John G. (John Gaylord) Wells.

Wells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 online

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Lafayettk — Visits the United States as the "Nation's Guest" 78

Louisiana purchased of France 74

Maine erected into an Independent State 77

Mangum, Willie P., succeeds Vice-President Tjler 36

Milan Decree issued by Napoleon Bonaparte 74

North-eastern Boundary of the United States — Treaty adjusting the 84

Oath of Office taken by President Tyler 8*

Orders in Council by the British Government i^

Public Lands — Bill for Distributing the Proceeds of the -4

Removal of the Public Moneys from the United States Bank *• '

Results of the War with Mexico ^o

Seat of Government removed to Washington 2

Seminole and Creek Indians — Chastised for Depredations 77

Sudden Death of President Taylor *>

Texas, Treaty with , rejected by the Senate '■i

Texas admitted into the Union -i

Treasury Notes — The issue of Ten Millions of Dollars authorized -

Troubles with B'rance and the Indians

Tyler, John, succeeds President Harrison ^4

Unjust Resolution relative to President Jackson Expunged 81

Veto of tlie Bill to iucorporate the Fiscal Bank of the United States "

" " " ■ " Corporation " " "^ '

. War declared against England ■'

War with Algiers — Expedition under Commodore Decatur <j

War with Mexico ~'^


0K1.L\ \(K OF KSi 00





SEALS OF THE SEVERAL STATES, Fac-similes and Descriptions of the 93















[The following articles were drawn up by a committee of gentlemen,
who were appointed by Congress for this purpose, June 12, 1776, atid
niially adopted, Nov. 15. 1777 : the committee were Messrs. Bartlett,
Samuel Adams, Hopkins, Sherman, R. R. Livingston, Dickinson,
M'Kean, Stone, Nelson, Howes, E. Rutledge, and Gwinnet.]

In Congress, July 8, 1778.


Between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rlwdt
Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jer-
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
SouthCarolina, nad Georgia.

Art. 1. The style of this confederacy shall be, " Tlie United States
of America."

Art. 2. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independ-
ence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this
confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress

Art. 3. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of
friendsdip with each other, for their common defence, the security of
their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding them-
selves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made
upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade,
or any other pretence whatever.

Art. 4. I 1. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship
and intercourse among the people of tlie different states in this union,
the free inhabitants of ea h of these states, paupers — vagabonds, and
fugitives from justice excepted — shall be entitled to all privileges and
immunities of free citizens in the several states ; and the people of
each state shall have free ingress and egress to and from any other
state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce,
subject to the same duties, irapositioBS, and restrictions, as the inhabit-
ants thereof respectively ; provided, that such restrictions shall not
extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any
state, to any other state, of which the owner is an inhabitant ; pro
\ided also, that no imposition, duties, or resfriction, shall be laid by
any state on the property of the United States, or either of them.

i 2. If any person, guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or
other high misdemeanor, in any state, shall flee from justice, and be
found in any of the United States, he shall, upon the demand of the
governor or executive power of the state from which he fled, be do-
livo'-cd up and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

{ 3. Full faitji and credit shall be given, in each of these states, to


the records, acts, aud judicial proceedings of the courts and magi*
trates of every other state.

Art. 5. I 1. For the more convenient management of the general
interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed
in such manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in
C&ngress on the first Monday in November in every year, with a power
reserved to each state to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any
time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder
of the year.

I 2. No state shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor
more than seven members ; and no person shall be capable of being
a delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years ; nor
shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office
under the United States, for which he, or any other for his benefit,
receives any salary, fees, or emolument, of any kind.

§ 3. Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the
states, and while they act as members of the committee of these states.

§ 4. In determining questions in the United States in Congress
assembled, each state shall have one vote.

§ 5. Freedom of speeoh and debate in Congress shall not be im-
peached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the
members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests
and imprisonments during the time of their going to and from, and
attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the

Art. 6. g 1. No state, without the consent of the United States in
Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy
from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with
any king, prince, or state, nor shall any person holding any office of
profit or trust under the tlnited States, or any of them, accept of any
present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any
king, prince, or foreign state ; nor shall the United States in Congress
assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

§ 2. No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confedera-
tion, or alliance whatever, between them, without the consent of the
United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the pur-
poses for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall

§ 3. No state shall lay any imposts or duties which may interfere
with any stipulations in treaties entered into by the United States, in
Congress assembled, with any king, prince, or., state, in pursuance of
any treaties already proposed by Congress to the courts of France and

§ 4. No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any
state, except such number only as shall be deenaed necessary by the
United States in Congress assembled, for the defence of such state, or
its trade ; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any state, in
time of peace, except such number only as, in the judgment of thfl


United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed reqrisitt! fa
garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state ; bvit every
itate shall always keep up a well reuulated and disciplined militia,
sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide and constantly have
ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field-pieces and tents,
and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage.

g 5. No state shall engage in any war without the consent of tha
United State in Congress assembled, unless such state be actually in-
vaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resoluliou
being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the
danger is so imminent as not to admit of delay till the United States
iu Congress assembled can be consulted ; nor shall any state grant
commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or
reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States
in Congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state,
and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and
under such regulations as shall be established by the United States
in Congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which
case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so
long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Con-
gress assembled shall determine otherwise.

Art. 7. When land forces are raised by any state for the common
defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed
by the legislature of each state respectively by whom such forces shall
be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacan-
cies shall be filled up by the state which first made the appointment.

Art. 8. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be in-
curred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the
United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a com-
mon treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states, in pro-
portion to the value of all land within each state, granted to or
surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improve-
ments thereon shall be estimated, according to such mode as the Uni-
ted States in Congress assembled shall, from time to time, direct and
appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and
levied by the authority and ilirection of the legislatures of the several '
states within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress

Art. 9. g 1. The United States in Congress assembled shall have
the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and
war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article, of sending and
receiving ambassadors ; entering Into treaties and alliances, provided
that no treaty of commerce shall be made, whereby the legislative
power of the respective states shall be restrained from impa=;ing such
imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to,
or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of
goods or commodities whatsoever ; of establishing rules for deciding 11
all cases what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what


manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the
United States shall be divided or appropriated ; of granting letters of
marque and reprisal in times of peace ; appointing courts foi' the tria]
of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas ; and establishing
courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of cap-
ture ; provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge
of any of the said courts.

I 2. The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last
resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting, or that
hereafter may arise between two or more states concerning boundary,
jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever ; which authority shall al-
ways be exercised in the manner following : Whenever the legislative
or executive authority or lawful agent of any state in controversy with
another, shall present a petition to Congress, stating the matter in
question, and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by
order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other
state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the
parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint,
by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for
hearing -.nd determining the matter in question ; but if they cannot
agree, C>>na"ress shall name three persons out of each of the United
States, ajd from the list of such persons each party shall alternately
strike 0'. t one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be
reduced to thirteen ; and from that number not less than seven, nor
more tbtin nine names, as Congress shall direct, shall, in the presence
of Con ^ress, be drawn out by lot ; and the persons whose names shall
be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges,
to hear anJ finally determine the controversy, so always as a major
part of the judges, who shall hear the cause, shall agree in the deter-
mination : and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day ap-
pointed, without showing reasons which Congress shall judge sufiScieirt,
or being present, shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to
nominate three persons out of each state, and the secretary of Congress
shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing ; and the judg-
ment and sentence of the court, to be appointed in the manner before
prescribed, shall be final and conclusive ; and if any of the parties shall
refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend
their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce
sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive;
the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either case
transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress, for
the security of the parties concerned : provided, that every commis-
sioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be adminis-
tered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state
ft-hfre the cause shall be tried, " well and truly to hear and determine
the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without
favor, affection, or hope of reward." Provided, also, that no state
shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.


5 3. All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed
ander different grants of two or more states, ■whose jimsdictiou, as
they may respect sucli lands, and the states which passed such grants
are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time
claimed to have origii.ated antecedent to such settlemei:t of jurisdic-
tion, shall, on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United
States, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner
as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial
jurisdiction between different states.

2 4. The United States in Congress assembled shall also have tht
sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value
of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respectivi?
states ; fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the
United States ; regulating the trade, and managing all affairs with the
Indians, not member* of any of the states ; provided that the legisla-
tive right of any state, within its own limits, be not infringed or vio-
lated ; establishing and regulating post offices from one state to an-
other throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on
the papers passing through the same, as may be requisite to defray the
expenses of the said office ; appointing all officers of the land forces in
the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers ; ap-
pointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all
officers whatever in the service of the United States ; making rules for
the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and
directing their operations.

§ 5. The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority
to appoint a committee to sit in the recess of Congress, to be de-
nominated, " A Committee of the States," and to consist of one delegate
from each state ; and to appoint such other committees and civil offi-
cers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United
States under their direction ; to appoint one of their number to pre-
side ; provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of
president more than one year in any term of three years ; to ascertain
the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United
States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public
expenses ; to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United
States, transmitting every half-year to the respective states an account
of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted ; to build and equip a
navy ; to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisi-
tions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number 'of
white inhabitants in such state, which requisition shall be binding ;
and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental
officers, raise the men, clothe, arm, and equip them, in a soldier like
manner, at the expense of the United States ; and the officers and
men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place ap-
pointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Con-
gress assembled ; but if the United States in Congress assembled shall,
on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should


not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, anc'i
that any other state should raise a greater number of men than tlu'
quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed,
armed, and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state,
unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number
cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall rais ■,
ofiScer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as thty
judge can be safely spared, and the officers and men so clothed, armeii,
and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the tinw
agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

^ 6. The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in
a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor
enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the
value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for tin'.
defence and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills,
nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate
money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or
purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor ap-
point a commander-in-chief of the army or navy, unless nine states
assent to the same ; nor shall a question on any other point, except
for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of
a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.

g 7. The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn
to any time within the year, and to any place within the United
States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than
the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their pro-
ceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alli-
ances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy;
and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state, on any question,
shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate ;
and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request,
shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such
parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the
several states.

Art. 10. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be
authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers
of Congress as the United States, in Congress assembled, by the con-
sent of nine states, shall, from time to time, think expedient to vest
them with ; provided that no power be delegated to the said commit-
tee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the
voice of nine states, in the Congress of the United States assembled.
is I'equisite.

Art. 11. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in
the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into and entitled
to all the advantages of this Union : But no other colony shall be ad-
mitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.

Art. 12. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts
contracted by or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling


of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall
be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for
payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the
public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

Art. 13. Every state shall abide by the determination of the United
Slates in Congress assembled, in all questions which by this confed-
eration are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation
shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be per-
petual ; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any
of them ; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the
United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislature of
every state.

And whereas it hath pleased the great Governor of the world to
incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Con-
gress to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of
Confederation and Perpetual Union, Know ye, that we, the undersigned
delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that
purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our re-
spective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and
every of the s?.id Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, and all
and singular the matters and things therein contained. And we do
further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective con-
stituents, that they shall aoide by the determinations of the United
States in Congress assembled, in all questions which by the said con-
federation are submitted to them ; and that the articles thereof shalJ
be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and
that the union shall be perpetual. In witness whereof, we have here-
unto set our hands in Congress.

Done at Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, the 9th day of
July, in the year of our Lord 1778, and in the third year of tha
Independence of America.

New Hampshire. Henry Marchant,

^ John Collins.


John Wentworth, jun. Connecticut.

Massachusetts Bay. Eoger Sherman,

Samuel Huntington,

John Hancock, ' Oliver Wolcott,

Samuel Adams, Titus Hosmer, *

Elbridge Gerry, Andrew Adams.

Francis Dana,

James Lovel, New York.

Sauuel Holten.

James Duanb,
Rhode Island, ^c. Fra. Lewis,

William Dueb,

William Eli^ert, Gouv. Morris.



New Jeisey.

Jno. Witherspoon,
Nath. Scudder.


Robert Morris,
1)an"iel Roberdeau,
J ON A Bayard Smith,
William Clingan,
Joseph Reed.


Thomas M'Kean,
John Dickinson,
Nicholas Van Dyke.


John Hanson,
Daniel CARROLii


Richard Henry Lee,
John Banister,
Thomas Adams,
Jno. Harvie,
Francis Lightfo^t Lee.

NoHh Carolina

John Penn,
Cons. Harnett,
Jno. Williams.

South Carolina.

Henry Laurens,
Wm. Henry Drayton,
Jno. Matthews,
Richard Hutson,
Thos. Heyward, jun.


Jno. Walton,
Edward Telfair,
Edward Lanowoxthi.



■«.i»vNKABLY to the Order of the day, the Congress resolved itself
l.x*D A cuimnittee of the whole, to take into their further cousideration
lo* declaration ; and after some time the President resumed the chair,
aiKj Mr. Harrison reported that the committee had agreed to a dec-
laiation, which they desired him to report. (The committee consisted
of Jefferson, Franklin, John Adams, bherman, and R. R. Livingston )

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Online LibraryJohn G. (John Gaylord) WellsWells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 → online text (page 12 of 27)