








B. After


Training








CI.




Al.




Cr.




Bs.


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


643





67.9


9


65.2


3


69.6


ID


64


I


64.2


6.5


643


5


68.3


8


61


0.5


62.6


5-5


69.2


6


72.8


8


63.5


1.5


65.6


II


68.2


5


69.4


8


62.9


1-5


64-3


10


66.2,


5


72.7


5


63


2.5


66.3


6


65.2


4.5


71.6


8


61.2


I


63.1


12


60.8


2


68.8


3-5


60.9


1-5


61.8


II


61.2


5-5


69.2


2


62.3


I


62.1


15


61.5


7


71.8


5


61


I


66.5


II


6i


3


65.7


0.5


61.6


1-5


61.5


8.5


64.2


6


69.3


7


60.9





62.3


10.5


62


5


69


2


62.6


2


63.2


17


62.2


4


66.4


8


57-9





60.5


11.5


58.8





65.5


3


61.9


1-5


60.8


13-5


62.5


5


59-2


3


60.6


1.5


58.9


10


61


7


69.S


II


60.5


I


60.9


15-5


63.5


8


70.7


10


59.2


0.5


61.6


13


61.9


9-5







276 APPENDIX A

TABLE XXII

(Text, pp. 53, 55, 56)
Reactions on Typewriter (Avg. per lOO per Day)

A. Before Training
CI. Al. Cr. Bs.





\


f


— "^ \ t


^


/




Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


71


2


94


73


3


99.5


5


76


0.9


93


4 76.0


3


87.3


3


73-5


I.I


80.0


3 71.2


3-5


84.0


4.5


67.4


I


73.1


6.3 69.1


3


80.1


5.3


69


I.O


79.3


4.5 69.1


5


77-9


4.3


63.3


0.8


72.7


7 67
B. After Training


4






63.3


I


65.2


8 66.4


4.5


70.7


8


61.3


I


62.9


II 62.1


4-5


69


3.3


60.4


I


61.0


13 61.7


5.4


66.3


6



TABLE XXIII

(Text, pp. 53, 56, 57)

Reactions on Typewriter (per 100) (Control Reagents)

Before Interval
Mn. Ge. Gs.



/


^


1


\


/


\


9I.I


2


147-3


7


1 07. 1





95.7


3.6


125.7


4


79.1





9I.I


6.5


154-2


3.5


79-9


1.5


93.7


6


157.9


3.5


84-8


2.5


86.1


5


131.8


2.5


85.8


1.5


86.7


8


133.6


2


854


I


76.7


3.5


106.2


3






ys.s


3


1 16.5


2






76&


8


119


2






70.9


8


127.2


0.5






7Z


7


111.7









71.7


14


118.1


I






78.1


5


82.2


I






739


6


90.8


1-5






76.8


8


95.5


2






73,7


6


97.4


I






74


5


106.6


I






67.4


8


100.6
99.7

After


I
2

Interval






73


4


91.4


1.5


86





73.4


3


84.2


I


76.4


2


704


7


82.2





83.7





68.4


2


104.9


3


77.1


0.5


68.7


6


91.7


3


82.5


3


70


5-5


88.7





77.4


I


70.7


3


83.4


0.5






69.6


3


81.7









66.7


5


91.5


2






64.6


II


95.1


3.5






63.3


6.5


82.5


I






62.3


8


82.9


I







Day

3/3 I
3/5 2



3/8



3/10



3/12 5



3/15 6



APPENDIX A 277

TABLE XXIII (Con.)
Second Group, Control Reagents





Before Interval








Bd.




Bh.




Bs.2




Cf.


[02


7


/ ^

100


3


100


7


128.4 I


93-4


14+


84.2


6+


87.6


5


112 I


92.6


13+


744


8+


82.8


I


118 I


«7.4


7+


75


5+


75.8


4+


100.8


86.6


5+


78


5


72


2+


102.6


86


5+


76.8


7


70S,


3+


96


80


7


76.4


7


7Z


2


93-4 I


84.2


5+


79





72.8


3+


92.4 I


81


7


72.4


I


73


3+


88 2+


774


4


80


4+


68.4


2


80.8


73-2


3+


76.2


2


66.4


3


87.2


79


3+


76.2


3+


68.6


4


87 I


76


4


734


4


68.6





88.6 I


71.2


3


76.6


4


62.6


I


81.8


67.1


3


74.2


2


65.6


I


78.2


72.6


4


72.4


6


67


5


88.4 I


71.6


5+


72.4


II


62.8


3


80.8 2+


72.8


4


75


5+


61.2


3


80.4


68.8


3


74


6


62.4


4


86.2 I


69.4


2


71.8


7+


64.8


3


80.8 I


66





67.4


8


62.6


I


77.8


68.6


3


66.4


8


63


6


76.8


67


7


64.8


13+


67.6


4+


75


66.6


2+


654


7


62.6


3


74.8


67.6


3+


66.2


10


60.4





74


65.6


I


70


7


61.6


4+


73.6 I


63.2


1+


66.6


6


694


I


68


66.2


3+


63


7


60


2


70.4 I


64.6


5


62.2


5


62.4


3


74


65.4


4


64.6


II


60.4


6


714 2


65.4


2


60.6


5


62.2


4


75.2 0+




.(4/f^r Interval








64.6


2+


70.4


2


63


2


75.2 2


62.6


4


62.6


6


58.6


3


65.2 I


65


2+


62.4


5


60.6


4


694


63.8


2


58.ot


4


60.4


6


71.6 1+


66


4


61.4


5+*


59.6t


2


65.2 I


65


6


6i.4t


8+*


S7.6t


4+


62.2 I


62.8


4


64.4


4


58


7


67.6 2


634


4


60


4


584


4


64.4 2


60


5


61.2


7


56.6


6


68


61


5+


61.6


4+


54


4


67


61


3-t-


59-6


6


54


3


70.4 I


59-2


7+


57.8


5


55


5


66.2


58.6


7


59-6


3


54.8


4+* 65.8 2


56.8


3


56.6


6+


57.6


3


57


61


7+


59


8+


57.6


5


64,2


60


8


60


5


58.2


3


65.0 2+


58.6


7


61.6


7


59.2


4


68.6



* Over 10 reactions one place late,— a distinct process of reaction which
greatly decreases the time.
t Memory of the beginning of the series.



27?



IPPENDIX A



TABLE XXIV

(Text, p. 56)

Reactions on Typewriter (Avg. per 100 per Day) (Control Reagents)

Before Interval
Mm. Ge. Gs.



1


^


( \


90.7

74-1
74


5

7-5

6.3


141 .8 4
1 16.5 1.3
96.1 1.5

After Interval


70.7
66.2


4.5
7


90.S 1.3
86.2 1.3



80.5



TABLE XXIV (Con.)
Second Group Control Reagents
Before Interval
Bd. Bh. Bs.2



Cf.



102


7


100


3


100


^ r

7


128.4


I


87.7


8.5


77-5


6.3


77.0


2.8


103.8


0.5


78.5


4.3


76.2


2.3


69.6


2.5


87.3


0.8


70.7


3.7


74.1


5.7


63.6


2.8


82.6


0.7


67.5


2.8


67.0


7.2.


63.5


2.8


76.5


0.2


6s.i


2.7


64.5


6.8


62.7


z-:i


72.1


0.7






After Interval










64.5


3.2


62.7


4.8


60.0


3-5


68.8


I.O


61.2


A-7


60.8


S.o


56.0


4.8


67.3


0.8


59.0


6.4


59-4


5.8


57.5


3.8


64.1


0.8



g




ps




i


w w


t^


>. >.


E^






t>


— !

o


o


o


o


o


o


o


o


00


t-


*o


y


u>


o>





I

Pt
■*>

M

«
O

c

o

s



I



>



o


o


o


o


o


o


o


o


c>


o


a*


00


fr-


«o


to


o


o>


00


t-


«o



282 APPENDIX A

TABLE XXV

(Text, pp. S3, 54, 56)
Card-Sorting Reaction (per loo)
CI. Al. Cr. Bs.



1




1


\


(-


\


<■


\


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec. ]


Errors


113





136.6


2


130.2





1JJ.8





I00.6





134


5


122.4


^


127.6


I


I1I.2





119.2





108.6


3


1 1 7.8


4


I034





1 16.4


2


112


3


129.4


2


96.8





123


I


112.2


2


124.2





9Z-2


I


109


2


103.8


2


111.8


3


99.8


I


J05.6


3


96.2





^/5





101.8





1034


2


97-2


I


107-5


3


92









105.4


2


109.5


4






101.6


4


100.6


6


104.5


2


89.3

















89.4





97.6


3


98.4


2


101.4


I


88.6





91.6


I


102.6


7


87.4


5


88





91.4


I


99


2


100


2


90.4





96.2


8


97


I


99-2


2


91.6





92.2


3


95-4


2


100.8


2


87.9





94-8


4


88.2





96


3


93









91.8


6


99-2


I


90.6





91.8


3


92.4


3


98.4


2


904





91.6


3


90.6


4


95.5


I


go


I


88


2


88.8


2


100.5


4


91.8





89.8


5


93-4


3


96.5


6


93.4





88


5


96


2


97-5


3


92.2





90.2


3


96.2


5


109


7


85.4





91.4


2


89.8


4


103.S


6


94.5





87.2


4


95.5


5


97


5


90.4





91.4


4


92.4


2


95-5


2


«4.5





91.8


4


94.8


5


103


3


81.5





96


4


95-2


2


102


5


81.S





98


9


92.4


I


9^-5


I


85


2


100.4


7


89.2


2


89





89





96.6


4


91-5


I


105


8


8S





91.8


3


88


3


95-5


I


89.2


I


96


4


92


5


90.5


3


86,4





94.8


3


91-5


3


89.5


2


^5-5





88.4


6


Sp.^


I


89.5


2


82





90.4


4


86.2


6


88


I


79.5





89.8


7


97


4


92


5


79


I


94.2


5


97-5


4


90.5


I


81









93


2


88





83.S









96


5


87


I


82









93.5


6






81









88.5

91-5

95.5

93-5

94

92.5

96
92
92
91


6
2

14
2

7
4
4
5
8

4
3







APPENDIX A

TABLE XXVI

(Text, p. 53)
Card-Sorting Reaction (Avg. per loo per Day)



283



a.



Al.



Cr.



Bs.



Sec,


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


Sec.


Errors


106.8





135.3


3.5


126.3


I


127.2


1.8


107.3





1 17.8


I


110.3


3


118


1.5


97.9


0.5


116


i.S


102.4


1-3'


109. 1


1.5


90.6





102.9


3


102


4-3


97


2.5


89.1





94.2


Z-i


94-9


1.3


98.6


2


90.8





93.S


3-5


90.9


3.8


98.2


3-5


90.2


0.5


90.5


2


93.9


3-5


106.2


6.5


90.7





88.9


5


94.6


3.5


99.4


3.8


92.6





90


3-3


90.8


1.5


95-5


2.3


83.1


0.5


96.5


6


90.8


3


89.4


2


87





94.2


3.5


87.7


3.5


89.4


1.8


87.3


0.5


95.4


3.5


95-9


3.8






81.5


0.3


90.7


5.5


92.8


6.2






8r.9









931
91-5


5.3
3-5







TABLE XXVII

(Text, pp. 57, 58)

Comparison of Gains Between Training Periods

Typewriter-Reaction





Training Reagents
(4th and 5th Days, in
Practice.)


Control Reagents
(4th and 5th Days
after Interval.)


Avg. of 2nd and 3rd Days

Avg. of 4th and 5th Days


a.

70.5
66.1


Al. Cr.
76.6 70.0
76.0 67.9


Bs.
86.0
79


Mn. Ge.
74 105.5
68.4 88.4


Gain
% Gain
Avg. last two Days before Card

Practice
First two after


4-4
6

66.1
62.3


0.6 2.1
0.8 3

76.0 67.9
64.0 64.3


7.0

8

79
69.9


5.6 17.1
7 16


Gain
% Gain


3.8

6


12.0 3.6
16 5


9.1
12








f

I









\

I
/

\

I

(

\

. )



y

I



/

)



(
/

i)

S t

r )



<7






&



/



a



m

o \



/



\



/



2



OO o ooo o o

®cv» O OO'^C* O CO



9



ill




o o o o o o

<0 CM «H o a> 00




o o o o

r« O Ok OO



iW




rm



o o o o

r-l O 0» 00
r-f iH




II I I I I I






§



o o
CO ca



o o o o
p-« o a» 00



APPENDIX A



TABLE XXVIII
(See Text, footnote pp. 58-9)

Time per pack of 50 cards, sorted by suit into four compartments, showing
the influence of practice in the typewriter-reaction.



Total



Total



Diff.



Before Interval
Regular Reagents



Control Reagents



Bd.

55
57-5 I
55
50


Bh,
55.4
51
52.6
48




I
I

I


Bs.2
52.4
54-6
SO
52.6 I


Cf.
62.4 I
70
67
67


Cn.

57.4
52.4
53.6 I
48 I


Sn.
48.8
50.6

49
50.6


— »



I


I


217.5 I


207.0


3


209.6 I


266.4 I


21 1.4 2


199.0


2








After Interval








56.6 I
54-2 I
52
52 4


SI
SO
49.8
46.8


I
2

3
3


52.8 5
53.4 5
52.2 3
50.6 3


61.4
56.4
57
57


60 I
53.8 I

52.6 s


S1.4
49.8
S0.6
52.4








214.8 6


197.6


9


209.0 16


231.8


221.4 9


204.2





— <2.7

— 1.2


—9.4

—4.5


-0.6
—0.3


—34.6
—13.0


+10
+4.7


+5.2
+2.6





APPENDIX B

(Presenting data relevant to the Experiment on Attention, pp. 76-17^-)







e





Q


e


Q



Fig. 2. (See p. 76) Arrangement of com-
partments in cabinet for card-sorting.



Fig. I
Symbol on cards

Cardsorting
Instructions to reagents

1. This is a test in "reaction with discrimination and choice." On each of the
packs of fifty cards the time and errors will be recorded. Speed, therefore,
should be aimed at, yet the sorting should be accurate. Time will be saved
if you get a dependable mental scheme of the compartments rather than
directly matching the cards, which, although necessary at first, makes sorting
wait upon the eye. —

2. In the final introspections of the day note :

(a) Any special hindrances or helps to the sorting,

(b) Your mental scheme, if any,

(c) Any development or change in your scheme,

(d) What demanded attention most? Any tendency to name or

pronounce ?

(e) Whether the sorting is fatiguing,

(i) Any bodily strain,
(2) Any mental strain,

(f) Whether sorting is agreeable or otherwise,

(g) Any change in these respects from previous introspections. (Ap-
plicable only after the first day.)

3. In introspections noted between packs mention briefly a few of the
more important points about the process of sorting that occur to you.

4. Look over the cards on the cabinet so you will be able to distinguish
the symbols readily.

5. The procedure will be :

(a) Arrange first pack conveniently in hand, and take position com-

fortably before the cabinet.

(b) Throw on the table the blank, at announcement of "Go!"

(c) Sort cards, aiming for speed and accurate work. As last card

leaves hand announce "Now !"

(d) Note brief introspections.

(e) Like procedure with remaining three packs, taking them in order.

(f) After the last pack of the day, note your introspections in fuller

form.

Fig. 3 (See p. 76)



APPENDIX B 289

aatanetntaeneaatanetntaeneeaeneatntenatta

tanetnaene

Fig 4. Sample series of stimuli used in the typewriter-reaction (see pp. 52, 76).



Poets


Philosophers


Statesmen


Scientists


Musicians


Homer


Plato


Pitt


Faraday


Beethoven


Virgil


Socrates


Gladstone


Darwin


Wagner


Shakespeare


Aristotle


Washington


Huxley


Mozart


Milton


Kant


Jefferson


Watt


Hayden


Browning


Locke


Lincoln


Tyndall


Bach


Tennyson


Hume


Webster


Agassiz


Mendelssohn


Goethe


Hegel


Roosevelt


Galileo


Handel


Whittier


Pythagoras


Napoleon


Helmholz


Verdi


Poe


Spinoza


Bismark


Newton


Paderweski


Longfellow


Descartes


Burke


Ohm


Paganini



Fig. 5. The names of men in the classes used for Controlled Reaction.

(See p. 77)



Series I


Series 2


Series 3


Series 4


Series 5




Homer


Darwin


Socrates


Aristotle


Browning




Pitt


Virgil


Shakespeare


Hayden


Lincoln




Beethoven Wagner


Huxley


Kant


Bach




Faraday


Gladstone


Milton


Watt


Tyndall




Plato


Mozart


Washington


Jefferson


Locke




Series 6


Series 7


Series 8


Series Q


Series 10




Hume


Roosevelt


Napoleon


Verdi


Descartes




Agassiz


Galileo


Goethe


Bismark


Ohm




Mendelssohn Hegel


Helmholz


Paderweski


Paganini




Webster


Handel


Whittier


Poe


Burke




Tennyson


Pythagoras


Spinoza


Newton


Longfellow




Fig. 6. The series


of names as


presented. (See


p. 77)






(a) Intervals




(b)S


)eries




No.


1 \
Scale Intensity*^


I, 2 3, 4 5


,6 7, 8


9, ID


I.


20.16° .5




I 2


3 4


5


2.


23.57 -7




7 8


9 I


2


3.


25.06 .8




S 6


7 8


9


4.


26.48 .9




2 3


4 5


6


5.


27.83 i.o — No


rm


9 I


2 3


4


6.


29.12 I.I




4 5


6 7


8


7.


30.35 1-2




8 9


I 2


3


8.


32.68 1.4




3 4


5 6


7


9.


34.85 1.6




6 7


8 9


I



* From Fechner : Psychophysik. S. 181.

Fig. 7. Intervals of intensity, and series as presented in Sound Discrimination.
In the Series, No. 2 is the reverse of No. i. (See pp. 77, 78, 188.)



290 APPENDIX B



Fig. 8.







Greater,

Less,

Like,

Doubtful,


>

<

III
?




Symbols


used in recording
(See


JU(


dgments
78)


in Sound Discrimination.


I 2


Series
3


4


5






3 4

1 3

4 I

2 4

3 2

2 3

4 2
I 4

3 I

4 3


2

4

I

3

2

4

2

3
I

2


2
I

3

2

4
2

3

I

4
2


I
4

2

3

2
I

3
4

2

I




Intensities*

1 = 10° = 0.12

2 = 25° = o.Bo

3 = 40° = 2.10

4 = 60° = 5.00


*From Fechner's Psycho'
physik, I :i8i).



Fig. 9. Series of sounds in the test on Memory of Sounds.
(See p. 78)

Series of letters and figures



1




/


\


f


\


<


\


1


\


(a)


(b)


(a)


(b)


(a)


(b)


(a)


(b)


(a)


(b>


K


4


C


5


P


7


G


6


L


8


S


7


V


8


H


I


L


9


G


2


B


5


J


6


Z


8


C


7


M


9


M


2


B


3


K


5


H


4


P


6


F


6


S


7


B


9


P


8


S


I


P


I


H


2


S


4


F


3


B


5


H


3


W


4


P


6


M


5


K


7


C


8


T


9


C


2


B


I


C


3


L


2


D


3


G


5


S


4


H


6


G


9


K


I


N


3


K


2


P


4



Fig. 10. The series of (a) consonants used in the test on Memory of Con-
sonants, and the series of (b) Digits used in the test on Memory of
Numerals; also (c) the pairs presented in the test on Memory of asso-
ciated Pairs. (See p. 79.)



APPENDIX B



291



(Y



o
A

Fig. II. The series of symbols
used in the test on Memory
of Visual Signs.
(See p. 79.)

M —

G

C



RN

Fig, 12. Reproduction of size and
style of letter and spacing used
in tests on Learning 12-Conson-
ant-Rectangles. (See pp. 80, 82.)



W-
S-
Q-

N-
S-
B-
W-



- R

L

M ■
-N

W-

R

T

W

R ■
-S -



-D

-N
-T
-N
-L
-R
-R
-N
-M



Fig. 13. The letters used in the test on Word-CompJetion. (P. 80.)




Reagents



Practice Curves.

BtteneiTS Threshold of Visual Attention. Bcpoeure of 12-letter«
rectangles l/lO See. Curves show average number of Points per day}
three points is the value of a correctly placed reproduced letter.

The curves do not indicate that the training of 19 days had
brought the capacity to its nwatlnial efficiency.



Says r



5 6 1 8 9 10 U 12 13

Fig. 14. (See text, pp. 83, 93)



"R — 15 16 17 »-



2^2



APPENDIX B




15



10



Beagent*
SI.



Practice Currea,

Learning 12-letter-rectanglee. Bipoavre 10 See. Curve*
•how average maaber of points per experiment per day^ three
points is the value of a reprodueed letter correctly placed.

Maximal efficiency had not yet been attained.



Days 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 910UU13 14 15 16 1fflS

Fig. is. (See text, p. 94)



Saster Vacation




Ssys



"9 10 n 12 13 14 15 16 17 IB

Fig. 16
Analysis of Rt.'s Practice Curve in Learning 12-Ietter-rectangles, accord-



APPENDIX B



293



ing to complexity of process, showing change in complexity during practice.
The curves show the number of letters reproduced from rectangles according
to the imagery from which they were recorded; e.g., on the first day 80 letters
were recorded from rectangles upon which the Kinaesthetic (verbal) imagery
alone was used, 40 letters from rectangles upon which Kin. and Visual
imagery were coordinated, 17 letters from rectangles for which the three-
fold coordination of Kin. + Associations + Vis. imagery was used. (See
text, pp. 95, 176.)

At the beginning most of the work was done in Kin. A. imagery which
as a single-fold method disappeared on the 6th day. The two-fold method
was dominant on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days. From the 7th day the three-
fold and four-fold coordinations predominated. The course of practice is
toward greater complexity of the process.

Easter vacation caused a lapse to the status of learning of the 6th day,
after which the same development in complexity of coordination takes place
as that on the 7th and 8th days.



ut-
ter*
ISO

140
130
120
110
100

90.

80.

70



Reagent Rt«



Kinaeethetle

_ . . Visual

_ Aeaoelatlona




"i 3 4 5 6 5 5 § 10 11 i5 13 14 iS Ti i? io

Fig. 17

Analysis of Rt.'s Practice Curve in Learning 12-letter-rectangles, according
to the number of letters reproduced from each kind of imagery during the
day, disregarding the complexity of method in coordinations,^ e.g., on the first
day 125 letters were reproduced from Kinaesthetic (Verbal) imagery, 18 from
Visual imagery, and 8 from Associations. (See text, p. 174.)

Associations for Rt. were usually visual images of words, as "Chemically
Pure" for holding the letters C P.

It is evident that the principal rise in the practice curve is caused by the
growing frequency of Visual and Association letters, i.e., by the growth in
the process of the auxiliary forms of imagery. The letters reproduced on
the I2th day are similar to those reproduced on the 3d day in that they are
alphabetic symbols; in the mind of the reagent, however, they differ greatly


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