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\m:



HARVARD
COLLEGE
LIBRARY



Preservation facsimile

printed on alkaline/buffered paper

and bound by

Acme Bookbinding

Charlestown, Nfassachusetts

2004



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^otbatb College JLSbcwcp




FROM THE

J. HUNTINGTON WOLCOTT

FUND

GIVSN BY ROGER WOLCOTT [CLASS
OF X870] m MEMORY OF BIS FATHER
FOR THE «FURCRASB OF BOOKS OF
PERMAMEMT VALUE, THE FIEFERENCE
TO BE GIVEN TO WORKS OF HI8T0!RY|
POLITICAL ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY*'



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NARRATIVE

OP THB .

EXPEDITION TO CHINA,

FROM THB

COMMENCEMENT OF THE WAR

TO

rre TEBJONATION IN 1842;



SKETCHES OP THE MANNEBS AND CUSTOMS OP THAT

SINOULAB AND HITHERTO ALMOST UNKNOWN

COUNTRT.

BT

CQMMAITOEB J. ELUOT BINGHAM. B.N.,

L*U Fint LiiwUnMU«tfH.M.S, Moimit.



IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. t

SECOND EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS.



\0ND0N:



HENRY COLBURN, PUBLISHER,

OBBAT MABLBOBODOH STBSET.



X.DCCCJCLni*



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a%.8.2 (0



i:

HARIUMW Ik 00., milTSM,
ST. MAMUr'k LAMB.



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TO THE

REV. RICHARD BINGHAM, B.C.L,,

CANON OF CHICHBSTER CATHBDRAL>

VICAR OF HALB MAGNA, LINCOLNSHIRB,

AMD

INCUMBENT OF THB CHURCH OF THB HOLY TRINITY

OOSPORT9

THB POUX>WIMO

ACCOUNT OF THE WAR IN CHINA

18 DEDICATBDy

AS A
MEMORIAL OF AFFECTION AND TRIBUTE OF ESTEEM

BY HIS DUTIFUL SON,

THE AUTHOR.



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.



AfiTsmritSMsyT to Sbcokd Editiov . • • ix
Pebfacb • • • xi

IVTBODUCTION ••.... 1

CHAPTER I.

PASSAGE TO CHINA

Qrtei to ptooeed to Chhii^— Airival of Bkmde and Fy-
kdflo— Krewmen dislike going^Iilaiid o£ MuanmB
— Flaoed in Quanunti no S q rchdl Xdands— Ck>co de
nier— PflDADj^— Stniti of Malaooa— Wtto^fpont^
Makyt— Upas Treo— Malaooa— Straiti of Sjioapore
■ Safl from Sina^Kno— Make the Ladnmea— Ghow-
Chow water— Anchor at Macao — ^Men of war in
Biror— Arrival of Eiqwdition— Blockade deoI«red—
Scale of Beward»— Arrival of Gape Squadron-—
Method of claiming Bewarda Sail for Chnaan— -
Ock-eae liknda—Fonnoaa— Black Idand— BnffiJo'a
Noae — Fiahing Boats — Want of Interpreter ~
Pirate's escape — Boats sail— Chnsan Harixyiv—
Oompradore seised — Blonde at Amoy— Ning-po
nnder Blockade— Elephant's Tnmk— Process of
making Salt— Difierenoe of rank .141

CHAPTER II

TEIP TO THE MOUTH OF THE PEI-HO.

dear the Idanda— Pylades and Transports join— Gu^tore
of Piratea— HeaTT Sqnall- Enter Imperial SeiH-
Onlf of Petche-U- Board Jmik— Proceed to the
Pei-ho— Pilots nseleas— Gaptore Ghinaman— Mandik
ring spoil their Boots— Appearance of the Shore—
Souiding BiTer— Showie Pih, alias Gaptain White
—Visit to Aloeste Ba)r— Procme Bollocks— Good
Water— Ydaffe visito Mantchow Tartaij— Welles-
Ugr ai T<^e— Plan for bringing Emperor to terms—
P rese n t to Squadron— Meeting with Keshen— Sick-
ness disappears— Procure BfiUiBt— Arrangement for
qoittiiKg Imperial Sea ... 199

b



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Yl CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

EETUBN TO CHUSAN.

Qnil the Pei-Ho— Toke— City of Tong^Tchon-foo—
Chineie Lftdief— Defenoes— Hannlng the Gnos —
Chineee Benneri— Anne — Paoapeo^^— Jeelousjr of
Minderini- -Hfia-tan Groap— Artifioial Harbour —
BuuljMAndanii— DiaiertationonTaili — ^Mandaiin^s
Attendant— The Oabin and Curiositj— -Rejoin Ad-
miral— Mountain of Fleah — Wb Appetite — Admins
tion of RUnen— MiA'tan— LoM d Pinnace— Use
of Telescope — Chinese IHjeim^ — Scolling-boats
Chin-ohin not Chin-chin— Qaelpert — Ordered off
Ning^po— Wreck of Bate— Cruel Treatment of her
Crew— DimsDsions of Cages— Death of Prisoners—
Their Release Capture of Captain Anstruther—
Attempts to kidmq^ MesBTk Boicnifl and Prattent . 248

CHAPTER IV.

NINCkPO AND CHUSAN.

Proceed to Ning-^io— Osptain Elliot applies for relesse of
Prisoners— Their better Treatment— ChineseCavahy
—Return to ''Spithead**- Yang-tse-li' ^ '

of the Conwaj- Death of Mr. Harvey — Alflerine at
Chapoo— BraToiy of Mandarin — ^Loss of Indian Oak
— Nimrod 8 Cruise— Loo-choo— Manners of its Inha-
bitants — Seaman's Grave— Quelpert — Sickness
amongst our Troops— Chusan—TiDg-hai—Taoutow
and ^s»>house HiU— Position of Troops — Robberies
—Chinese CoflBmr-Debasing of Coin— Temples —
Arsenala— Arms— Hie Six Boards— Burning the
Archives . • . • .291

CHAPTER V.
CHUSAN.

Good effects of Disc^Hne— Lingua f^!Bncsr— Resources of
Chusan — Its Vegetable Jh^uctions — ^Paddj— Ma-
nure —Anecdote — Cotton — Brides — Roads — Death
of Lieut Conwaj- His Funeral— Waterings— Mel-



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CONTENTS. Til

9AI9U

▼Ok Repaired— PreseDt from Elepoo— The Fever—
IVaoe— Innumerable Dock's E^^;8 — ^litUe Feet —
P^B wen Borne— Women's Hauv-Maniag;e— Arti-
fioial Flowers— Charma of an Anchor BnUon — ^Ad*
miral aula for Canton— Starboard Jack— Elepoo's
Chaa^ of Policy— Chinese Liners— Cast large Ghms
—Houses used as Hre-Wood— Hepoo's Threat to
ban the CStj-Kesheo^s Treachery— Lew appointed
Commander-in-Chief — His Ei^editioa pos^Kmed
dm§ rfis— Bene6cial effects of C(dd Weather— Orders
to evacuate CSrasan^The Evacuation— Climate and
Bange of Thermometer— Sqnadrcm sail from Star-
board Jack— Flahing-boata— Arrival at Toong-koo . 841



CHAPTER VI.

PB0CEEDIN08 IN THE CANTON BIVER.

Phweedfaigs at Ifacao during the absence of the Admiral
— Smng^finff by the IB^oadway- New Rewards for
British— Knlisting Troops— ChaUdng Fingers— Two
Oiicets robbed— Abdnotion of Kr. Staonton- His
Treatment Demanded by C^ttain Smith— Account
of the Barrier— Retom of the Taon-tae— Answer to
Certain Smith's Demand— Preparations fo attack-
ii^ the Barrier^Vlctoiy thereat— Effiwts of it-
flihissfi daim the Battle— CSiinese leave Macao—
lis delivers up his Seals— Lbi's Character^— Arrival
of S7th Kadraa Native Infantry— Lin*s Memorial—
Foroe in River— Flaff of Truce •gsin firad on —
Qnesi^s68ipounders-%oong-koo-«RoastingSoldiers
-Sentence of Paoupang^— Squadron proceed to Chu-
e npea -Admiral rengna the command— Anecdote-
Joss-house- Female Ofiering— Releaae of Mr.
Staunton— Christmas-day— Cb4>tain Smith and Mmi-
4iirin 386



62



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ILLUSTRATIONS.



YOLUMX I.

rAOK

Emperor of China To face TUU-^pag;

Month of the Pei-ho 218

'The Method in which the En^g^ PriaonerB at IHng^po

were canied about 276



TOLUMV II.

Temple of Mateoo^M^ at Amo*ko, in Mi^cao.

Tofom TUiefHiffe.

M4> 47S-



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ADVERTISEMENT

TO THB

SECOND EDITION.



A SECOND edition of my Narrative having
been called for, I have taken the opportonity
of throwing the Opium Question into the
form of an introduction, thus enabling the
reader who feels no interest in that subject
to pass it entirely over, and commence with
the expedition itself at page 154.

Sli^t errors have been corrected and
some anecdotes introduced, upon the autho-
rity of the actors in the scenes described.
An additional chapter has also been added,
bringing the proceedings in China up to the
date of the latest intelligence, and I trust to
the conclusion of the affair.

Some of my friends have appeared
puzzled by the word pigeon, which frequently
occurs in the Chinese Lingua Franca: it
means neither more nor less than business,
a word that no Chinaman can pronounce,
making it pigeoness, but more commonly
pigeon.

b3



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PREFACE.



Promotion having for the moment thrown
me out of active service, I have been tempted
to draw up the following Sketch of the
various events connected with the present
war in China.

I commenced my Narrative with the idea
of bringing it before the public under the
auspices of the periodical press; finding,
however, that such a mode of publication
would have occupied many months, while
the Narrative itself must have lost much of
its interest to the reader, by being presented
tON him at considerable intervals, and in a
disjointed shape, I have been induced to let
it assume its present form.

I shall be found accurate, I believe, in all
the details of the transactions which I de-
scribe. In many of the incidents selected I
was myself an actor ; where that was not the
case, and I am consequently unable to speak



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XU PREFACE.

from personal knowledge, I have had re-
course to the most correct and authentic
sources of information.

I must b^ the indulgence of my readers
for any errors into which I may unintention-
ally have fallen. Should I, however, from the
short space of time allowed me for the coropor
sition of the latter chapters, have been guilty
of omission as to the names or achievements
of any of my late companions in arms, I must
crave their foi|;iveness ; but should the pub-
lic so far approve of my humble labours as
to call for a second edition of my little work,
I shall rejoice in the opportunity of supplying
such deficiencies, and shall be happy to insert
any additional facts with which friends may
be kind enough to favour me, as well as the
names, if any, of individuals inadvertently
omitted.

I must freely confess I have met with the
difficulties common to all travellers on exk-
mining their note-books ; and probably, in
selecting matter for publication, may have
passed by unrecorded some circumstances
which would have afforded entertainment.



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PREFACE. xiii

whfle others may have been related in which
the general reader can feel comparatively
little interest. I have done my best; let
the critic remember

Tib glorious e'en to £ul in great attempts ;
and permit me humbly to remind him that
a British sailor is more accustomed to handle
the tiller than the pen.

For centuries our intercourse with China
has been purely commercial. It has been
1^ to the year 1840 to open that new era,
which should bring this mighty oriental
nation into angry collision with the inha-
bitants of the western world, to whom they
had been known previously only as semi-
barbarians, supplying us, in exchange for our
manufactures, with that fragrant herb, be-
come now among us almost a necessary of
life, and whose balmy essence fills

Thecnp
That cheers but not inebriates.

They, however, despising all ^'outside
barbarians,'' have ever wrapped themselves
up in their own pride and self-sufficiency,
flattering themselves that their ''celestial



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XIV PREFACE.

empire" was at least the most, if not the
only, civilized portion of the world ; while
they have made even geography itself con-
tribute to their exaltation and supremacy, —
China being depicted on their charts as the
central nation of the earth !

Tliis age of darkness and ignorant arro-
gance must fast melt away before the pre-
sent movement. It is consoling, under the
sufferings which the obstinacy and perfidious
conduct of their government compel us to
inflict upon the people, to reflect that the
contest now in progress must result in throw-
ing open the vast empire of China to a more
intimate communication with Europeans than
has ever yet existed; and thus while it
benefits both them and ourselves, in a
commercial point of view, must, under God,
be the means of elevating them from their
present degradation to a state of real civiliza-
tion* Above all, it may open to the labours
of the Christian missionary one-third of the
population of the globe !

The Chinese are essentially a commercial
people immured in darkness, and all bowing



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PREFACE. XV

down before the shrine of Mammon. When
we consider* their habits and customs, they
may be said to be a mass of contradictions to
all European nations, — the very opposite to
ourselves in almost everything.

The facts in the following pages relating
to the manners and customs of this strange
and most peculiar race are recorded prin-
cipally from my own observation. I am,
however, indebted to the work of Mr.
Slade, the Editor of the Ckinton Register^
for my account of the proceedings which
led to the present war. I have also found
the Chinese Repository, a periodical published
at Macao, of essential service, in furnish-
ing information on Chinese affairs.

The memorials and edicts in the Appendix
will I trust prove amusing, while they will
be found to throw a strong light on the
treachery and duplicity, which the Chinese
authorities have without scruple practised
throughout their late dealings with the
British.

The rule in our language is so undefined
for the orthography of Chinese names, that



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XVI PREFACE.

in the following pages when speaking of
provii^ces, riverSi districts, or cities, I have
followed that used in Wyld's maps ; thereby
affording the reader a ready means of fol-
lowing up the different movements of the
expedition.

I must avail myself of the opportunity here
afforded me of publicly expressing to Messrs.
Matheson, W. Dent, Stewart, and Captain
T. Larkins, with many other residents at
Macao, my warmest thanks and acknowledg-
ments for the unremitting kindness I ex-
perienced at their hands while confined
there by the consequences of a severe and
painful wound received during the operations
at the Bocca Tigiis. To Mr. Matheson I
feel the thanks of the entire squadron are due;
and I feel assured that numbers of the officers
of the *^ China Expedition'' will cordially
unite with me in offering grateful acknow-
ledgments to that gentleman, whose house
was ever found open and ready for the recep-
tion of the sick or the wounded.

New Houn Gosport,
October 1, 1842.



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OUTMWM MAP

OF THE

(COAST OF China,




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INTRODUCTION.



The bulittiaiiB tie like beMte, and not to be roled(m the n^
pcine^plee as eitisais. Were any one to attempt eontrolling
them bj the great maxima of reason, it would toid to nothing
hot eonftision. The aneient kings well understood this, and
aeeordin^y mled the liarharians by mis-role; therefore to role
baibarians by mis-nile is the troe and the best way of mling
then.— Datis*8 (Muu

Many o^ my readers may probably be igno-
rant of the numerous insults that have been
heaped upon the British nation/ through the
gross ignorance and overbearing pride of
the Chinese Mandarins. I have, therefore,
thought it worth while to give the following
introductory account of the transactions that
took place for about the space of four years
immediately preceding the date of my own
arrival at the scene of action, which must be
considered as the more legitimate commence-
ment of my Narrative.

The Opium war, as it has generally been
misnamed, from the Chinese having taken
their stand on that question^ professing that
to save the morals of the people the trade
in that drug must absolutely be cut off, has

VOL. u B



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2 INTRODUCTION.

raised doubts, in the minds of many indi-
viduals^ as to the justness of our present pro-
ceedings in China. But neither the morals,
nor the health of the subject, has been the
Teal cause; which may more properly be
found in the ** oozing out of the sycee silver
£:om the central flowery land/'

It must be borne in mind that, during the
monopoly of the trade held by the East India
Company, many differences and quarrels
arose between them and the Chinese, but on
all which points the Company gave way
rather than forfeit, from any feeling of pique,
the advantages they were enjoying. This
system could never be followed after the
trade became open and the transactions with
China assumed a national character; but thiir
difference of position the Chinese never took
into conaderation.

We had accordingly a long series of insults
to be redressed, among which were these :<*^
our flag fired upon; — ^tlie representative
of our government with our merchants im-
prisoned;— -their property seized, confiscated,
and destroyed; — their memorials and repre-
sentations treated with barbarian ignorance,
and their persons expelled from Canton. But



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INTEODUCTION. 3

80 fully conscious were the Chinese authori-
ties of the great benefit arising to their own
country from foreign trade, that I conceive,
if they had entertained an idea for one
moment of the war which has arisen out of
their proceedings, they would never havje
taken any steps that could have led to a
collision between the two nations; but our
having given way on former occasions made
them fancy we should yield to them for ever.
A shor t time before the commencement of
the present cenBu^^ „ ppiunr^^s admitted
into Chii\aasamedical drug, and aduty was
paid on it of £fty cents per lb.; but it does
not ^ppgar ^^ ^^^^ ^^" g^"^"^^1y in4"'g*^^
in as a Chinese luxury at that time; though
in the Intern Archipelago, and in many
parts of India, it has always been an
article of increasing traffic. Probably its
use was originally introduced into China
from these islands, or perhaps from Cochin
China; for we find that in 1781, when the
Company, in consequence of the India seas
being infested with JPrench cruisers, freighted
a ship on their own account with opium for
the China market, Singua, one of the Hong
merchants, became the purchaser, at the mo-

B 2



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4 INTEODUCTION.

derate price of 210 dollars per chest, but
that he reshipped the principal part of it to
the Malay peninsula. It was not until the
year 1793 that the opium traders began to
experience any annoyance from the Chinese
authorities ; when, in consequence of their
increased vexations, while the Chinese pirates
or Ladrones were becoming very trouble-
some, the traders at Lark's Bay, where the
opium trafSc had been long established, in
1794 loaded one of their vessels exclusively
with that drug, and fearlessly moved up to
Whampoft*^ .She remained there for nearly
eighteen months without molestation from
the mandarins or others; and from such a
beginning the trade at that place continued
to thrive until 1819.

In 1799, Kielking, governor of the pro-
vince., of Kwang-tung,^ memorialized the
emperor to prohibit the introduction of the
drug, and the opposition became so great
from the Chinese authorities, that the Com-
pany's supercargoes at Canton recommended
the importation of it to be discontinued;
but it was becoming to our Indian possessions
too lucrative an export to be lightly given
up, and each year saw the demand for opium



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INTRODUCTION. 5

increased and increasing. The depot-ships,
as before stated, remained at Whampoa, and
many opium clippers were employed in the
transportation of it from India to that
place. These are remarkably fine vessels,
selected for their sailing qualities, and
make the passage to and from China against
the monsoon in a comparatively short
time.

In April, 1820, Yuen issued a proclama-
tion prohibiting the drug, which, combined
with the increased vigilance of the subor-
dinates, caused the depdt-ships to establish
an anchorage off the Island of Lintin, shift-
ing to Cum-sing-moon as a more secure road-
stead during the typhoon season, where the
trade still flourished.

The Chinese admiral, accompanied by his
war-junks, occasionally came down firing
away his guns, when a shot or two from
some of the opium traders warned him it
was time to anchor ; afler which, attended
by his officers, he would visit the ships, and
harangue much in the following language: —
<< Hat Emperor send chop makee strong
talkee, must drive away all ship, my chin,
chin you, Mr. Captain; katchee anchor, makee



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6 INTRODUCTIOy.

walkee, my can talkee that Ison Tuck (Vice-
roy) all ships have go away!" The dep6t-
ships would then move to the other side of
the island, or the admiral returned, stating
he found nothing but ships in distress
refitting.

These fellows were in the habit of receiv-
ing a bribe of from five to ten dollars a
chest, which they would request the captain
to keep back for them from the Chinese
smugglers^ preferring rather to trust to
English honour than to their own country-
men. About once a month they would visit
the ships for payment on the number of
chests smuggled.

The following paragraph from the CaU
cutta Englishman of the 30th January,
I837> will put the reader in possession of the
flourishing state of the trade at that time; —
** Cum-sing-moon is the anchorage of the
opium depdt-vessels during the south-west
monsoon. It is a spacious harbour, formed
partly by islands and partly by the main-
land with a narrow entrance^ having an
island in the centre of it. Both the islands
and the main are lofty, and the ships so well
sheltered that, in general, they ride out even



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INTRODUCTION. 7

the typhooDSi against which no anchorage
would seem perfectly secure,

''The animated scene witnessed at Cum-
sing-moon may well arrest our attention
awhile. Of the numerous vessels of various
sizes in the anchorage, several are depdt«*
vessels, chiefly for opium. These do not move


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Online LibraryJohn Elliot BinghamNarrative of the expedition to China: from the commencement of the ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 1 of 21)