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1820 Maine Centennial 1920

JUNE, 1920 ^

Special Souveliir Number

aj !%0


As it has no brancheis, the business of this bank
is centralized at its offices in Bangor, enabling its
officers and directors to give the bank's affairs
their immediate attention at first hand.
Our statement covers simply the one bank in-
stead of being a consolidated statement of a num-
ber of banks situated at widely separated points.
The First National has resources of over
$7,000,000 making it the largest single commer-
cial banking unit in Maine east of Portland.



We pay 4% compounded quarterly on Savings.


extends its hearty Greetings to its friends in all parts of
the good old State of Maine.


Compounded every three months on all money deposited
in our Savings Department



We have positive evidence of the reliability of advertisers on these pages

The first Governor of Maine; born Scarboro, Maine, February 9, 17SS; loc-ateil
in Bath about ISOO and became the leadinic;- business man of the town. He was
a merchant and shii)biiilder. Resi.uned as Governor in 1S21 upon his appointment
as a commissioner under the Spanish Treatv. Collector of customs at ISath
1831-34. Died at Bath .Tune 17, l.s.")!'.



Maine ^

Maine's Admission to the Union ;*^

Biograjdiies of First Maine Senate 7^

Beginninf>s of Masonic Grand Lodjie -J^

Beginninjis ot Odd Fellows Grand Lod.ue -^

State Buryinj;- Gronund ['P

Two Maine Kmmisration Enterprises •"'§

Favor Tavern. Dover Z'

Representative Men of Yesterday and Today •»*! — J^

Documentary '•' — ' ''

Editorial .' S7








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PPiiP';'' ''''-'^'

Carl E. ^lilliken, Governor of Maine in 1920.
(Plioto by CliiiiMliiist Studio, Waslnngtoii. D. C.)

Sprague's Journal of Maine History

Vol. VIII Special Number, JUNE 1920 No. 1


(by the editor. )

In this year of Our Lord, 1920, the ]\Iaine Centennial Cornmittee
has for Chairman of its executive branch, the Honorable Carl E.
Milliken, Governor of the state, and for its able puijlicity manager,
Mr. Daniel W. Eloeg- of Portland, ]\Iaine.

Maine has, in centuries past, had other publicity men to demon-
strate to the world some of her capabilities and accomplishments ;
and there have been periods in her history when she was in dire
need, but entirely destitute of such assistance. If in the tentli cen-
tury, Biarne, Eric the Red, Leif and other bold Icelanders hnd taken
a sleek and clever publicity man along with them to have made
record of their discoveries on the coasts of the Gulf of Maine, as did
v.'ise old Captain George Waymouth a hundred years later, we
would know more of just how and when Maine was first discovered
than we now do. By reason of their inexcusable negligence in this
respect we have to depend entirely upon what obscure and detached
facts antiquarians may uncover among the sagas of the ancient

For many centuries of time in the history of the human race it
took about a thousand years to uproot an old. and establish a new

\Mien the prosecuting attorney of Athens proceeded against
Socrates, the indictment found against him contained this count :

Socrates is guiky of crime. First, for not worshiping the gods whom the
city worships, and for introducing new divinities of his own.

For a very long time the activities of the human race were based
upon this hypothesis.

That the earth was flat was, for ages, considered an iiuinutable
fact. A few had from the remotest times occasionally advocated
the theory of its globular shape— Aristotle and Strabo being among


the most famous — but it was generally regarded as a fantastic idea
and had but few adherents.

In the fifteenth century Christopher Columbus, when a young man
became a sea rover — historical gossip hinting at piracy as well —
and sailed in unknown w^aters. In his wanderings he met adven-
turous navigators, some of them descendents of the old Norsemen.
He had faith in their traditional theories of a western continent and
concluded that, despite the contentions of the learned, the world was
after all a globe and not a flat piece of land. With the help of the
King and Queen of Spain (more especially, it is said, of the Queen)
in 1492 he upset this loved and venerable theory by discovering the
new western continent.

About as soon as the world had awakened to the importance of
what had happened Alexander VI, Pope of Rome (1493) issued a
bull granting the New World to the sovereigns of Spain and Portu-
gal. In that age a papal bull was recognized by christian nations
as a sufficient title to heathen lands. England becoming Protestant
did not hesitate to ]>rotest against it ; and as early as 1495 Henry
ATI, King of England commissioned John Cabot and his sons of
high standing as navigators to "seek out and discover and find what-
soever Isles, Countries, Regions or Provinces of the heathens and
infidels" hitherto unknown to all christians, and as vassals of the
King, to hold the same by his authority.''

In 1502 the same King sent forth Hugh Elliott and Thomas
Ashurst upon a similar mission.

In 1524 Francis I, King of France, evidently questioning the Avis-
dom of longer following the old precedents regarding the validity
of titles to heathen lands based solely upon a papal bull, possibly
even then, having a prophetic vision of a "New France" across the
seas, made his immortal statement to the other nations "that he
should like to see the clause in Adams will which gave to his brothers
of Spain and Portugal the exclusive ipossession of the American

As a result of this manifesto he is said to have sent out Verraz-
zano, a Florentine corsair, who as has generally been believed,
explored the entire coast from thirty (30) degrees to fifty (50)
degrees north latitude, and named the whole region New France."


^ Frederick Ridder's pamphlet on " Discovery of Xorth America b}' John
Cahot." X. E. Gen. Reg., Oct., 1878— Charlevoix. Vol. i, p. 20.
^ Chamberlain's Cenn. Address, p. 34, and his citations.



The late Charles \\ . Goddard, Coniinissioner [o revise the stat-
utes of Maine, (18S3) in his notes on '•Sources cf Land Titles in
Alaine," published in his revision, hrst page, says that "in 1588
Drake decided the issue regarding the titles to heathen lands by
his victory over the Spanish Armada in the British cliannel.'' But
it is evident that the doctrine was never enforced in reference to
lands on the American continent. The discovery of America had
so changed conditions that it was regarded as an extravagant claim
no longer applicable, and it became obsolete.'

The entire broad expanse of Maine's colonial beginnings is a rich,
instructive and enchanting field for the student of history. It leads
one back through the vistas of the past to that period of time when
by wars and revolutions a new spirit of nationalism was awakening
in both England and France. Its roots extend into the very incep-
tion of the struggle of the ages for the freedom of mankind.

The restlessness of Europeans in the sixteenth century evolved
a new and unique class of men whose like the mediaeval world
never before had beheld. Abandoning piracy they became explorers,
discoverers of new lands and regions. Finding new coasts, bays,
islands, mountains and rivers and applying new names to them be-
gan to be more attractive than free-booting. Returning with car-
goes of peltry and sassafras obtained from savages was as renumer-
ative and less dangerous than the vocation of the corsair.

And these daring adventurers of the high seas were the first to
dew the coast and bays 0+' Elaine, made cur first maps, found our
great rivers and marked upon them the places where they emptied
their floods into the sea. Their reports inspired the people of Eng-
land with a desire to enter upon a career of empire business by add-
ing to their dominions new colonies in this new world.

They were the precursors of the British stock companies', char-
tered and organized to engage in American colonization by such
men as the Pophams and Ferdinando Gorges. An entirely new
era was dawning upon mankind.

In France new ideals burst forth seemingly more lofty than any-
thing the world had known since the days of knighthood in the
middle ages. At its inception the movement for colonization there,
dominated largely by the Jesuits, was undoubtedly more spiritual
than commercial. The government, the people of France and the
Society of Jesus, then less than a century old, united upon an un-

^ Wharton's International Law Digest (2d ed.) Vol. i. p. 8.


dertaking as startling as it was magnificent. It was plainly a deter-
mination to found in this unknown wilderness a new P'rench empire,
and to convert to the christian faith a continent of savages of whose
origin, history, traditions, language or habits of life they bad not
the slightest knowledge.

The dawn of the seventeenth century saw enthroned in England
and France, Elizabeth and Henry IV, two of the greatest sover-
eigns that either kingdom had ever had. They were human. Each
had the faults and limitations of the age in which they lived, but
each were in harmony — possibly without a full realization of it —
with many of the revolutions and protests, and with the progressive
spirit of the day, which finally broke the bonds of medijevalism.

Aiaine's 250 miles of natural front of sea coast nmltiplied ( as Gen.
Chamberlain estimated it) to an extent of 2500 miles of salt water
line, contains some of the most historic footprints resulting from
these European political upheavals, to be found in the American
continent. Within its extent is also much of the battle ground in
the century's conflict between the xA^nglo Saxon and the Latin for
supremacy in the new world.

Yet the period which marks the genesis of Maine's history is not
all as plain and understandable as might be desired. All were not as
adept in publicity service as were Champlain or Captain George
Waymouth, who employed James Rosier as publicity man. His
'■' true relation " of Waymouth's voyage illuminated a page of our
history as did later the illustrious and picturesque Captain John
Smith. Parts of it are misty though fascinating, and full of ma-
terial for romance and poetry.

Such was tiie story of ancient Norumbega, ever appearing upon
history's pages, but never explained! never real yet always existing.
Its fame attracted voyagers and adventurers for a time, and its be-
wildering tales charmed the European mind. If a dream, it was a
beautiful one. It was an alluring phantom never chased to its lair.
It was the will-o'-the-wis'p of Maine's colonial history.

And this is but a faint glimpse of the enchanting and romantic
prelude to our history as a province, a district, and a state ; only a
part of what transpired here before the days of Sir William Phips ;
prior to Madokawando and Baron St. Castin and Sebastian Rale ;
before the valor of Sir William Pepperrel'l of Kittery Point had in-
scribed his name on the roll of Anglo Saxon heroes ; before the revo-
lutionary days wdien the names of Jeremiah O'Brien, Hannah and
Rebecca Weston, James Sullivan, Peleg Wadsworth and Commo-


dore Tucker appear ; before the Act of Separation ; before the days
of William King and John 1 lo'lnies ; before Longfellow or 1 lannibal
Hamlin, Dorothea Dix or Sir Miram Maxim; before the days of a
host of others equally as famous in each of these periods.


In the last issue of the Journal ('V. 7. p. 230) it was stated by
a correspondent that the late William Edward Gould " founded
and was first executive officer of the Portland Society of Art."
This statement is not correct. Mr. O. P. T. Wish. Secretary of
that Society writes as as follows :

" I find by the records of the Portland Society of Arts that its
first meeting for organization was held at the suggestion of Hon.
James P. Baxter at his home on December 19, i88t ; that the
organization of the Society occurred on [March 3, 1882, and James
P. Baxter was elected its first president; F. FI. Bassett, ist vice-
president ; H. B. Brown, 2nd vice-president ; Wm. E. Gould,
treasurer: W"m. S. Lowell, secretary; Hubbard W. Bryant, libra-
rian, and for executive committee, Cyrus F. Davis, Chas. F. Libby
and Geo. F. ^[|Orse.'''

(Moosehead Lake.)

Hushed in the waning afterglow, all nature brooding lies.
Her colors slowly changing before our half closed eyes.
The tints of twilight gather, vanish our lines of care
As a thrush's cornet solo, poignant, dreamy haunts the air.

The water softly pulsing laps the boat upon the shore.
Two sweethearts tired, yet happy, each with tiptilted oar.
Go loitering toward the home where peace and love abide.
Pale stars come shyly one by one at drowsy eventide.



Maine's Admission to the Union


A paper read before the Cosmopolitan Club of Dover-Foxcroft,

January 2, nj20.

The jurisdiction of Massachusetts over what is now the territory
of the State of Maine dates from the middle of the seventeenth'

Ferdinando Gorges, grandson of the English lord proprietor of
Maine, iSir Ferdinando Gorges, sold the patent to the State of Massa-
chusetts in 1677 for 1250 pounds, a little over $3000. The pur-
i-hase met with the approval of the inhabitants of the District of
Maine because of the pressure of the Indian wars upon the inhabi-
tants of the territory of Maine who received what assistance and
])rotection they got from [Massachusetts.

From the histories, it cannot be ascertained just when the move-
ment started looking to the separation of Maine from Massachu-
setts. Apparently there was no sentiment in this direction until
after the Revolutionary War but in 1783 there v/as considerable
sentiment in favor of the separation of Maine from Massachusetts.
At that time certain articles appeared in the Falmouth Gazette and
there was considerable discussion among the inhabitants of Maine,
the provincials advocating the separation on the ground that Maine
was geographically separated from Massachusetts, which made de-
lays and expense to the people of Maine since the courts, records,
general court and government officials were all in Massachusetts.

As a result of this agitation, in September, 1785, the Falmouth
Gazette printed a notice recjuesting all those inclined to do so to meet
at the meeting house of the Reverends Messrs. Smith and Dean in
Falmouth, October 5 of that year, then and there to consider the
advisability of having the Alaine counties erected into a se})arate
government and of collecting the sentiment of the people on the
subject and to pursue some orderly and regular method of carrying
this object into eiTect. Thirty-three gentlemen assembled as a result
of this notice. The matter was discussed and a committee of seven
appointed to apply to the several towns and plantations rec[uesting
them to send delegates to meet at Fahnouth in January, 1786, to con-
sider the expediency of the separation proposed.

This movement attracted the attention of the government of
Massachusets and Gov. Tamies Bovvdoin called the attention of the


General Court to the matter October 20, 17S5. refern'no- to tlie move-
ment as "a design against the Commoiuveallh (jf a very evil te-n-
dency." The General Court at that session declared "that attempts
by individuals or bodies of men to di?member the state were frauj^ht
with improprieties and danger" and a report of a committee was
adopted declaring against such a movement.

Nevertheless, in January, 1786, the convention called was Iield and
a committee appointed to prepare a statement of the evils and griev-
ances under wliich the people of the district of Maine labored and
to make an estimate of the cost of a separate government. The
committee reported nine grievances among which were those above
mentioned, the others relating to denial of rejjresentation in the
House of Representatives and to trade relations. The report of
the convention wias sent to every town and plantation in the
district, and another convention was called. There were more
than ninety towns and plantations authorized to send delegate■^
but only thirty-one appeared, all from the counties of York, Cum-
berland and Lincoln, and at that convention a conmiittee was ap-
pointed to prepare a memorial to the General Court asking for sep-
aration. An address to the towns on the subject was also made,
asking them to take a vote on the question and return the numljers
for and against the proposition, and this address was calm and
moderate in its language and respectful to ^^lassachusetts. It was
decided, however, that since so small a part of Elaine was repre-
sented at this last convention that the presentation of the petition
to the General Court be postponed, and it was not presented for
two years, until 1788, and was then tabled by ithe General Court.

It is to be noted that the movement was generally opposed by
ofBce holders under the Alassachusetts government.

In 1787 the convention met again and received the votes of the
towns on the cpiestion of separation. There were ninety-three
towns and plantations in Maine at that time. Only thirty-two
made returns of votes, which aggregated 618 for separaticiU and
352 against it. The convention adjourned to September 5 and
again resolved to collect the sentiments of the people but no action
in this direction was taken. The convention adjourned live or six
times thereafter but each meeting was attended by a lesser num-
ber of delegates, there being only three persons present at the last

Thus the first movement for separation came to an inglorious end
ibut it did result in some considerable benefits to the ]ieople of the


district. As a result of the agitation, the General Coin-t exempted
•wild lands from taxation for ten years, ordered the construction of
new roads, granted to s(|uatters one hundred acres of land on the
payment of $5, established a term of the Supreme Court at W'is-
casset and incorporated Bowdoin College.

Five years afterward, as a result of a petition by the Senators
and ^Representatives from the counties of York, Cumberland, Lin-
coln, Hancock and Washington, the General Court of Massachusetts
in February, 1792, passed a resolve providing that the selectmen
and other officers of towns, plantations and districts in Maine allow
the people to vote on the question. As a result of this, eiglity-nine
returns were sent to the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Tlie
vote was 2084 in favor and 2438 against separation. As a result
of this vote, of course, the advocates of separation could make
no headway with the members of the General Court and the matter
was dropped.

The advocates of independence, however, were not discouraged
and in 1793 another convention was called which was held in De-
cember but only fifteen towns were represented. Interest in the
matter was so slight that tlie convention adjourned to October when
a resolution in favor of the creation of the new state was adopted
but nothing came of it. Two or three petitions were presented to
the (ieneral Court in 1797 and were never reported by the com-
mittee to whicli they were referred.

In 1S03 the inhabitants of sixty towns in ]\Iaine petitioiied for
separation but no action was taken.

In 1807 Mr. Gannet of Gardiner, a member of the House of Rep-
resentatives, presented a resolve in the General Court providing for
a vote on t!ie hrst Monday in April upon the (juestion whether the
senators and representatives of the District should be instritcted
to petition the General Court for separation. This resolve passed
but the people of Maine were so eager that year to defeat Gov-
ernor Strong and elect James Sullivan in his place that they gave
no attention at all to the separation issue and the votes stood 3370
for separation and 9404 against it.

There was no further revival of agitation for the separation until
after the War of 1812. That cont st accentuated the discord be-
tween the two parts of the Commonwealth. The people of Massa-
chusetts were opposed to the war and this sentiment in Massachu-
setts and other parts of New England which culminated in the
Hartford Convention, so called, called forth much wrath in Maine.


A convention was held in (Oxford County at which a resoluton
was adopted to the effect that "It is expedient that the District of
]\raine constitute a part of the State of Afassachusetts no longer
than the State of Massachusetts gives support to the Union."
This convention was held December 28, 1814. Similar resolutions
were adopted in Kennebec County.

Petitions for separation were entered in the General Court in
1815, were reported on unfavorably by a Conmiittee to which they
were referred and the Committee's report was accepted. This
refusal of the General Court caused a great deal of agitation in
Maine but there was a division of public sentiment in Maine on
party lines, the Democrats being in favor of separation and the
Fvederalists opposed to it, the reason for this political division
being that the government of Massachusetts was in the hands of
the Federalists but Maine had long been Democratic. Separation
meant a Democratic State Government with offices and spoils and
the Federalists in Maine preferred the existing situation rather
than a separate state government controlled by their political op-

In 1814 another resolve was passed by the JNIassachusetts Legis-
lature providing for a vote in Maine to get the sentiment for and
against separation and as a result of this, a largs meeting was held
in Augusta in April of that year and among the prominent men
present were AA'illiam King, afterward first governor of Maine,
John Chandler, Nathan Weston Jr., and Henry W. Fuller, all well
known Maine men who afterward filled important state offices.
This convention adopted strong resolutions in favor of separation.
It was unanimou'sly "Resolved (therefore) as a sense of this meet-
ing that the period has arrived when the best interests of ]\raine
will be promoted by a separation from Massachusetts proper, and
that we will individually use all fair and honorable means to
effect these objects" and it was also resolved the new state
"would enjoy equally with other states the protection of the federal
government in defending it from foreign invasion and in suppress-
ino- domestic insurrection," this latter resolve being a reflection on
Massachusetts for its attitude in the War of 1812. It v,-as here
that the contest between Portland and Augusta as to which should
be the capital of the new state was first observed, the opponents of
separation in Cumberland county then declaring that the attempts
at separation made by the inhabitants of Kennebec county were
for the purpose of making Augusta the state capital and the oppo-


nents of separation in Kennebec county used the same argument
'there in regard to Portland.

Meanwhile, Massachusetts manifested indifference and the Bos-
ton papers rarely referred to the matter at all, the Boston Adver-
tiser remarking, " To us in this part of the state the question is of
comparatively trifling importance."

At the April election 1816, other issues were largely disre-
garded in Maine and the question of separation only considered

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Online LibraryJohn Francis SpragueSprague's journal of Maine history (Volume 10) → online text (page 1 of 22)