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HARVARD UNIVERSITY



LIBRARY OF THE

MINERALOGICAL
LABORATORY

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM




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HARVARD UNIVERSITY



LIBRARY OF THE

M1NERAL06ICAL
LABORATORY

UNIVERSITY MUSEUM




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THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

Editor: EDWARD S. DANA.

AS80CIATB KDIT0R8

Professors GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRTDGE,
W. G. FARLOW AND WM. M. DAVIS, of Cambridge,

Professors ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS,

LOUIS V. PIRSSON, HERBERT E. GREGORY

and HORACE S. UHLER, of New Haven,

Professor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, op Ithaca,

Professor JOSEPH S. AMES, of Baltimore,

Mr. J. S. DILLER, of Washington.



FOURTH SERIES

VOL. XXXIII-[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXIIIJ.

WITH THREE PLATES.



NEW HAVEN, CONNEOTIOUT.

1912.



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J .



THE TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE * TAYLOR COMPANY
NEW HAVEN.



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CONTENTS TO VOLUME XXXIII.



Number 193.

Page

Art. I.— Physiography of Newfoundland ; hy W. H. Twen-

HOFEL 1

II. — Hydrocarbon Found in the Diamond and Carbonado

District of Bahia, Brazil ; by J. C. Branner 26

HI. — Hydrolysis of Esters of Substituted Fatty Acids ; by

W. A. Drushel 27

IV. — Relations of Missouri River Loess Mantle and Eansan

Drift-Sheet; by C. R. Keyes 32

v.— Crystallized Turquoise from Virginia ; by W. T. Sghal-

LER 35

VI. — Crescentic Fractures of Glacial Origin ; by F. H.

Lahbe 41

VII. — Heat of Formation of Titanium Dioxide ; by W. G.

MiXTSR 45

VIH. — Composition of Nephelite ; by N. L. Bowbn 49

IX. — Baddeleyite from Montana ; by A. F. Rogers 64

Cfiemistry and Physics — Uraninm Hexafluoride, Ruff and Hsinzelhann :
Atomic Weight of Extra-terrestrial Iron, Baxter and Thorvaldson, 57. —
Componnds of Ammonia and Water, Smits and Pobtma : Qaantitative
Determination of Fluorine as Calciam Fluoride, Stabck and Thobin :
Volnmetric Determination of Antimony in Alloys, 6. S. Jahieson, 58.—
Radio-activity of the Dtirkheim Mineral Waters, Ebler and Fellnbr :
Balletin of the Bnreaa of Standards, 59. — Annual Tables of Constants and
Numerical Data, Chemical, Physical and Technological, ^.— The Sun,
C. G. Abrot : Physical Optics, R. W. Wood : Illumination, its Distribu-
tion and Measurement, A. P. Trotter, 61. — Eometen und Elektronen,
A. RiOHi, 62.

Oeology and Jltn^a2ogy— Publications of the Geological Survey of the
United States, 62.-17. S. Bureau of Mines, 68- Geological Survey of New
Jersey : Geological Survey of Alabama : Data of Geochemistry, F. W.
Clarke, 64. — American Permian Vertebrates, S. W, Williston : Analyses
of Stone Meteorites, 0. C. Farrington, 65. — Mineralogy of Pennsylvania :
Praktikum der experimentellen Mineralogie, E. Somicerfkldt : XJraninite
from German East Africa: Production of Platinum in 1910, 67.— Les
Syenites Nepheliniques de TArchipel de Los et leur Mineraux, A. Lacroix,
68.— Potash in the United States, H. S. Gale, 69.

Miscellaneous Scieutific Intelligence^KeTedity in Relation to Evolution and
Animal Breeding, W. E. Castle : Animal Intelligence, Experimental
Studies, E. L. Thornbike : Parasitic Amcebse of Man, C. F. Craig, 70.—
Inland Lakes of Wisconsin : A Laboratory Guide in Bacteriology, P. G.
Heineman : Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian
Institution : Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American
Ethnology: Appleton's Scientific Primers, 71.

Obituary — Joseph Dalton Hooker : George Davison : William Suther-
land : Giorgio Spezia.



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IV CONTENTS.



Number 194.

Page

Art. X. — Study of Some American Fossil Cycads — Part
VI. On the Smaller Flower-Buds of Cycadeoidea ; by

G. R. WiELAND 73

XL — Occurrence of Coral Reefs in the Triassic of North

America ; by J. P. Smith 92

XIl. — Ordovician Outlier at Hyde Manor in Sudbury, Ver-
mont ; by T. N. Dale 97

XIII. — Color-Effect of Isomorphous Mixture ; by H. L.

Wells 103

XIV. — Lorandite from the Rambler Mine, Wyoming ; by
A. F. Rogers 105

XV. — Rate of Decay of Different Sizes of Nuclei, Deter-
mined by Aid of the Coronas of Cloudy Condensation ;
by C. Barus 107

XVI. — Displacement Interferometer Adapted for High Tem-
perature Measurement, Adiabatic Transformations of a
Gas, etc. ; by C. Barus 109

XVII. — Unconformity at the Base of the Chattanooga Shale

in Kentucky; by E. M. Kindle ] 20

XVIII. — Suggestion for Mineral Nomenclature ; by H. S.

Washington 137

XIX. — Optical Resolution of the Saturnian Ring ; by D.

Todd 152

Chemistry and Physics — Canadium, an Alleged New Element of the Platinum
Group, A. G. French : Alleged Complexity of Tellnrium, Habcourt and
Baker, 155. — New Quantitative Separation of Iron from Manganese, J. A.
Sanchez : Famous Chemists, E. Roberts, 156. — Quantitative Chemical
Analysis, Clowes und Coleman : Photometric Paddle- Wheels, J. R.
Milne : Text-Book of Physics, L. B. Spinney, 157.— Tables of Physical
and Chemical Constants and some Mathematical Functions, G. W. C.
EIaye and T. H. Laby : Electrochemische Umformer, J. Zacharias, 158.
— Neue Welt der Fltlssigen Kristalle, O. Lehmann, 159.

Geology and Natural History — Thirty-second Annual Report of the United
States Geological Survey, G. O. Smith, 159.— Granites of Connecticut, T.
N. Dale and H. E. Gregory, 160. — The Mount McKinley Region, Alaska:
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 161. — Atlas Photo-
graphique des Formes du Relief Terrestre, J. Brunhks, E. Chaix, E. de
Martonne : New Zealand Botanical Notes, B. C. Aston, 163. — Fungous
Diseases of Plants, B. M. Dcggar: Practical Botany, J. Y. Bergen and
O. W. Caldwell : A Practical Course in Botany, E. F. Andrews, 164.

Miscellaneoxis Scientific Intelligence — Report of the Secretary of the Smith-
sonian Institution, 165. — Report of the Librarian of Congress and Report
of the Superintendent of the Library Building, 166. — Das Schicksal der
Planeten, S. Arrhenius : The Capture Theory of Cosmical Evolution, T.
J. J. See, 167.— The Teaching of Geometry, D. E.Smith: The Hindu-
Arabic Numerals, D. E. Smith and L. C. Karpinsky, 168.

Obituary— C. E. Dutton.



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CONTENTS. . V

Number 195.

Page
Art. XX. — Mineral Sulphides of Iron ; by E. T. Allen,
J. L. Crenshaw, and J. Johnston ; with Crystallo-
graphic Study, by E. S. Larsen 169

XXI. — Some Relations between Gravity Anomalies and the

Geologic Formations in the United States ; by W. Bowie 237

XXII. — Association of Native Gold with Sillimanite ; by T.

L. Watson 241

XXIII. — Hecker's Remarks on Ocean Gravity Observations ;

by L. A. Bauer 245

XXIV. — Relations of the Degree of Metamorphisra to Geo-
logical Structure and to Acid Igneous Intrusion in the
Narragansett Basin, Rhode Island ; by F. H. Lahee... 249

XXV. — Ilmenite Rocks near St. Urbain, Quebec ; A New

Occurrence of Rutile and Sapphirine ; by C. H. Warren 263

Chemistry and Physics — Qnantitative DeterminatioD of Manganese, Raikow
and TiscHKOW : A Pernitride of Carbon, G. Darzens, 278.— Portland
Cement, E. Janecke : Annual Report of the International Committee on
Atomic Weights for 1912. — Hydrates of Sodium Carbonate, Weqscheider :
Canadiam : Intrinsic Brightness of the Starlit Sky, C. Fabry, 280. — Mag-
netische Spektren der ^-Strahlen des Radiums, 281. — Production of Char-
acteristic R5ntgen Radiations, R. Whiddinoton, 282. — Weitere Messungen
fiber Wellenlllngennormale im Eisenspektrnm, Eversheim, 288. — The Sun's
Energy-Spectrum and Temperature, C. Q. Abbot, 284.-— College Physics,
J. O. Reed and K. E. Gcthe, 285.

Geology and Mineralogy — Geology of the Lake Superior Region, C. R. Van
HiSE and C. E. LErra, 286.— Elastic Rebound Theory of Earthquakes, H.
F. Reix>, 287. — LaSismologie moderne, Comte de Montebsus de Ballore :
Periodic Variations of Glaciers : Interpretation of Peneplains, E. C.
Andrews, 288.— Australia in its Physiographic and Economic Aspects, G.
Taylor: Canada, Department of Mines, 289.— The present distribution
and origin of ** Coal Balls," M. C. Stopes and D. M. S. Watson, 290.—
Early Paleozoic Bryozoa of the Baltic Provinces, R. S. Bassler : Fossil
Fish remains of the Cretaceous of New Jersey, H. W. Fowler : Types of
Ore Deposits, H. F. Bain, 292, — Brief Notices of some Recently Described
Minerals, 298.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence — Fourth Report of t ho Wellcome Tropi-
cal Research Laboratories, A. Balfour, 294. — Einfiihrung in die Mykol-
ogie, A. Kossowicz: Piinciples of Human Nutrition, W. H. Jordan, 295.
Ostwald's Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften, 296.

Obituary— Q, J. Brush : J. Lister : C. G. Wheeler : J. B. E. Bornet, 296.



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VI CONTENTS.

Number 196.

Page

Art. XXVI. — Discovery of Pre-Historic Human Remains
near Cuzco, Peru ; by H. Bingham, Director of the Yale
Peruvian Expedition. (With Plates I and II) 297

XXVII. — Geologic Relations of the Cuzco Remains; by
I. Bowman 306

XXVIII. — Report on the Remains of Man and of Lower
Animals from the Vicinity of Cuzco, Peru ; by G. F.
Eaton 325

XXIX. — Estimation of Lead, Nickel, and Zinc by Precipita-
tion as Oxalates and Titration with Potassium Perman-
ganate ; by H. L. Ward 334

XXX. — Description of the Skulls of Diadectes lentus and
Animasaurus carinatus ; by E. C. Case and 8. W. Wil-
LI8T0N 339

XXXI. — New Volumetric Method for the Determination of

Mercury ; by G. S. Jamieson 1 349

XXXII. — Volumetric Method for the Determination of

Hydrazine; by G. S. Jamikson 362

XXXIII. — Relations of the Degree of Metamorphism to Geo-
logical Structure and to Acid Igneous Intrusion in the
Narragansett Basin, Rhode Island ; by F. H. Laheb 354

Chemistry and P/iy«ira— Separation of Titanium from Niobium, Tantalum,
Thorinm, and Zirconium, J. H. Muller : Cementite, Ruff andGsRSTSN,
878. — Use of Salphur Monocfaloride for I)ecompo8ing Certain Minei-als,
W. B. Hicks : Determination of Water, Zerewitinoff, 874. — Rednction
of Vanadic Acid in Concentrated Salpharic Acid Solution, Cain and
HosTETTBR : Die Zersetzuug von Stickstoffdioxyd im elektrischen Glimm-
Btrom, J. Zenneck, 875.— Mechanism of the Semi-permeable Membrane,
and a New Method of Determining Osmotic Pressure, F. T. Trouton,
877.— Note on the Monatomicity of Neon, Krypton and Xenon, Sir W.
Ravsat, 878. — Modern Microscopy, M. I. Cross and M. J. Cole : Labo-
ratory Problems in Physics, F. T. Jones and R. R. Tatnall, 879. —
Storage Batteries, H. W. Morse : A Laboratory Manual of Physics and
Applied Electricity, 880. — Die Bearbeitung des Glases auf dem Blase-
tische, D. Djakonow and W. Lermantoff, 881.

Oeology — West Virginia Geological Survey : Wirt, Roane, and Calhoun
Counties, R. V. Hennen, 381. — Geological Survey of New Jersey : State
of the Ice in the Arctic Seas : Wisconsin Geological and Natural His-
tory Survey, 882. — Annual Progress Report of the Geological Survey of
West Australia for the year 1910 : Uses of Peat, C. A. Davis, 888.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence — Carnegie Institution of Washington
Year Book No. 10, 1911 : Publications of the Carnegie Institution, 384.—
Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus, W. A. Granville :
Theory and Practice of Technical Writing, S. C. Earle : Publications
of the Harvard College Observatory: Publications of the Allegheny
Observatory of the University of Pittsburgh, 886.

Obituary— 0. E. DuTTON, 887 : T. H. Montgomery, Jr. : J. B. Smith : R. S.
Tarr, 888.



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CONTENTS. Vll

Niiraber 197.

Page

Gbor6£ Jarvis Brush. With a Portrait 389

Art. XXXIV.— Life of the Connecticut Trias; by R. S.

Lull 397

XXXV. — Oxalate-Permangan ate Process for the Determina-
tion of Copper Associated with Cadmium, Arsenic, Iron,
or Lead ; bv H. L. Ward 423

XXXVL— Solid Solution in Minerals. IL — The Chemical
Composition of Analcite ; by H. W. Footk and W. M.
Bradley 433

XXX VIL — Chemical Composition of Nephelite ; by H. W.

FooTE and W. M. Bradley 439

XXXVin. — Description of a new Genus and Species of
Palseechinoidea ; by Axel Olsson 442

XXIV. — Relations of the Degree of Metamorphism to Geo-
logical Structure and to Acid Igneous Intrusion in the Nar-
ragansett Basin, Rhode Island ; by F. H. Lahee. Pt. Ill 447

XXXIa. — One Phase of Microseismic Motion ; by J. E.

BURBANK 470

XL. — Microseisms Caused by Frost Action ; by J. E. Bur-
bank 474

XLI. — Dahllite (Podolite) from Tonopah, Nevada ; Voelc-
kerite, a New Basic Calcium Phosphate ; Remarks on
the Chemical Composition of Apatite and Phosphate
Rock ; by A. F. Rogers ; with Analyses by G. E.
POSTMA 475

XLII. — Distribution of the Active Deposit of Radium in an

Electric Field ; by E. M. Wellisch and H. L. Bronbon 483

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and PAy«tc8— Melting-point of Spodnmene, Endell and Risks :
Detection of Nitric Acid in the Presence of Nitroas Acid, Sbn and Dey,
499. — Chemical Constitution of Ilmenite, W. Manchot : Determination of
Alkalies in Silicates, E. Makinsn : Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, 500.
— Properties of the Bays Producing Aurora Borealis, L. Vbgard : Pressure
of a Blow, B. HopKiRBON, 501. — Photographic Study of Vortex Rings in
liquids, E. F. Northrup, 504. — Note on Nevil Maskelyne's Article, ** On
the Trisection of an Angle," H. S. Uhler, 606.

Geology — Publications of the United States Geological Survey, 507. — Cambro-
Ordovician Boundary in British Columbia with description of fossils,
C. D. Walgott, 508. — Sardinian Cambrian Genus Olenopsis in America,
C. D. Walcott : Middle Cambrian Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, Trilobita,
and Merostomata. C. D. Walcott, 509. — Strophomena and other fossils
from Cincinnatian and Mohawkian horizons, A. F. Fobrste : Amheim
formation within the areas traversed by the Cincinnati geanticline, A. F.
FosRSTE : Paleontologia Universalis : Petrographic Methods, 511. —Methods
of Petrograpbic-Microscopic Research, F. E. Wright : The Soil Solution ;
the nutrient medium for plant growth, F. E. Cameron, 512.

Mieeellaneous Scientific Intelligence — National Academy of Sciences, 513. —
Sixth Annual Report Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teach-
ing : Report of Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, O. H.
TiTTMANN, 514. — Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards, 515.

OWttton/— R. S. Tarr, 515 : A.L. Rotch ; O. Reynolds, 516.



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Vlll CONTENTS.



Number 198.

Ptge
Akt. XLIII. — Nitrogen Thermometer Scale from 300° to
630°, with a Direct Determination of the Boiling Point
of Sulphur; by A. L. Day and R. B. Sosman 517

XLIV. — Note on the Standard Scale of Temperatures be-
tween 200° and 1100°; by L. H. Adams and J. John-
ston 534

XLV. — Note on Measurements of Radio-activity by Means

of Alpha Rays; by W. R. Bakss 546

XL VI.— The Binary System : Na,Al,Si,0, (Nephelite, Car-
negieite)— CaAl,Si,0^ ( Anorthite) ; by N. L. Bowen... 551

XLVII.— New Occurrence of Carnotite; by E. T. Wherry 674

XLVIIL— Age of the Cleveland Shale of Ohio; by H. P.
Gushing 581

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Chemistry and Physics — Ultra-filtration in Chemical Analysis, Dorpurt and
Galecki : Magnesia Rods as a Substitute for Platinum Wire, E. Wadb-
EIMD, 585. — Combustion of Carbon Monoxide, Wieland : Purity of Com-
mercial Metals, F. Mylius, 580. — Effect of Temperature upon Radio-activa
Disintegration, A. S. Russell, 587. — Das Magnetische Spektrum der /3-
Strahlen des Thoriums, von Bagyer, Hahn, and Meitner, 588. — Applied
Physics for Secondary Schools, V. D. Hawkins : Die Messung vertikaler
Luftstromungen, P. Ludewig, 589. — Teaching of Physics for Purposes of
General Education, C. R. Mann : Uber Zerfallprozesse in der Natur,
C. Engler, 590.

Geology — Evolution of the Vertebrates and their Kin, W. Patten, 590. —
Die Wirbeltiere : eine tlbersicht tlber.die fossilen und lebenden Formen,
O. Jaekel ; American Permian Vertebrates, S. W. Williston, 593. —
Maryland Geological Survey : Method of Removing Tests from Fossils,
S. S. BucKMAN, 593. — Virginia Geological Survey : West Virginia Geolog-
ical Survey, 594. — Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey :
Building Stones and Clays, E. C. Eckel : Mineralogy, F. H. Hatch, 595.

MisceUarieous Scientific Intelligence — Annals of the Association of American
Geographers, R. E. Dodge : Annual Report of the Director of the Field
Museum of Natural History, 596,— Science Reports of the T6hoku Imperial
University, Sendai, Japan : Fourth Report of, the Wellcome Tropical Re-
search Laboratoiy, 597. — Life and Love of the Insect, J. H. Fabre :
Evolution of Animal Intelligence, S. J. Holmes, 598.

Obituary—^. N. Lebedew : A. Topler : E. Divers : G. Borup, 598.
Index to Volume XXXIII, 599-604.



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Vlineralogical Section,

f ruL,. it:s3:irF. — JANUAKY, 1912.



I



Established by BENJAMIN SILLIMAN in 1818.



THE

AMERICAN



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.



Editor: EDWARD S. DANA.



ASSOCIATE EDITORS



PROFESSOBS GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRIDQE,
W. G. FARLOW AND WM. M. DAVIS, of Cambbidob,

Professors ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS,
L. V. PIRSSON AND H. E. GREGORY, of New Hatbn,

Professor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, of Ithaca,
Professor JOSEPH S. AMES, of Baltimore,
Mr. J. S. DILLER, of Washington.



FOURTH SERIES

VOL. XXXIII-[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXIII.]

No. 193— JANUARY, 1912.

NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.

1912.



THE TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR CO., PRINTERS, 123 TEMPLE STREET.



PablUhed monthly. Six dollars per year, in advance. $6.40 to countries in the
Postal Union ; $6.25 to Canada. Remittances should be made either by money orders,
registered letters, or bank checks (preferably on New York banks). ^



URAL MOUNTAINS.



It is a number of years since any dealer in America has had such a collection
of minerals and gem crystals as I have jast received. On account of lack of
space I cannot give an extensive description, but will state that the collec-
tion consists of rare minerals, gem crystals and numerous polished speci-
mens. Also iucluded in this consignment is a large quantity of massive, gem
quality malachite, suitable for cutting, and also polished specimens.

In the same shipment I received a large assortment of malachite, rhodo-
nite, jasper and rare marble boxes. Also dishes, trays, cups and numei-ous
other ornaments of all the well known stones found at this celebrated
locality. Also a unique collection of ornaments representing peasant art of
this region in wood, iron, jasper, quartz and jade.



I take pleasure in announcing that the large collection of minerals recently
received has been thoroughly gone over and properly labelled and is now
ready for sale. This collection consists of over 5,000 specimens of excellent
quality, some of them from old finds, and almost all very well crystallized.
Let me know what you desire and I shall be pleased to send you a selection
on approval, prepaid.

INTERESTING QUARTZ CRYSTALS FROM A NEW FIND.

I have just received several hundred quartz crystals from a new find at
Albuquerque, New Mexico. These crystals are of a rose color, unique in
form, most look like cubes and are very sliarp. Prices from 10 cents to 25
cents each. No collector should be without a series of these interesting
crystals.

ARE YOU INTERESTED IN GEMS?

If so, you will find my stock now richer than ever before in beautiful
examples suitable both for jewelry and specimens. Among the reconstructed
gems in my stock, all of which are of the finest quality, I will mention the
following : Rubies, blue, pink, white and yellow sapphire ; and an unusually
large stock of common and rare Semi-Precious and Precious Stones, both
cut and in the rough. I am able to supply any gem desired, in best quality
and all sizes.

Any of the above which may be desired for selection I shall be glad to
send on approval to patrons and customers. Information and prices of indi-
^•idual specimens cheerfully furnished upon request.



A. H. PETEREIT.

81—83 Fulton Street, New York City.



Phone Beekman 1S56.



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THE



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

[FOURTH SERIES.]



Art. I. — Physiography of Newfoundland ; by William H.

twenhofel.

Intboduction.

Only isolated references to the physiography of Newfound-
land occur in the various papers tnat have been published
relating to its geology, while almost nothing has been written
on the physiography from the modern standpoint. To obtain
some idea oi the surface, and its history, the writer, while
assisting in a study of the Carabro-Ordovician section of the
west and northwest coasts,* made such notes on the physi-
ography a£ time and opportunity permitted, and as these and
the conclusions based upon them may be of value, it has been
thought best to publish them. Only the west and northwest
coasts have been seen and data relating to other areas have
been derived from earlier writers, and in this connection the
map by Mr. James P. Howley, Director of the Geological
Survey of Newfoundland, has been of great assistance. The
complete absence of topographic maps and the lack of detailed
facts relating to the geology of much of Newfoundland,
requires that many of the statements be couched in general
terms.

In treating the subject the major physiographic features are
described, and as the Newfoundland surface is to a large degree
controlled by rock and structure, these are shown in so far as



Online LibraryJohn Elihu HallThe American journal of science → online text (page 1 of 61)