John G. (John Gaylord) Wells.

Wells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 online

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9



ILLUSTKATED NATIONAL

CAlPAm^ HAND-BOOX,

F O H 18 6 O.
IN TWO PARTS-ONE VOLUME,



v^ e: 1. 1- s '

ILLUSTRATED NATIONAL

CAMPAIGN HAND-UOOK

FOR 18GO.



x""ART FIRST.



EMBKACING THE



LIVES OF ALL THE CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT AND
VICE-PRESIDENT:



INCLUDING



JOHN BELL AND EDWARD EVERETT,

CANDIDATES OF THE NATIONAL UNION PARTY.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND HANIBAL HAMLIN,

CANDIDATES OF THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN PARTY.

STEPH. A. DOUGLAS AND HERSCHEL V. JOHNSON

CANDIDATES OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY.

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE AND JOSEPH LANE,

CANDIDATES OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY.

SAM HOUSTON,

INDEPENDENT CANDIDATE FOR THE PRESIDENCY.



PORTRAITS OF EACH,

ENGRAVED EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK FROM AMBROTYPES
TAKEN FROM LIFE.



67 ILLUSTRATIONS.

NEW YORK :

J. G. WELLS, COR. PARK-ROW AND BEEKMAN STREET.

CINCINNATI, OHIO I

MACK R. BARNITZ, 38 AND 40 WEST FOURTH STREET.

1860.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by

J. G. WELLS,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of
New- York.



J. H.


TOBITT,




COMBINATION


-TYPE PEINTER, |


1 PrarUdin


Square, N.


r.



TABLE OF CONTENTS. *



PART I.

FAOB.

Beli,, John, Life of - - - - . - • - 13

Breckinridge, John C, Life of - - - 141

Breckinridge Party, Platform of the - - . . . jgg

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, Life of -.-... 81

Douglas Party, Platform of the - -... 193

Everett, Edward, Life of - - -.. 23

Hamlin, Hanibal, Life of - -.... 67

Houston, Sam Life of - - .... 177

Independent Party, Platform of the ..... igg

Johnson, Herschel v., Life of - - - - - - . 131

Lane, Joseph, Life'of - -..... 159

Lincoln, Abraham, Life of - -... .46

National Democratic Party, - .-..- 77

National Republican Party, - -.... 39

National Union Party, Platform of the - - . . . 189

National Republican Party, Platform of the .... 189

Party Platforms for 1860, 189



POKTRAITS



BELL, JOHN 11

BRECKINKIDGE, JOHN C. 139

EVERETT, EDWARD 21

DOUGLAS, STEPHEN A. - 79

HAMLIN, HANIBAL 66

HOUSTON, SAM ... . . . 175

JOHNSON, HERSCHEL V. - . - - - - 129

LANE, JOSEPH 157

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM ... ... 43




JOHN BELL,

OF TENNESSEE,

CANDIDATE OF THE NATIONAL UNION PARTY,



FOR PRESIDENT.



I^OLITIOA^L PARTIES



CANDIDATES



PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT.



AERANGED m THEIR ORDER OF NOMmATION.



THE NATIONAL UNION PARTY.

This party is composed principally of the members
of the old Whig and American parties, who oppose
the Democrats, and profess to view the Republicans as
too sectional. Its organization was proposed in an ad-
dress issued within the last year from the city of Wash-
ington, where a central club was formed, of which the
Hon. John J. Crittenden was Chairman.

The party met in National Convention at the city of
Baltimore, on the ninth day of May, and nominated,
after a short session, marked with great decorum and
harmony, as their Candidates :

Hon. John Bell, of Tennessee, for President ;
Hon. Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, for Vice-
President.
13



14 JOHN BELL.

JOHN BELL,

OF TENNESSEE,

CANDIDATE FOR THE PRESIDENCY,

Was born near Nasliville in that State, on the 18th of
February, 1797. He is the son of a farmer in moderate
circumstances, but who was able neverliieless to give
his son a good education at Cumberland College, now
the Nashville University. After the close of his colle-
giate course he studied law, and was admitted to the
bar in 1816, He settled at Franklin, Williamson
County, Tenn., and soon obtained a respectable prac-
tice, as well as an enviable reputation for ability. His
political career began early, for in 1817 he was elected
to the State Senate, being at the time only twenty
years of age. His talents were as readily acknow-
ledged in the Forum as at the Bar ; but recognizing
the error of aspiring to political honors at so early a
period of life, he declined a re-election, and for nine
years succeeding devoted his energies to his profession,
in which he met with eminent success.

In 1826, Mr. Bell became a Candidate for Congress
against Felix Grundy, one of the ablest and most popu-
lar men in the State, who had the powerful support of
General Jackson, and then a candidate for the Presi-
dency against John Quincy Adams. ISTotwithstanding
this great odds, after an exciting and animated canvass
of twelve months, Mr. Bell was elected in 1827 by one
thousand majority. By successive elections he con-



JOHN BELL. 15

tinned a member of the House of Representatives for
fourteen years.

He entered Congress a strong admirer of John C.
Calhoun, and opposed as strongly to the Protective
system, against which he made an able speech in 1832.
Subsequent investigation and reflection induced him to
change his opinions on that subject, and he has
remained ever since an earnest advocate of the policy
of protecting American Industry. Although opposed
to the appropriation of money by the General Govern-
ment for roads and canals in the States, except great
roads for mihtary purposes, such as the Pacilic Rail-
road, he has always favored the poKcy of improving
great rivers and lake harbors.

With all his admiration for Mr. Calhoun, Mr. Bell
decidedly opposed the doctrine of Nullification, and
was made Chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the
House of Representatives, with special reference to the
questions connected with that subject which might
have to be considered and reported upon. He retained
his position as Chairman of the Committee on Judiciary
Aftairs for ten years. He was in favor of a United
States Bank, although he voted against the re-charter
of that institution in 1832, because he believed the sub-
ject was brought forward at the time, four years before
the expiration of the old charter, merely for the pur-
pose of defeating General Jackson in the ensuing Pre-
sidential Election ; and because he was convinced the
President would veto the bill, which proved to be the
case. He protested against the removal of the deposits,
and refused to vote for a resolution approving that
measure. This refusal was one of the causes which led



16 JOHN BELL.

to the breach between himself, President Jackson,
and the Democratic party, and finally to his co-opera-
tion with the Whigs. He was elected to the Speaker-
ship of the House of Representatives in 1834. In June
of that year Mr. Stevenson resigned the chair upon be-
ing nominated minister to Great Britain, and Mr. Bell
was elected to succeed him in opposition to James K.
Polk, since President of the United States, who was
the candidate of the administration and of the Demo-
cratic party. Mr. Bell, on this occasion, was supported
by the Whigs and by a portion of the Democratic
party who were opposed to the intended nomination of
Martin Van Buren as successor to President Jackson.
The principal ground of Mr. Bell's opposition to Mr.
Yan Buren was his strong disapproval of the system of
removals from subordinate offices for merely political
reasons — a system which Mr. Yan Buren had zealously
promoted in the party conflicts of the State of New
York, and which, it.was supposed, he intended to carry
out to its full extent in the administration of the
Federal Government. The tendencies of such a use of
executive patronage had been vividly displayed by
Mr. Bell in a speech in the House on the freedom of
elections ; and he had made repeated, though inef-
fectual, efforts in successive Congresses to procure the
enactment of laws calculated to check that policy.

The final separation between Mr. Bell and General
Jackson took place in 1835, when Mr. Bell declared
himself in favor of Judge White for the Presidency, in
opposition to Mr, Yan Buren. Up to that time there
had been no opposition to General Jackson's ad-
ministration in Tennessee, and it was generally sup-



JOHN BELL. 17

posed that his personal and political influence could
not fail to subdue the opposition raised by Judge
White and his friends. The whole force of the admin-
istration, and of Jackson's personal popularity, was
exerted to this end. But Judge White carried the
State by a large majority, and Mr. Bell was re-elected
to Congress in the Hermitage district itself by as great
a vote as ever, and an impulse was given to the politi-
cal character of Tennessee which arrayed it in opposi-
tion to the Democracy during the four succeeding
presidential elections of 1840, 1844j 1848, and 1852.

When the reception of the petitions for the abolition
of slavery in the District of Columbia was agitated in
the House of Representatives in 1.856, Mi*. Bell alone,
of the Tennessee delegation, favored the reception, and
though assailed at home, was sustained by the people,
subsequently, in 1838. When Atherton's resolutions
were introduced, proposing to receive and lay those
resolutions on the table, he maintained his consistency
by voting in the negative, in order that they might be
referred and reported upon. When President Harrison
formed his administration in 1841, he invited Mr. Bell
to accept the War Department, which he did. With
the rest of the Cabinet, Mr. Webster only excepted, he
resigned office on the separation of President Tyler from
the Whig party, in the autumn of that year.

The Whig majority in the next Tennessee legislature
which met after his withdrawal from the Cabinet oflTered
him the office of United States Senator, which, however,
he declined in favor of Ephraim H. Foster, who had
rendered service to the Whig party which Mr. Bell
thought deserving that recognition. Mr. Foster was



18 JOHN BELL.

accordingly elected, and Mr. Bell remained in volun-
tary retirement until called upon by tlie people of his
district, in 1847, to represent them in the State Senate,
in which year, on the occurrence of a vacancy, he was
elected to the United States Senate, to which he was re-
elected in 1853 ; his term of service expired March 4,
1859.

In the Senate Mr. Bell has steadily opposed the
policy of annexing Mexico and other Spanish- American
States to the Union. He was in favor of the compro-
mise measures of 1850, but desired to see the issues
then made fully settled at the time by the division of
Texas into States, as provided by the act of annexation,
because he apprehended, whenever that question came
up, the harmony of the Union might again be disturbed.

In 1854, when the JSTebraska bill was presented to
the Senate, Mr. Bell protested against its passing, as a
violation of the Missouri compact, and as unsettling the
principles established by the Compromise act of 1850,
and as re-opening a sectional controversy, which might
imperil the peace and safety of the Union.

In March, 1858, Mr. Bell took decided ground against
the so-called Lecompton Constitution, and made an
elaborate speech, charging that that measure tended
directly to the overthrow of the Union.

He is succeeded in the Senate by A. O. P. Nicholson.
Mr. Bell ranks high in the esteem of men of all parties
for intelligence, patriotism, and elevated moral charac-
ter. He is a statesman whose opinions are formed
with great caution ; the excess of this characteristic
gives sometimes the appearance of indecision to his
course ; but, when once convinced, he is firm and tena-



JOHN BELL. 19

cious. His speeches have been able and argumen-
tative, and what he says always commands respect.
Without any reference to his political sentiments, or
his prospects of success, it may be said with pride, that
his course has been eminently useful to his country,
and honorable to himself.




E D W A R O e V E R E T T,

OF MASSACHUSETTS,

CANDIDATE OF THE NATIONAL UNION PARTY,



FOR VIOK PEESIDKXT.



EDWABD EVERETT. 23

EDWARD EVERETT,

OF MASSACHUSETTS,

CANDIDATE FOR THE VICE-PRESIDENCY.

This statesman, orator and man of letters, now can-
didate of the Union Party for Vice-President, was born
in Dorchester, Massachussetts, April 11th, 1794. He
entered Harvard College in 1807, at the early age of
thirteen, and graduated in course in 1811, with the
highest honors, in a class containing more than an
average amount of ability. While an under-graduate,
he was the principal conductor of a magazine, pub-
lished by the students, called the "Harvard Lyceum."
He left behind him at the college a very brilliant rep-
utation as a scholar and writer, which long lingered
there in tradition.

For some time after finishing his college course he
remained there as a tutor, at the same time pursuing
his studies in divinity — the profession he had selected.

In 1812 he delivered a spirited poem before the Phi
Beta Kappa Society on American Poets.

In 1813 he was selected as pastor over the Brattle
Street Church, in Boston, filling the place left vacant
by the lamented Buckminster. He inmiediately won
great admiration by the eloquence and power of his
pulpit discourses.

In 1814 he published a work entitled " Defence of
Christianity," against a work of George Bethune Eng-



24 EDWARD EVERETT.

lish, entitled the " Grounds of Christianity examined,
by comparing the New Testament with the Old." In
the same year he was chosen by the Corporation of
Harvard College to fill the chair of Greek Literature,
a professorship then recently created by the bounty of
the late Samuel Eliot. With a view of qualifying liim-
self for the duties of this post, he entered upon an
extended course of European travel and study, leav-
ing home in the spring of 1815, and returning in the
autumn of 1819. After a brief stay in England, he
proceeded to the University of Gottingen, where he
remained for two years.

In the winter of 1817-18 he was in Paris. In the
spring of 1818 he went to Eughmd, where he was
kindly received by many of the leading men of the
day, including Scott, Byron, Jeffrey, Campbell, Mack-
intosh, Romilly and Davy. He spent some days under
Scott's hospitable roof at Abbotsford.

Returning to the Continent, he passed the winter in
Italy, and thence made a journey into Greece, return-
ing through Wallachia and Hungarj^ to Yienna.

During his residence in Europe, his range of study
embraced the ancient classics, the modern languages,
the history and principles of civil and public laws
as professed in the German Universities, and a com-
prehensive examination of the existing political system
of Europe.

On his return home, he entered upon the duties of
his professorship. He gave a new impulse to the* study
of classical literature by a series of brilliant lectures
upon Greek literature and ancient art, first delivered



EDWARD EVERETT. 35

to the students at Cambridge, and afterwards repeated
before large audiences in Boston.

At the same time he took the editorship of the
" North American Review," which he conducted until
1824. His object in assuming the charge of this peri-
odical was to imbue it with a thoroughly national
spirit, and in pursuance thereof he contributed a series
of articles, in which this country was defended with
great spirit against the shallow and flippant attacks
of several foreign travelers. He also found time to
prepare and publish a translation of Buttman's Greek
Grammar.

In 1824 he made his first essay in that department
of demonstrative oratory, which he has since cultivated
with such signal success, by the delivery of a discourse
before the Phi Beta Kappa Society on the " Circum-
stances favorable to the Progress of Literature in
America." An immense audience came to hear him.
He was heard with the greatest enthusiasm and delight.
A writer in the " Christian Examiner" of Nov., 1850,
speaking of his recollection of that memorable occa-
sion, says : —

" The sympathies of his audience went with him in a rush-
" ing stream, as he painted in glowing hues the political,
" social and literary future of our country. They drank with
" thirsty ears his rapid generalizations and his sparkling
" rhetoric : the whole assemhly put on one countenance of
"admiration and assent. As with skillful and flying hands
" the orator ran over the chord of national pride and patri-
*' otic feeling, every hosom throbbed in unison to his touch ;
"and when the fervid declamation of the concluding para-
" graph was terminated by the simple pathos of the personal
2



26 EDVVAKD EVEKETT.

" address to Lafayette, who was present, his hearers were
" left in a state of emotion far too deep for tumultuous
" applause."

This was the lirst of a series of discourses, pronounced
by Mr. Everett, on public occasions between that time
and the present, embracing every variety of topic
connected with our national history, character, and
prospects, and which combine in an eminent degree
the pecuhar cliarm of popular oratory, with those sub-
stantial merits of thought and style which bear the
close criticism of the closet.

Mr. Everett's public life began in 1824, when he
was elected to Congress. His nomination was made
without his being consulted, and was a spontaneous
movement on the part of the young men of his district,
almost without distinction of party. He was himself,
as might naturally be expected, a supporter of the
administration of Mr. Adams, then just elected Presi-
dent. Mr. Everett served, by successive re-elections,
ten years in Congress, and, during the whole period,
was a membe* of the Committee on Foreign Affairs,
the most important Committee at that time in the
House. He also held a place on all the most impor-
tant select committees while he was in Congress, and
in every instance he was selected to draw either thie
majority or minority reports.

In the XlXth Congress, though then just elected to
the House, and the youngest member in the Commit-
tee on Foreign Affairs, he drew the celebrated report
on the Panama Mission, the leading measure of that
session.

In the XXth Congress, forming with Mr. John Sar*



EDWARD EVERETT. 27

gent, of Philadelphia, the minority of the well-known
Retrenchment Committee, he drew up all those por-
tions of its report which relate to the Departments of
State and War. He was Chairman of the Select Com-
mittee, during Mr. Adams's presidency, on the Georgia
controversy. He drew the report for the committee
in favor of the heirs of Fulton.

With Gov. Ellsworth, of Connecticut, he formed the
minority of the Bank Investigating Committee, which
was sent to Philadelphia in 1834, and drew up the
report. He wrote the minority report of the Commit-
tee of Foreign Relations upon the controversy with
France in the spring of 1835, and took a leading part
in the debate on the subject. He made two or three
reports on the subject of the claims of American citi-
zens on foreign powers for spoliations committed on
our commerce during the French Continental system,
and continued the discussion in the " l^ortli American
Review." He always served on the Library Commit-
tee, and, generally, on that for Public Buildings.

In 1827, he addressed a series of letters to Mr.
Canning on the Colonial trade, which were extensively
read.

In the summer of 1829, in the congressional vaca-
tion, he made an extensive tour through the South-
western and Western States, and was everywhere
received with marked distinction. At Nashville, at
Lexington, and at the Yellow Springs in Ohio, he was
complimented with public dinners, and charmed his
hosts by beautiful specimens of that species of elo-
quence in which he is generally admitted to hold the
iirst place among his contemporaries.



28 EDWARD EVERETT.

The points of Mr. Everett's congressional career,
which we have indicated, form but a small part of his
labors and services in the House of Representatives.
He was a faithful and assiduous attendant of the ses-
sions, and a diligent observer of the proceedings of
that body. He was a frequent but not obtrusive
debater. His speeches were carefully prepared, full
of information, weighty in substance, polished in form,
and perfectly free from those indecorums and person-
alities which sometimes disfigure congressional debates.
In his attention to the private affairs of his constitu-
ents, he was always prompt and patient. Occupied as
he was with the public business during his congres-
sional life, his regular and inflexible habits of industry
enabled him to find time for literary labor : besides the
elaborate public addresses which he occasionally
delivered, he prepared several articles of high merit
for the " ^orth American Review." Among them
may be mentioned, with particular commendation, a
paper in the number for October, 1830, in which
the South Carolina doctrine of nullification is dis-
cussed with remarkable abilit3\

In the autumn of 1834, he declined a re-nomination
to Congress, as his political friends in Massachusetts
were desirous of presenting his name as candidate for
the office of Governor, to which he was chosen by a
large majority in the ensuing election. He was, after-
wards, three times re-elected — holding the Executive
Office four years.

His administration was dignified, useful and popular.
Among the measures which marked the period of his
official service were the subscription of the State to the



EDWARD EVERETT. 29

stock of the Western Railroad ; the organization of the
Board of Education, and the establishment of the Nor-
mal School — the Scientific and Agricultural Surveys of
the State, and the establishment of a Commission for
the revision of the criminal law.

In the discharge of what may be called the ceremo-
nial duties of his station, Governor Everett was
eminently happy. His manner in presiding was digni-
fied, graceful and courteous. To the natural desire of
his constituents to hear him speak, he responded with
the most good-natured readiness, and the many occa-
sional speeches he delivered were unifomly spirited
and happy. In the autumn of 1839, after an animated
struggle, he was defeated by Marcus Morton, by a
majority of one vote.

Relieved from public duty, he was led by the state of
his own health, and that of his family, to visit Europe
a second time. He sailed with his family in June, 1840.
They passed the summer in France, and the following
winter in Italy, most of it in Florence and its neighbor-
hood. He intended to pass another winter in Italy, but
the course of political events at home interfered with
his purpose, and sent him upon a new path to public
duty.

In 1840, under President Harrison's administration,
he was appointed to represent this country at the Court
of St. James. Our relations with England at that time
were momentous. The controversy touching the North-
eastern boundary, which for half a century had been a
subject of difference, had reached a point where an
amicable adjustment seemed hopeless. The recent
burning of the Caroline and the arrest of McLeod, had



30 EDWARD EVEKETT.

inflamed the public mind in botli countries. The case
of the Creole, and questions connected with Oregon and
Texas, were also elements of irritation. American
vessels had been seized and detained by British cruisers
on the coast of Africa. The confidence reposed in him
by the administration was shown by the fact that he
was sent to London to discuss all these questions with-
out any specific instructions from the Government.
Entering at once upon the discharge of his duties, he
justified, by his ability, discretion, and tact, the confi-
dence reposed in him.

Though' the settlement of the North-eastern boundary
and of the Oregon question was transferred to Wash-
ington by the appointment of Lord Ashburton, as
special ambassador, many important questions were
left in Mr. Everett's charge. Among the most impor-
tant was that involving the construction of the first
article of the convention between the two countries on
the subject of the Fisheries. Mr. Everett secured for
our fishermen the long-disputed right to take fish in the
Bay of Fundy.

He procured at various times, and in the face of
great obstacles, the release from the Penal Colony of
Yan Dieman's Land of sixty or seventy American
citizens, convicted of participation in the Canadian re-
bellion.

Mr. Everett's position at the Court of St. James must
have been rendered more difficult, by the frequent
changes in the Department of State. Mr. "Webster
retired in the spring of 1843, and was succeeded in a
brief period by Mr. Upsher, Mr. Legare, and Mr, Cal-



Online LibraryJohn G. (John Gaylord) WellsWells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 → online text (page 1 of 27)