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No. 286. Part VI. Missouri River Basin ; by W. A. Lamb, W.
B. Freeman, Raymond Richards, and R. C. Kics. Pp. vii, 308;
4 plates, 1 figure. No. 287. Part VII. Lower Mississippi Basin;
by W. B. "Freeman and J. G. Mathers. Pp. 91; 2 plates.

2. CamhrO'Ordovician Boundary in British Columbia with
description of fossils ; by Charles D. Walcott. Smithsonian
Misc. Col., 57, No. 7, pp. 229-237, pi. 35, 1912.— Until now the
boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician of America has
not been clearly established on paleontologic evidence. Due to
the discovery of fossils by J. A. Allan of the Geological Survey
of Canada, and later by L. D. Burling, Walcott is now able to
indicate this division with certainty for the Rocky Mountain
region. Some time ago he placed the line at the top of the Sher-
brooke formation which has in its upper beds LinguleUa isse and
a Ptychoparia, fossils indicating the Upper Cambrian. This
formation is now known to be followed by the Chancellor, about
2500 feet thick, then the Ottertail blue limestone with a thickness
of 1550+ feet. The latter y ie]ds J^inffulella cf. isse, Agnostus,
and Ptychoparia, fossils indicating Cambrian time.

Above the Ottertail formation appear interbedded cherts, cherty
limestones, dolomitic limestones and siliceous and calcareous
slates and shales over 6000 feet in thickness, referred to the
Goodsir formation. In the lower part Allan found the new
species here described by Walcott as Obolus mollisonensis, Lin-
gulellaf cdlani, L, moosensis and Ceratopyge canadensis,

"The discovery of fairly well characterized specimens of the
trilobitic genus Ceratopyge associated with brachiopods of the
same general type as those found in the Ceratopyge shale of



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Geology. 509

Sweden is most iinportaiit, as it gives the first definite suggestion
of a base for the Ordovician in the section along the Canadian
Pacific Railway west of the Continental Divide. In Sweden the
Ceratopyge shale and limestone are now by general assent placed
at the base of the Ordovician, and with our knowledge of the
stratigraphy of the upper portion of this section as determined by
Mr. Allan I am inclined to agree with him in placing, at least
tentatively, the boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician
at the summit of the Ottertail limestone and the base of the
Goodsir formation" (230). c. s.

3. The Sardinian Cambrian Genus Olenopsis in America;
by Charles D. Walcott. Smithsonian Misc. CoL, 67, No. 8,
pp. 239-249, pi. 36, 1912. — The author here describes three
species of Olenopsis derived from the upper part of the Lower
Cambrian of Pennsylvania and from the passage beds at the base
of the Middle Cambrian in Montana, Alberta, and British
Columbia. The genus was originally discovered in Sardinia,
where its exact stratigraphic position remained undetermined.
Walcott shows in this paper that the Sardinian species probably
is of the time of the strata ^^ beneath the Middle Cambrian
Paradoxidee beds, either in passage beds from the Lower to the
Middle Cambrian, or in the upper beds of the Lower Cambrian"
(239). c. 8.

4. Middle Cambrian Branchiopoda^ Malacostraca^ Trilobita,
and Merostomata ; by Charles D. Walcott. Smithsonian
Misc. CoL, 67, pp. 148-228, pis. 24-34, 1912.— In this preliminary
paper of extraordinary interest are described 1 new order, 6 new
families, 6 old and 19 new genera (of Branchiopoda, Opabinia,
Zeanchoiliay Yohoiay Bidentiay Naraoia, Burgessia, and Wap-
tia ; of Malacostraca, Hurdia^ Tuzoia^ Odaraia, Fieldia^ and
Carnarvonia ; of trilobites, Marrella^ Nathorstia^ Mollisonia^
and Tontoia ; of Merostomata, Molaria^ Habeliay and Emerald-
ella)y and 31 new species. Nearly all are derived from the Burgess
shale of Middle Cambrian age near Field, British Columbia.
This shale has furnished the author with no less than 66 genera
derived from a block of shale not over 6 by 40 feet in area and
7 feet in thickness. No other locality has given us such an
astonishing insight not only into the life of the Middle Cambrian
but as well into what must have been the stage and diversity of
invertebrate life in pre-Cambrian time. Nevertheless the Burgess
shale record is said to be imperfect for "We have only a portion
of a crustacean fauna that was already developed early in
Cambrian time" (153).

Students of trilobites will be much interested to know that
these animals (certainly at least Neolenus) had a pair of long
jointed caudal rami that are not unlike those in Apus. On the
other hand Marrella is a trilobite suggesting Apus in its long and
tapering abdomen.

Walcott states that these Middle Cambrian Branchiopoda and
Malacostraca have normally 6 pairs of cephalic appendages, if the



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510 Scientific Intelligence.

stalked eyes are regarded as representing tbe first pair. These
''are not very unlike those of recent crustaceans of the same
orders/' while tbe thoracic appendages appear to be based on the
typical crustacean biramose limb.

The author thinks it probable that the Branchiopoda, Mala-
costraca, Ostracoda, Trilobita, and Merostomata had their origin
previous to the Cambrian. In regard to Bernard's interesting
theory that Apus was developed out of a ''browsing carnivorous
annelid with its first 5 segments (head) bent so that its mouth
faced ventrally and posteriorly," Walcott "examined the Bur-
gess shale annelidan and crustacean fauna to ascertain if there
was an annelid that could be considered as representing his hypo-
thetical crustacean annelid, and nearer to it in structure than
Apus. I found specimens of Canadia apinosa Walcott laterally
flattened in the shale with the head bent down, so that the mouth
faces posteriorly (Smiths. Misc. Col., 57, No. 5, 1911, pi. 23, ^g,
4), also that 14 out of 24 specimens have the head bent under
and out of sight beneath the flattened body. Possibly these
annelids and the crustaceans were derived from the same general
type of animal" (162).

"As to the relations of the Branchiopo<la, Leptostraca (repre-
senting the Malacostraca), Trilobita, and Merostomata the inter-
relationship of the four so-called subclasses is found to be very
intimate. In Opabinia and LeanchoUia the typical branchiopod
is clearly present. In Waptia the Leptostraca is very near at
hand as developed in Hymenocaria.

"In Marrella the trilobite is foreshadowed, and Nathoratia is a
generalized trilobite as the trilobite appears to be a specialized
branchiopod, adapted largely for creeping on the bottom. The
trilobite gives some conception of a possible form between the
Branchiopoda and the Aglaspidae of the Merostomata" (163).

From the ApodidsB "it is assumed that the Branchiopoda came,
and from the Branchiopoda stock three distinct branches were
developed prior to or during Cambrian time." In one line of
descent "it is assumed that the Trilobita are directly descendent
from the. Branchiopoda and forms grouped under tBe order
Aglaspina derived from the Trilobita. The order Limulava is
considered as being intermediate between Aglaspina and the
Eurypterida, and that the two orders Limulava and Aglaspina
serve to connect the Trilobita and the Eurypterida.

"From the Eurypterida we pass to the Xiphosura. It is
thought that the Phyllocarida, as represented by the group of
forms included under Ihe Hymenocarina, came from the Branchio-
poda, but on a different line of descent from the Trilobita and
the orders grouped under the Merostomata.

"The ostracods are assumed to have been derived from the
Branchiopoda, but on a different line of descent from the Trilo-
bita and Phyllocarida" (163-4). 0. s.

6. Strophomena and other fossils from Cincinnatian and
Mohawkian horizons^ chiefly in Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky ;



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Geology. 511

by Aug. F. Foebste, Bull. Sci. Lab., Denison Univ., xvii, pp.
17-174, pis. i-xviii, 1912. — The greater part of this work is
devoted to detailed descriptions of 4 1 species (9 new) of brachio-
pods and 2 other new fossil forms. Throughout the descriptions
and on the introductory pages is presented an immense amount of
stratigraphic detail along with the geographic distribution of the
species discussed. On page 23 is a revised table of the Cincin-
natian and Mohawkian formations embracing no fewer than 50
stratigraphic subdivisions. In the last paragraph (page 139) the
author makes three generic changes affecting bracbiopod genera
proposed by him in 1909, but the reasons for the substitutions are
not stated. These are Schizoramma for Schizonema, Pionodema
for Bathyccelia, and Encuclodema for Cyclocoelia. c, s.

6. The Arnheim formation within the areas traversed by the
Cincinnati geanticline ; by Aug. F. Foebste. Ohio Naturalist,
xii, No. 3, pp. 429-453, pis. xx-xxii,1912. — The Arnheim formation
is in the upper part of the Ordovician and at the base of the Rich-
mond series. Its distribution in Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio is
here described. It is in this formation that the Richmond faunas
make their appearance, but the source whence this migration
came the author does not state, though he seems to favor an
entrance from the southwest toward the northeast. The Arnheim
is also a time of crustal warping and the breaking down of some
unknown barrier, permitting the introduction of the Richmond
fauna. c. s.

7. Paleo7itologia UniversaliSy ser. 3, fasc. 3, July, 1911.— This
recently published fasciculus of reproductions and emendations
of poorly understood invertebrate species (1821-1850) treats of
25 forms recorded on 56 sheets. c. s.

8. Petrographic Methods, Translated from the German of
E. Weinschenk by R. W. Clark. 8°, pp. 396, figs. 371. New
York, 1912 (McGraw-Hill Co.). — No more convincing evidence
of the fact that petrology has become a definite science, which
occupies a field of its own, can be found than in the appearance of
volumes devoted to a description and discussion of its technical
methods, such as the one before us, and that noticed in the follow-
ing review. This work of Professor Weinschenk has now been
used for several years in the original, and has met in German-
speaking countries with very favorable consideration in the field
for which it was designed. It does not aim at the comprehen-
sive and mathematical treatment of subjects which characterizes
the great work of Rosenbusch and Wtilfing, but seeks in simpler
form, and mostly without mathematical discussion, lo convey to
the student the essential principles which underlie the optical
study, investigation, and determination of crystalline substances.
This is accomplished by careful and extended explanations and
description of apparatus and of the proper methods of its use.
The form of presentation of the matter is, therefore, not merely
synoptic of a larger work, as is too often the case in manuals
which are designedly somewhat elementary in character, but
rather full, so far as the field is covered.

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512 SGientiJla Intelligence.

The second part of the work is devoted to a description of the
rock-making minerals. In this the matter is considerably con-
densed to bring it within the limits of the work. The essential
material only is given and the subject matter of the less common ,
or less important species, is more condensed by use of smaller
type. A set of tables, such as are found in most of the well-
known texts, concludes the work.

The translator has done his part of the work carefully and well.
The book is well printed and attractively bound, and is illustrated
by numerous diagrams, cuts, and half tones, which add greatly
to the understanding of the text. While the work will not
replace the moi*e comprehensive manuals, which are necessary to
the advanced students and teachers of petrography, it will, with-
out doubt, find a very useful field of its own with beginners and
with those who desire a simpler method of treatment of the sub-
ject matter. l. v. p.

9. 7%6 Methods of Petrographic- Microscopic Research; by
Fred. Eugene Wrigut. 8°, pp. 204, 11 plates, 118 figures, 1912.
Carnegie Institution, Washington. — This work is almost the
antithesis of the one noticed above. Its intent is seen in the sub-
title, which reads " Their relative accuracy and ranj^e of applica-
tion." It is probably the most serious, scholarly and generally
comprehensive investigation of the optical methods employed in
petrographic research, to the extent indicated in the sub-title,
which has yet appeared, and it cannot fail to have a great
influence in promoting more careful and thorough work along
these lines. It is in no sense a text-book, and is no work for
beginners, but it is one which should be in the hands of every
teacher and advanced worker in petrography. It begins with an
investigation of the microscope, which is thoroughly discussed as
an instrument of precision in optical research. After this various
subjects, such as color, pleochroism, optical characters of bire-
fracting substances, refractive indices, birefringence and its meas-
urement, extinction angles, optic axial angles, etc., are treated in
successive chapters. The various methods and apparatus invented
in recent years, largely by the author, in the Geophysical Labor-
atory of the Carnegie Institution, are for the most part usefully
included. A series of carefully constructed plates, using various
modes of projection, furnish, by graphic methods, quick and easy
solutions of problems of determination, as, for instance, to reduce
the optic angle observed in air to be the true angle in the sub-
stance, when the index of refraction is known.

It is work of this character, the result of careful, accurate,
intelligent and highly trained effort directed to a particular field
of science, that makes the productions of the institution which
produces tliem of such a high degree of merit. l. v. p.

10. The tSoil Solution : The nutrient medium for plant growth;
by Frank K. Cameron. Pp. iv, 125, with Index and 3 ills.
Easton, Pa., 1911 (The Chemical Publishing Co.). — For some
years the Soil Survey at Washington has been engaged, among



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Miscellaneous Intelligence. 618

other things, in a careful study of the chemistry of soils. The
result has been a large number of valuable quantitative determina-
tions that have cleared up many points concerning soil fertility,
and have indicated the lines which many of the later investigations
should follow. The main results of these Government studies
have been organized in an attractive manner and presented by
the chemist in charge in the form of a book as above. A few
chapters, such as ** The Mineral Constituents of the Soil Solution,"
and " The Organic Constituents of the Soil Solution," are here
presented practically as they appeared in Government Bulletins,
except that a large number of relatively unimportant citations
have been omitted. The organization of these and other chap-
ters with reference to each other has been carefully done, so that
the work is a unit. In addition, a preliminary chapter on The
Soil, others on Soil Management, Soil Water, Fertilizers and
Alkali, make the book a well-rounded treatise on soils from the
chemical standpoint. i. b.



III. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence.

1. National Academy of Sciences, — The annual spring meeting
of the National Academy of Sciences was held in Washington on
April 16-18 ; some forty-five members were present.

The following gentlemen were elected to membership in the
Academy : John Jacob Abel, Johns Hopkins University; Charles
Benedict Davenport, Station for Experimental Evolution, Cold
Spring Harbor, N. Y. ; Samuel James Meltzer, Rockefeller Insti-
tute for Medical Research, New York; Harry Fielding Reid,
Johns Hopkins University ; Roland Thaxter, Harvard Univer-
sity ; William Morton Wheeler, Harvard University ; David
White, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C, and Robert
Williams Wood, Johns Hopkins University.

Sir John Murray was elected a foreign associate of the
Academy.

The following is a list of the papers presented at the meeting :

George E. Hale : The new tower telescope of the Mount Wilson Solar
Observatory.

W. W. Campbell : Radial velocities of 218 brighter Class A stars. Radial
velocities of 190 brighter Class F stars. Some characteristics of stellar
motions.

W. J. Humphreys : Holes in the air.

R. A. Harpeb : The organization of the cell colony in Pediastrnm.

D. H. Campbell : On the morphology and systematic position of CcUycu-
laria radicuiosa (Saude Lac) Stephens.

Wlliam Trblease : A revision of Phoradendron.

H. F. Osborn: Biological Foundation of Bergson's ** Creative Evolution."

Harvet Cushino : Some observations on the functions of the pituitary
body.

Jacques Loeb : The activation of the animal egg from the physico-chemical
standpoint.

J. A. Holmes : The national phases of the mining industry.

C. G. Abbot : The solar radiation.

£. S. Morse : Biographical memoir of C. O. Whitman.

G. L. GooDALE : Biographical memoir of Alexander Agassi z.



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514: Scientific Intelligence.

2. Th^ Carnegie Foundation for the Advancemeyit of Teach-
ing. Sixth Annual Report of the President^ Henry S. Peitch-
ETT, and of the Treasurer^ Robert A. Franks. Pp. vi, 154.
New York City, October, 1911. — The total fund now in the hands
of the Trustees of the Carnegie Foundation amounts to something
more than IH 2,000,000, giving an income for the past year of
$590,500. Of tjiis latter sum, all but about Iil0,000 was expended,
most of it for retiring allowances and pensions to teachers and
their widows ; less than 154,000 was needed for administrative
expenses. The fact that income and expenditure are now so
closely balanced gives emphasis to the discussion by the President
in this report as to the general subject of college pensions. In
bis judgment they should carry with them, as is true of many
similar funds, a contributory feature. He urges, also, that inas-
much as the Foundation can in the future care for only a small
fraction of the college teachers in America, it is the duty of each
college to mature plans for assuming its own obligations in this
direction. It is to oe noted that of the additional gift of $5,000,-
000 promised by Mr. Carnegie in March, 1908, the first installment
Of $1,000,000 was paid in March a year ago. The total number
of institutions now on the accepted list is seventy-two, the Uni-
versity of Virginia having been added during the current year.

The present volume contains, in its second part (pp. 45-123), a
considerable number of chapters by the President, dealing with
the vital general problems in which the universities and the pro-
fessional schools of the country are concerned. He notes a remark-
able development in the educational movement in the United States
as shown in the increase of students, the adjustment of the college
to the four-year high school, and the increase of the number of
secondary schools of the four-year type. He sees also a gratifying
progress in the various lines of professional work and in the move-
ment of State institutions towards educational and political free-
dom.

3. Report of Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Sur-
vei/, O. H. TiTTMANX, shoxcing the Progress of the Work from
July i, lUlO, to Jam SO, 1911. , Pp. 584 ; 9 pocket maps. Wash-
ington, 1912. — The annual volume from |ihe Coast and Geodetic
Survey gives the usual interesting summary, by the superinten-
dent, of the work done in the country and the outlying terri-
tories. To be noticed is a reconnaissance for primary triangula-
tion to extend from the 39th parallel triangulation near Colorado
Springs to the Canadian boundary. This was begun in May and,
at the end of the year, four hundred miles of progress had been
made. It is also stated that the Texas-California arc of primary
triangulation from Texas to the Pacific coast, connecting the 98th
meridian triangulation with that in the vicinity of San Diego,
was completed during the year. Progress has also been made in
the surveying and marking of the boundary lines between the
United States and Canada. Of the six Appendixes accompanying
the volume are to be mentioned : one on the magnetic observa-
tions of the Survey, by R. L. Paris ; on triangulation along the



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Obituary. 515

98th meridiaD, Nebraska to Canada and Duluth, by William
Bowie, and on the same meridian, Seguin to Point Isabel, Texas,
by A. L. Baldwin ; on triangulation along the east coast of
Florida and the Keys, by H. C. Mitchell.

4. Bulletin of the JBureaii of Standards ; S. W. Stkatton,
Director. — The first number of volume VIII, Jan. 1912, is de-
voted to a paper of 237 pages, by Edward B. Rosa and F. W.
Grover, containing formulas and tables for the calculation of
mutual and self-inductance (revised).

The following important technologic papers have also been
issued by the Bureau of Standards :

No. 2. The Strength of reinforced Concrete Beams ; Results
of Tests of 333 Beams (first series) ; by R. L. Humphrey and
Louis H. LossE. Pp. 200 ; 45 figures.

No. 3. Tests of the absorptive and permeable Properties of
Portland Cement Mortars and Concretes, together with Tests of
damp-proofing and water-proofing Compounds and Materials ; by
Rudolph J. Wig and P. H. Bates. Pp. 127 ; 53 figures.

No. 5. The Effect of high pressure Steam on the crushing .
Strength of Portland Cement, Mortar, and Concrete ; by Rudolph
J. Wig. Pp. 25.

Obituary.

Ralph Stockman Tarr, Professor of Physical Geography in
Cornell University, died suddenly, after a brief illness, on March
21st at the age of forty -eight.

He was born at Gloucester, Mass., Jan. loth, 1864, and early
showed a bent for natural history studies. After a brief period
of study in the Summer School of Zoology at Salem, Mass., in
the fall of 1 88 1 he entered the zoological laboratory of Alpheus
Hyatt, acting as his assistant for two years. He took part in the
deep-sea explorations of the "Fish Hawk" and "Albatross" sent
out by the U. S. Fish Commission in 1883 ; assisted Professor
Shaler in the field work on the Geology of Cape Ann ; and in the
year 1889 was assistant on the Texas Geological Survey. While
engaged in these vario!JS modes of practical scientific work in
science he was registered as a student at Harvard, graduating
from the Lawrence Scientific School with the degree of B.S. in
1891. In 18D2 he was appointed Assistant Professor of Dynamic
Geology and Physical Geography in Cornell University and
Professor of Physical Geography in 1906, the position he held at
the time of his death.

In addition to excursions and explorations in and about Ithaca,
New York state, carried on both for training of his classes in
physiography and as research, he made more extended researches
in Alaska and Greenland, chiefly studying glaciers, and spent the
years 1901-2 and 1909-10 in Europe studying similar problems.

Professor Tarr wrote several text-books on Physical Geography,
the latest of which, " A Laboratory Manual of Physical Geog-
raphy " by R. S. Tarr and O. D. VanEngeln, was published in



1



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/



516 Scientific Intelligence.

1910. He also prepared a beautifully illustrated '^ Monogra.ph o
the Yakutat Bay Region, Alaska, Physiography and GIslcu
Geology" which was published in 1909 as Professional P^ape
No. 64 of the U. S. Geological Survey. He assisted in the prepa
ration of the ** Watkins Glen-Catatonk Folio" (pubHshed thi
same year by the Survey) comprising the ar^a of two 15-ii]iniit«
quadrangles immediately surrounding Ithaca and Cornell Uni-
versity. Among his published papers are also numerous contri-
butions to scientific and educational journals.

He was vigorously at work up to a few days of his death.
The correcting of proof-sheets of a Professional Paper for the
IT. S. Geological Survey on " Alaskan earthquakes *' and the
writing of a text-book on " Advanced Physiography " urere
brought to a close by his death. During the past winter he had
been actively engaged experimenting upon glacier and pond-ice,
seeking evidence of the determining causes and conditions of the
motion of glaciers. Dr. O. D. YanEngeln was assisting him in
these experiments and will continue them and prepare the record
of the experiments for publication. A scientific account of his
four expeditions to Alaska to stud}" its glaciers had but recently
been finished. Professor Lawrence Martin was associated with
him in its preparation and will complete it for publication. He
was also looking eagerly forward to making further explorations in



Online LibraryJohn Elihu HallThe American journal of science → online text (page 51 of 61)