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ments of plants. The supply of salts was inexhaustible, for new
water mingled continually with the old and brought fresh
sources of mineral to petrify the plants. Thus in the heart of the
masses of coal were formed large and small concretions of
carbonate, some regular as balls and very large, others minute
and uniting together to form wisps or sheets of stone lying in

the coal.

m * * m * *

^'In the sea above, the currents carried fragments of plants
from the neighbouring land, brought by the streams from the
higher ground. These sank in the muddy floor and were grad-
ually crushed by the silt collecting above them, till they were
flattened as impressions in the beds which afterwards formed
shales * ♦ *.

" These drifted plants, whether their fate was to be enclosed in
the preserving nodules or to be crushed into the shales, had prin-
cipally come from regions different from those which had pro-
duced the half-formed coal now lying immediately below them.

" Slowly they too were covered by the fine deposits which col-
lected gently over them, until the sea bottom rose again to form
a new land. All this time the plants were preserved in the coal
balls without disturbance or huit, and although the coal-forming
debris had been pressed down into coal which was now but a foot
in thickness, they remained uncrushed in their original form.

''Thus, the 'coal balls' in the coal are the relics of a forest
which grew quietly in the swamp in the place where they are now
found, while the plants in the shales and in the roof nodules



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292 Scientific Intelligence.

above bad drifted out to sea from otber districts and bear in tbe
character of their structures the impress of the different type of
land on which they lived " (pp. 210, 212). c. s.

9. The early Paleozoic Bryozoa of the Baltic Jh'ovinces ; by
Ray S. Bassleb. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 77, 1911, pp. 382, pis.
13 and 226 text illustrations. — This important work on the Ordo-
vician Bryozoa of ICsthonia and Sweden describes in detail 161
forms, and of these 69 are either new species or new varieties.
All of these fossils are also carefully located in the geologic hori-
zons, and as so many species are common to Europe and North
America, this evidence furnishes the author with excellent faunal
criteria for exact intercontinental stratigraphic correlation. On
an average about 35 per cent (or a total of 65 out of 161) of the
species are common to the Baltic area and America. On the basis
of this evidence the author has the decided advantage of all pre-
vious stratigraphers and he makes out a good case, proving his
detailed correlations, and also that the Ordovician sequence of
Esthonia when compared with that of tbe interior of America is
very incomplete. His main conclusion is " that the greater part of
the Russian Ordovician section may be directly correlated with
the Black River group of America, while the Upper Lyckholm
and Borkholm limestones are the equivalents of the Richmond
group" (2).

The author then takes up a short study of the Arctic American
Ordovician faunas and finds "that the geologic section at Baffin
Land consists of Black River strata resting upon the old crystal-
line rocks, followed by an early Trenton formation equal to the
Stewartville and Prosser limestones of Minnesota, and this in turn
succeeded [apparently] unconformably by the widespread coral
zone of the Richmond group " (36). He has plotted on a paleo-
geographic map (43) all the known Arctic occurrences of Black
River and early Trenton deposits, and brings out very clearly the
striking new knowledge that the faunas entombed in these rocks
are from the Arctic ocean and that its waters and life have spread
at times during the Ordovician southward into northern Europe
and into America as far as Tennessee. This distribution is now
established and is further borne out by the similar spread of the
Silurian faunas which Weller published many years ago showing
that they too are also largely of Arctic and North European
origin. c. s.

10. ^4 descriptiofi oft/ie fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous,
Eocene, and Miocene formations of New Jersey ; by Henry W.
Fowler. Geol. Surv. N. J., BuU'etin 4, 1911, pp. 192, with 108
text figures. — This work is a descriptive and fully illustrated sum-
mary of the fish remains, essentially sharks and chimseras, found
in the late Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits of New Jersey. Of
species there are over 90 (sharks 43, chimseras 21, true fishes 24,
uncertain 3), and of these but 4 are new forms. c. s.

11. Types of Ore Deposits ; edited by H. Foster Bain. Pp.
378, with 345 figures. San Francisco, 1911 (Mining and Scientific



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Geology and Mineralogy. 293

Press). — This book is designed to present an accurate account of
the present state of opinion regarding the genesis of ores. The
different chapters have been written by men each of whom is an
authority concerning the type of deposit that he describes. Many
of the papers have appeared previously in various magazines, etc.
The following list of chapter subjects with their authors is suffi-
cient proof of the character and value of the volume: Introduc-
tion by H. Foster Bain ; The Clinton Type of Iron Ore Deposits
by C. H. Smyth, Jr. ; The Lake Superior Type of Iron Ore
Deposits by C. K. Leith ; Flats and Pitches of the Wiscon-
sin Lead and Zinc District by H. Foster Bain ; Lead and Zinc
Deposits of the Ozark Region by E. R. Buckley ; Native Copper
Deposits by Alfred C. Lane ; Cobalt District, Ontario, by S. F.
Emmons ; Geology at Treadwell Mines by Oscar F. Hershey ;
The Saddle Reef by T. A. Rickard ; Contact Deposits by James
F. Kemp ; The Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand by F. H.
/Hatch ; Replacement Orebodies and the Criteria by Means of
which they may be Recognized by J. D. Irving; Outcrop of Ore-
bodies by William H. Emmons ; Some Causes of Ore-Shoots by
R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. w. e. f.

12. Brief Notices of some Recently Described Minerals, —
MuTHMANNiTK is a tclluride of gold and silver from Nagyag in
Transylvania. The mineral has been earlier called mQllerine, gelb-
erz and weistellur and by Schrauf was referred to krennerite
(see Dana, Syst. Min., p. 104). Zambonini, however, makes it
distinct with the formula (Ag, Au) Te ; this is based upon the
following analysis by C. Gastaldi : Te 46*44 Au 22-90 Ag 26-36
Pb 2'68 = 98*28. The name is given in honor of W. Muthmann
of Munich. — Zeitschr, Kryst., xxix, 246, 1911.

Yttrofluobitb is a fluoride of calcium and the yttrium earths
described by Th. Vogt from a pegmatite in northern Norway.
It resembles fluorito in form but shows only imperfect octahedral
cleavage. The luster is vitreous ; the color yellow to brown or
green ; hardness = 4*5 ; specific gravity 3*56. An analysis gave :

F CaO Y-earths Ce-earths alk. ign.

45-54 54-89 17-35 1*68 0-15 067 H9O under 100*

0-22 = 120-50, or deducting O 19-17 = 101-88.
Yttrofluorite is near yttrocerite but differs in its larger percent-
age of the yttrium-earths and practical absence of water. — Cen-
tralhl Min,, 1911, 373.

EiCHBERGiTS is a sulphide of copper, iron, antimony and bis-
muth from the magnesite deposits of Eichberg in the Semmering,
Austria ; it is described by O. Grosspietsch. It occurs in massive
form with indistinct crystalline structure. The color is iron-gray;
luster metallic ; hardness over 6 ; specific gravity 5*36. An analy-
sis gave :

S Bi Sb Cu Fe

12-74 51-53 8000 3-62 1-45 = 99-34

The calculated formula is (Cu,Fe),S.3(Bi,Sb),S,.— CVn^ra/W.
Min., X, 1911, 434.



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294 Scientific Intelligence.

Fbbmobitb is a new arsenate and phosphate of calcium and
strontium described by G. F. Herbert Smith and G. T. Prior
from the manganese-ore deposits of India. The mineral is appar-
ently hexagonal in crystallization but occurs chiefly massive ; it
is pale pinkish white to white in color and translucent with a
greasy luster. The hardness is 5, and the specific gravity 3-618.
An analysis (Prior) gave :

AsaOs PaOft CaO SrO F HaO insol.

25-23 2011 44-34 9-98 0-83 «r. 0-08 = 100-52

The formula deduced is analogous to that of apatite; written in
the old form it is : 3r(Ca,Sr)3(P, A8),0 J . Ca(OH,F),. The locality
is at Sitapar in the Chhindwara district, Central Provinces, India.
It is named after Dr. L. Leigh Fermor of the Geological Survey
of India. The manganese deposits of Kajlidongri in the Jhabna
State have also afforded crystallized specimens of the rare min-
eral TELASiTE. — Min, Mag,y xvi, 84, 86, 1911.

Thobveititb is a silicate of certain rare elements (scandium 44
p. c, also yttrium, didymium, erbium, et al.) from the Iveland
parish in the Satersdal, Southern Norway ; it is described by J.
Schetelig and named after the discoverer, O. Thorveit. It occurs
in orthorhombic crystals of simple habit, but uniformly twins.
The prismatic cleavage (73° 25') is distinct ; the hardness is 6-7 ;
the specific gravity 3-571 ; color grayish green with a luster
inclining to adamantine. The mean of two analyses gave :

SiO, 42-86, R,0, 57-67, ign. 0-44 = 100-97

The prominent rare elements present are named above ; their
molecular weight is 157'1.

Chbomitite is a supposed new chromium mineral to which
the formula Fefi^.Crfi^ is assigned. It is described by M. Z.
Zovitschitsch as derived from sands washed down from Mt.
Zeljin in Servia. It occurs in brilliant octahedral crystals which
are feebly magnetic and have a specific gravity of 3-1 ; they are
insoluble in mineral acids. — Sitzungsber. Akad. Wien, cxvii (lib),
p. 813, in Zs. Kryst.y 1, 83.



III. Miscellaneous Scientifio Intelligence.

1 . Fourth Report of the Wellcome Tropical Research Lahora-
torieSy at the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum ; Vol. A.
Medical, Andrew Balfour, Director. Pp. 404, with numerous
illustrations, including 14 colored plates. Department of Educa-
tion, Sudan Government, Khartoum, 1911. — The Wellcome
Research Laboratories at Khartoum were founded in 1903 for
the investigation of problems connected with the development of
the Sudan. Of primary importance is the study of the conditions
of hygiene and sanitation, and the nature of the diseases affecting
the people and animals, especially the communicable diseases. A



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MisoeUcmeoics Intelligence, 295

secondary object is the study of the fungi and insects injurious to
the crops and animals, the analysis of foods, water, minerals,
ores and fuels, and all such other matters as pertain to the eco-
nomic development of the natural resources of the country.

The first of these aspects — the medical — is treated in the beau-
tifully illustrated quarto volume in hand, while the second aspect
— General Science — will be represented by a similar volume
shortly to be published.

The present book consists of some forty separate, but related,
papers dealing with the general matters of tropical hygiene and
blood examination, with special reports on the recent discoveries
relating to the diagnosis and treatment of particular diseases.
Especial attention has been given to the means of identification
and the study of the life cycles of the parasites involved, and
many new and important facts have been discovered. The
volume also includes special reports by the Sleeping Sickness and
Kala-azar Commissions.

The results of the work of the laboratories up to the year 1908
have been published in four quarto volumes, and the fact that the
important researches described in the present report have
been accomplished during the past three years emphasizes
the remarkable industry of a corps of workers under climatic and
other conditions that would seem far from ideal for the most con-
centrated effort. w. R. c.

2. Einfilhrung in die Mykologie der Nahrungsmiltelgewerbe /
von Dr. Alexander Kossowicz. Pp. viii, 138 ; 5 plates, 21
text figures. Berlin, 1911 (Gebrftder Bomtraeger).

Einfilhrung in die Mykologie der Geniissmittef und in die
Odrungsphysiologie ; von Dr. A. Kossowicz. Pp. viii, 211 ;
2 plates, 60 text figures. Berlin, 1911 (GebrUder Bomtraeger).
The present "pure food movement" and the increased interest
in the problems of the preparation and preservation of foods
have encouraged the publication of books bearing on these topics,
in a form which shall not be too technical for others than the
extreme specialist. One of the Kossowicz monographs reviews
the nature of the microflora of various familiar products — milk
and its derivatives, meat, eggs, and fruits — together with sugges-
tions respecting the preservation of them. The second deals
with the microbiology of the fermentation industries, the manu-
facture of vinegar and mustard, tobacco fermentation, and the
biological factors involved in the preparation of coffee, tea, cocoa
and vanilla for the market. Though unembarrassed by extreme
details, the subject matter is obviously intended for individuals
possessed of some scientific and technical training rather than for
the layman. An extensive bibliography is included in each
volume. L. B. M.

3. Principles of Human ITutrition, A Study in Practical
Dietetics ; by Whitman H. Jordan, Director of the New York
Agricultural Experiment Station. Pp. xxi, 450. New York,
1912 (The Macmillan Company). — The book is intended to



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296 Scientific Intelligence.

supply a rational basis for practical dietetics. With this end in
view the entire field of the nutritive phenomena — digestion,
absorption, metabolism — is reviewed in relation to the anatomical
parts of the body and physiological processes involved. The
chemical nature of the foodstuffs and the transformation which
they experience prior to their utilization by the organization are
discussed. From the popular standpoint — and to this the volume
is especially intended to contribute — the applications of the scien-
tific facts to correct dietary habits are presented in a form
acceptable to those with limited scientific training. There are
many elements of novelty, various unique view-points, and evi-
dences of the up-to-dale character of the compilation everywhere.
The addendum of analyses of American food materials gives an
added practical value to the volume. l. b. m.

4. Ostwald^a Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften, Leipzig,
1911 (Wilhelm Engelmann). — The following are recent additions
to this valuable series of scientific classics :

No. 181. M6chain und Delambre : Grundlagen des dezimalen
metrischen Systems oder Messung des Meridianbogens zwischen
Breiten von Dtlnkirchen und Barcelona.

Borda und Cassini : Yersuche tlber die Lange des Sekunden-
pendels in Paris. In Auswahl tibersetzt und herausgegeben ; von
Dr. Walter Block. Pp. 200.

No. 182. Vollstandigere Theorie der Maschinen, die durcb
Reaktion des Wassers in Bewegung verse tzt werden ; von
L. EuLBB. Herausgegeben von Ernest A. Braubr und M.

WiNKELMANN. Pp. 94.



Obituary.



Professor George Jarvis Brush, an assistant editor of this
Journal from 1863 to 1879, died at his home in New Haven on
February 6 in his eighty-first year. He was appointed Professor
of Mineralogy in the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University
in 1864, and became Director of the School in 1872. In 1898 he
retired from active service but remained President of the Sheffield
Trustees until his death. A notice of Professor Brush is deferred
until a later number.

Sir Joseph Lister, famous for his discovery of the antiseptic
treatment in surgery, died in London on February 11 at the age of
eighty-five years. He served as Professor of Surgery in Glasgow
and Edinburgh Universities, and in King's College, London.

Charles Gilbert Wheeler, the chemist and mining geolo-
gist, died on January 30 at the age of seventy -five years.

Mr. J. B. Edouard Bornet, the eminent French phycologist,
died at Paris on December 18, at the age of eighty-three years.



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New Circulars.

I

84: Eighth Mineral List: A descriptive list of new arrivals,
rare and showy minerals.

85 : Minerals for Sale by Weight: Price list of minerals for
blowpipe and laboratory work.

86: Minerals and Rocks for W^orking Collections: List of
common minerals and rocks for study specimens; prices
from I Yi cents up.

Catalogue 26: Biological Supplies: New illustrated price list
of material for dissection ; study and display specimens;
special dissections; models, etc. Sixth edition,

{ Any or all of the above lists will be sent free on request. We are

} constantly acquiring new material and publishing new lists. It pays to

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C N T E X T S.



Art. XX. — Mineral Sulphides of Iron ; by 1
J. L. Crensuaav, and J. Joiinstox ; w
graphic Study, by E. S. Larsex



EX,

Ho-



XXI. — Some Relations between Gravity Anoi . • ihe

Geologic Formations in the United States ; oy W. liowiE

XXIT. — Association of Native Gold with Sillimanite -. by T.
L. Watson _ _

XXIII. — Ilecker's Remarks on Ocean Gravity Observations ;
by L. A. Bauer



XXIV. — Relations of the Degi^e of Metamorphisni to Geo-
logical Structure and to Acid Igneous Intrusion in the
Xarragansett Basin, Rhode Island ; by F. H. Lahee...

XXV. — Ilmenitc Rocks near St. Urbain, (Quebec ; A New
Occurrence of Rutile and Sa])phirine ; b}' C. II. Wahrkx



Page

169
237
241
245

249
203



scip:xtific intelligence.

C/iotiish-i/ and FVujsics — Qnftiititative Detemniiatioii of Mangamse, Eaikcw
aurl TiscHKOW : A Peniitride of Carbon, G. Dauzexs, 278. — Portland
C'-meiit. E. Janfx'KE: Annual Rcjjort of the International Coniujittee i>n
Atomic Weii^lits for 191*3. — Hydrates of Sodium Carbonate, VVegsciikioer ;
Canadium : lutrinnic Uri.i^lituess of the Starlit Sky, C. Fabry, 2y(». — Maj;-
iK'tischo Spi'ktren der /^Stralilen des RadiiiniP, 2S1. — Prodnctiou of Cbar-
acrcriHtic Ront«,^en Radiations, R. Whiddin<.;ton, 282. — Weitero Messnii^^en
iiber VVf llenUingennormale im Eisenspektnira, Eversheim, 2^3. — The Snn'.s
Kneruv-Spectrnm and Temprratnre, C. G. Abbot, 284. — College Phvsics,
J. O. Rfed and K. E. Githe, 285.

iicolotjy (iiid Mhiernhnjij — Geoloj?y of the Lake Superior Re^cion, C. R. Van
HisE and C. K. Leith, 2^>6. — Elastic -Rebound Theory of Eartliquaken, 11.
F. Reid, 2H7. — LaSisjnologienioderne, Comte de Montesscs de Ballore :
Periodic VariatiouB of Glaciers : Interpretation of Peneplain.-*, E. C.
Andrews, 288.— Australia in its Physio«;raphic and Economic Aspects, G.
Taylor: Canada, Department of .Mines. 289. — The present distribution
and orif^in of '* Coal Balks," M, C. Stopes and D. M. S. Watsox. 299.—
Early Paleozoic Biyozoa of the Baltic Provinces, R. S. Bassleu : Fossil
FiBhiemains of the Cietaeeous of New Jersey, H. W. Fowler : Types of
Ore Deposits, H. F. Baix, 292. — Bi-ief Notices of some Recently Described
Minerals, 293.

MisKirUancous Scie)\tlfic IntfUiyence— Fourth Report of tho Wellcome Troi)i-
cal Research Laboratories, A. Balfour, 294. — Einfiihriuig in die MykoL
o<^ie, A. Kossowicz : Principles of Human Nutrition, W. H. Jordan, 295.
Ostwald's Klassiker der exacten Wissenschafteu, 290.

Ohihianj—G. J. Brush : J. Llster : C. G. Wheeler : J. B. K. Bornet, 296.



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Harvard university Museum.

Mineralogical Section.



VOL. XXXIII.



APRIL, 1912.



EstabliBhed by BENJAUIH SHUMAIT in 1818.



THE



. AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.



Editor: EDWARD S. DANA.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Professors GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRIDGE,
W. G. FARLOW AND WM. M. DAVIS, of Cambridge,

Professors ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS,

LOUIS V. PIRSSON, HERBERT E. GREGORY

AND HORACE S. UHLER, of New Haven,

Professor HENRY S. WILLIAMS, of Ithaca,

Professor JOSEPH S. AMES, of Baltimore,

Mr. J. S. DILLER, of Washington.



FOUBTH SEBIES

VOL. XXXIII-[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXIIL]
No. 196— APRIL, 1912.

WITH PLATES I AND II.

NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.
1912.

THE TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE A TAYLOR CO., PRINTERS, 123 TEMPLE STREET.



Published monthly. Six dollars per year, in advance. $6.



T*._A_1 TT_i . A0 nt: X_ i~1 3



id lo countries m the



NEW ARRIVALS.



The following is a brief list of the most important specimens recently
received :

Native antimony, massive and polished sections, White River, Cal.

Awaroite, metallic pebbles, Smith River, Cal.

Obsidian, black, brown and red, Smith River, Cal.

Hanksite, loose crystals, San Bernardino, Cal.

Andalusite, var. Chiastolite, polished matrix specimens with beautiful
markings, also polished loose xls., Fresno Co., Cal.

Calif ornite, Fresno Co., Cal.

Chalcedony and Opal, San Benito, Cal.

Stibiotantalite, Mesa Grande, Cal.

Calaverite, Cripple Creek, Colo.

Pink quartz xls., near Albuquerque, N. M.

Nytramblygonite, Caiiou City, Colo.

White Labradorite. also cut cabachon and brilliant, southern Oregon.

Opalized Wood with sparkling veins of gem opal, Northern Humboldt,
Nevada.

Waringtonite, new occurrence, formerly found in Cornwall, Eng.; also in
conibination with aurichalcite, Smithsonite, aznrite and brochantite, Dry
CaSon, Tooela Co., Utah.

Brochantite, Azurite, Smithsonite, Aurichalcite, Malachite, Dry Cafion,
Utah.

lodyrite, Nevada.

Zincite and Pyrochroite, remarkable specimen, Franklin Furnace, N. J.

Gageite with Zincite-leucophoenicite, Franklin Furnace, New Jersey.

Lapis Lazuli, polished slabs, Baikal, Siberia.

Malachite, polished specimens, Ural Mts.

Emeralds, fine specimens in matrix, Ural Mts.

Alexandrite, Golden Beryl, Aquamarines, Ouvarovite, Perovskite, Pyro-
morphite, Ural Mts.

Dioptase, Khirgese Steppes, Siberia.

Serasyite, xlzd., Felsobanya.

Hessite, Botes, Hungary.

Stephanite and Pyrargyrite, Hungary.

Blue Chalcedony, xlzd., Hungary.

Stibnite specimens and with barite, Hungary.

Herrengmndite, Herrengrund, Hungary.

Cinnabar, very choice, with dolomite and white quartz, China.

Cinnabar, Spain and California.

Stibnite and Bismuth, Japan.

Kroknkite, large specimens. Chili.

Proustite, Chili and Bohemia.

Octahedrite, Rathite, Cyanite, Anatase, Switzerland.

Argyrodite, Saxony.

Liroconite and Tennantite, Cornwall, Eng.

Millerite, Westphalia.

Embolite and Stolzite, New South Wales.

Opal bird bones and opal shells, N. S. W.

Cenissite, New South Wales.

Phenacite, gem xls., Brazil.

Tourmalines, Brazil ; Mesa Grande, Cal. ; Elba ; Madagascar ; Maine.

Synthetic gems ; rubies ; bine, white, yellow and pink sapphires, all sizes.
Further information and prices furnished on request.



A. H. PETEREIT.

81—83 Fulton Street, New York City.

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THE



ERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

[FOURTH SERIES.]



:. XXVI. — The Discovery of Pre- Historic Human
iematjis near Cuzco^ Perv ; by Hibam Binouam, Director
•f the Yale Peruvian Expedition. (With Plates I and II.)

The Yale Peruvian Expedition was organized to do archfieo-

jical, geographical, geological, and topographical reconnais-

nce. We spent the first part of July, 1911, in and about

nzco. On the morning of July 6, while walking up a gulch

illed Ayahuaycco quebrada west of Cuzco (fig. 1), in company

ith Professor Harry W. Foote, the collector-naturalist of the

Expedition, and Dr. William G. Erving, our surgeon, I noticed

> few bones and sevei-al pieces of pottery interetratified with

lie gravel bank of the gulch and apparently exposed by recent

M'osion. This led me to examine both sides of the gulch very

:jarefully. A hundred yards above the point where the first

bones were noticed we found that erosion had cut through an

ancient ash-heap containing a large number of fragments of

;1>ones and pottery. Still farther up the gulch and on the side



Online LibraryJohn Elihu HallThe American journal of science → online text (page 30 of 61)