John G. (John Gaylord) Wells.

Wells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 online

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of the latter, without adequate inducement or justification. It leads
dlso to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to
others, which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the conces-
sions ; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retain-
ed, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in
the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld ; and it gives to
ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to
the favorite nation) facility to betray, or sacrifice the interest of their
own country, without odium ; sometimes even with popularity ; gild-
ing with the appearance of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commend-
able deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good
the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatvatiou



62 Washington's farewell address.

A.S avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such atiucb-
nioiits are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independ-
ent patriot, llosv many opportunities do they afford to tamper with
domestic factions, to practice the art of seduction, to mislead public
opinion, to influence or awe the public councils! Such an attach-
ment of a small or wealc, tov>'ard3 a great and powerful nation, dooms
the former to be the satellite of the latter.

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to
believe me, fellow-citizens,) the jealousy of a free people ought to be
conatanthj awake ; since history and experience prove that foreign
influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican Government. But
that jialousy, to be useful, must be impartial ; else it becomes the in-
strument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defence
against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation, and excessive
dfslike for another, cause those whom they actuate to see danger only
on one side, and serve to veil, and even second, the arts of influence
on the other. Real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the
favorite, are liable to become suspected and odious ; while its tools and
dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender
their interests.

The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in
extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little polit-
ieal connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engage-
ments, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.

Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a
very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent contro-
versies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns.
Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by
artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordi-
nary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue
a different course. If we remain one people, under an efficient Gov-
ernment, the period is not far off" when we may defy material injury
from external annoyance ; when we may take such an attitude as will
cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon, to be scrupu-
lously respected ; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of
making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazai'd the giving us pro-
vocation ; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided
by justice, shall counsel.

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation ? Why quit
Dur own to stand upon foreign ground ? Why, by interweaving our
iestiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and pros-
perity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or
caprice ?

It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any
portion of the foreign world ; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty
io do it ; for let me not be understood as capable of patronising infi-
lielity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable



WASHINGTON S KAREWKI.L ADDRESS Oo

to public than to private affaira, that honesty is always the bwit policy
I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements *be observed in their
genuine sense. But, in ray opinion, it is unnecessary, and would be
unwise to extend them.

Taking care always to keep ourselves, by suitable establishments,
on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary
alliances for extraordinary emergencies.

Harmony, and a liberal intercourse with all nations, are recoin-
mended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial
policy should hold an equal and impartial hand ; neither seeking nor
granting exclusive favors or preferences ; consulting the natural
course of things ; diffusing and diversifying, by gentle means, the
streams of commerce, but forcing nothing ; establishing, with powers
so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights
of our merchants, and to enable the Government to support them,
conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances
and mutual opinions will permit, but temporary, and liable to be, from
time to time, abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances
shall dictate ; constantly keeping in view, that it is folly in one nation
to look for disinterested favors from another ; that it must pay, with
a portion of its independence, for whatever it may accept under that
character ; that by such acceptance it may place itself in the condition
of havmg given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being re-
proached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no
greater error than to expect, or calculate upon, real favors from nation
to nation. It is an illusion which experience must cure, which a just
pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old ai j
affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and last-
ing impression I could wish ; that they will control the usual current
of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which
has hitherto marked the destiny of nations ; but if I may even flatter
myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some oc-
casional good ; that they may now and then recur to moderate the
fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigues,
to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism ; this ho})0
will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare by which
they have been dictated.

How far, in the discharge of my ofiScial duties, I have been guided
by the principles which have been delineated, the public records, and
other evidences of my conduct, must witness to you and the world.
To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least
bciio rod myself to be guided by them.

In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation
of the 22d of April, ] 793, is the index to my plan. Sanctioned by
your approving voice, and by that of your Representatives in bolb
TTouses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually gov-
•«• '«ed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it



5t WASHIN'flTO.N'.S FAREWELL AEDRESS.

After deliberate exaniiuation, with the aid of the best lights I could
obtain, I was well sStisfied that onr country, under all the circum-
stances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and
interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it, I determined, as
far as should depend upon me, to maintain it with moderation, perse-
verance, and firmness.

The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it
is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe, that,
according to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from
being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually
admitted by all.

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without
any thing more, from the obligation which justice and humanity
impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain
Inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations.

The inducements of interest, for observing that conduct, will best
be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me, a pre-
dominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country tc
settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress, without
interruption, to that degree of strength and consistency which is
necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

Though in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am un-
conscious of intentional error ; I am, nevertheless, too sensible of my
defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many
errors. Wliatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty tc
avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry
with me the hope, that my country will never cease to view them
with indulgence ; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated
to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities
will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions
of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this, as in other things, and actuated ky
that fervent love towards it which is so natural to a man who views
in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several genera-
tions, I anticipate, with pleasing expectation, that retreat in which I
promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of par-
taking, in the midst of my fellow-citizen?, the benign influence of good
laws under a free Government — the ever favorite object of my heart —
and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual care* labors, and
dangers.

GEORGE WASHINGTON.

UifmD States, 11th September, 1796.



MISSOURI COMPROMISE POPULATION UNITED STATES.



5.=»



MISSOURI COMPROMISE OF 1820.

When Missouri applied for admission into the Union, a proposi
CJon was started in Congress to prohibit the introduction of slavery
into the new state. This had the effect of arraying the South against
the North — the slave-holding against the non-slave-holding states — and
the whole subject of slavery became the exciting topic of debate
throughout the country. The question was finally settled by a Com-
■pinmise, which tole-ated slavery in Missouri, but otherwise prohibited
it in all the territory of the United States north and west of the
northern limits of Arkansas.

As the principle then settled has often since been the prolific source
of much sectional controversy and angry debate, and as it is desirable
that every one should be familiar with the real provisions of the act by
which Missouri was admitted, we have concluded to insert here so
much of the law as is necessary to a full understanding of the subject.
All the sections except the following relate entirely to the forraatiou
of the Missouri territory, in the usual form of territorial bills :

" Sec. 8. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United
States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six
degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the
limits of the state contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary
servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the
parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, for ever
prohibited. Provided ahvays, that any person escaping into the same,
from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or terri-
tory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed
and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as
aforesaid."



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES AT DECENNIAL PERIODS.



Census


White
Persons,


Colored Persons.


Total


Years.


Free.


Slave.


Total


Population.


1790...


3,172,464


59,466


697,897


757,363


3,929,827


1800...


4,304,489


108,395


893,041


1,001,436


5,305,925


1810...


5,862,004


186,446


1,191,364


1,377,810


7,239,814


1820...


7,861,937


238,156


1,538,038


1,776,194


9,638,13]


1830...


10,537,378


319,^J9


2.009,043


2,328,642


12,866,020


1840...


14,195,695


386,303


2,487,455


2,873,758


17,069,453


1850...


19,553,068


434,495


3,204.313


3,638,808


23,191,876



It will be seen by the above talafe that the population increases
naturally and by immigration at tSe yearly rate of three per cent,
which would give, in 1855, about 27,^00,000, and in 1860, .'U ,000.000



56



FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW OF 1850.

4.n Azi to amend, and suppkntcniat-y to, t/ie Act entitled '' An
Act respecting Fugitives from Justice, and persons escaping
from t/ie Service of their Masters," approved Feburart/ 12,
1193.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That the persona who have
been, or may hereafter be, appointed Commissioners, in virtue of any
Act of Congress, by the Circuit Courts of the United States, and who,
in consequence of such appointment, are authorized to exercise the
powers that any justice of the peace, or other magistrate of any of the
United States, may exercise in respect to offenders for any crime or
offence against the United States, by arresting, imprisoning, or bail-
ing the same, under and by virtue of the thirty-third section of the act
of the twenty-fourth of September, seventeen hundred and eighty
nine, entitled " An Act to establish the judicial courts of the United
States, " shall be, and are hereby, authorized and required to exer-
cise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this Act.

Sec. 2. That the Superior Court of each organized territory of
the United States shall have the same power to appoint Commission-
ers to take acknowledgments of bail and affidavits, and to take depo-
sitions of witnesses in civil causes, which is now possessed by the
Circuit Court of the United States ; and all Commissioners who shall
hereafter be appointed for such purposes by the Superior Court of
any organized territory of the United States, shall possess all the
powers, and exercise all the duties, conferred by law upon the Commis-
sioners appointed by the Circuit Courts of the United States for
similar purposes, and shall moreover exercise and discharge all the
powers and duties conferred by this Act.

Sec. 3. That the Circuit Courts of the United States, and the
Superior Courts of eac' organized territory of the United States
shall from time to time ,arge the number of Commissioners with a
view to afford reasona' facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor, and
to the prompt discharg of the duties imposed by this Act.

Sec. 4. That the Commissioners above named shall have concurrent
jurisdiction with the Judges of the Circuit and District Courts of the
United States, in their respective circuits and districts within the
several States, and the Judges of the Superior Courts of the territo-
ries severally and collectively, in term-time and vacation ; and shall
grant certificates to such claimants, upon satisfactory proof being
made, with authority to take and remove such fugitives from service or
labor, under the restrictions herein contained, to the state or terri-
tory from which such persons may have escaped or fled.

Sec. 5. That it shall bo the duty of all marshals and deputy
marshals to obey and execute all warrants and precepts issued under



FUUIT1V£ SLAVE LAW. OT

the provisions of tlds act, when to them directed ; and should anj
marshal or deputy marshal refuse to receive such wai-rant, or other
process, when tendered, or to use all ))roper mean?; diligently to
execute the same, lie shall, on conviction thereof, be fined in the sura
of one thousand dollars, to the use of such chiimaTit, on the motion of
such claimant, by the Circuit or District Court for the district of
such marshal: and after arrest of such fugitive, by such marshal oj
his deputy, or whilst at any time in his custody, under the provisiong
of this act, should such fugitive escape, whether with or without the
assent of such marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall be liable, on
his official bond, to be prosecuted for the benefit of such claimant, for
the full value of the service or labor of said I'ugitive in the state, ter-
ritory, or district whence he escaped ; and the better to esiable said
Commissioners, when thus appointed, to execute their duties faithfully
and efficiently, in conformity with the requirements of the Constitution
of the United States, and of this Act, they are hereby authorized and
empowered, within their counties respectively, to appoint, in writing
under their hands, any one or more suitable persons, from time to
time, to execute all such warrants and other process as may be issued
by them in the lawful performance of their respective duties ; with
authority to such Commissioners, or the persons to be appointed by
them, to execute process as aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid
the bystanders, or posse comftatus of the proper county, when necessary
to insure a faithful observance of the clause of the Constitution refer-
red to, in conformity with the provisions of this act ; and all good
citizens are commanded to aid and assist in the prompt and efficient
execution of this law, whenever their services may be required, as
aforesaid, for that purpose ; and said warrants shall run, and be
executed by said officers, anywhere in the state within which they
are issued.

Sec. 6. That when a person held to service or labor in any stal^
or territory of the United States, has heretofore or shall hereafter
escape into another state or territory of the United States, the person
or persons to whom such service or labor may be due, or his, her, or
their agent or attorney, duly authorized by power of attorney, in
wi-iting acknowledged and certified under the seal of some legal officer
»r Court of the state or territory in which the same may be executed,
may pui-sue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a
warrant from some one of the Courts, Judges, or Commissioners afore-
said, of the proper circuit, district, or county, for the apprehension of
juch fugitive fr-jm service or labor, or by seizing and arresting such
fugitive where the same can be done without process, and by taking
or causing such person to be taken forthwith before such Court.
Judge or Commissioner, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine
the case of such claimant in a summary manner ; and upon satisfac-
tory proof being made, by deposition or affidavit, in writing, to be
taken, and certified by such Court, Judge or Commissioner, or by
other satisfactory testimony, duly taksn and certified by some Court,



5y FrOITIvr SI,A\'K TAW.

Magistrate, Justice of the Peace, or other legal officer authorized ta
adniiuister an oath and take depositions under the laws of the state
or territory from whicli such person owing service or labor may have
escaped, with a certificate of such magistracy, or other authority as
aforesaid, with the seal of the proper Court or officer thereto attached,
which seal shall be sufficient to establish the competency of the proof,
and with proof, also by affidavit, of the identity of the person whose
service or labor is claimed to be due as aforesaid, that the person so
arrested does in fact owe service or labor to the person or persona
claiming him or her, in the state or territory from which such fugi-
tive may have escaped as aforesaid, and that said person escaped, to
make out and deliver to said claimant, his or her agent or attorney, a
certificate setting forth the substantial facts as to the service or labor
i-ue from such fugitive to the claimant, and of his or her escape fronj
I he state or territory in which such service or labor was due to the
(state or territory in which he or she was arrested, with authority to
such claimant, or his or her agent or attorney, to use such reasonable
force and restraint as may be nece.=;sary, under the circumstances
of the case, to take and remove such fugitive person back to the state
or territory whence he or she may have escaped as aforesaid. In no
trial or hearing under this Act shall the testimony of such alleged
fugitive be admitted in evidence ; and the certificates in this and the
first [fourth] section mentioned, shall be conclusive of the right of the
person or persons in whose favor granted, to remove such fugitive
to the state or territory from which he escaped, and shall prevent all
molestation of such person or persons by any process issued by any
Court, Judge, Magistrate, or other person whomsoever.

Sec. 1. That any person who shall knowingly and williugly
obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his agent or attorney, or
any person or persons lawfully assisting him, her or them, from arrest-
ing such a fugitive from service or labor, either with or without
process as aforesaid, or shall rescue or attempt to rescue such fugitive
from service or labor, from the custody of such claimant, his or her
agent or attorney, or other person or persons lawfully assisting aa
aforesaid, when so arrested pursuant to the authority herein given and
f'eclared, of shall aid, abet, or assist such person so owing service
or labor as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, to escape from such
claimant, his agent or attorney, or other person or persons legally
mthorized as aforesaid ; or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive
so as to prevent the discovery and arrest of such person, after notice
or knowledge of the fact that such person was a fugitive from service
or labor as aforesaid, shall, for either of said offences, be subject to a
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisonment not exceed-
ing six mouths, by indictment and conviction before the District
Court of the United States, for the district in which such offence may
have been committed, or before the proper court of criminal jurisdic-
tion, if committed within any one of the organized territories of the
Unitpri States, and shall moreover forfeit and pay, by way of citU



FtT.ITIVK ^I,AV^ l..\W. 50

damages to die party iujurcd by such illegal comluot, the sum of one
thousand dollars, lor each fugitive so lost as iiroresai<l, to be recovered
by action of debt io any of the District or Territorial Courts afore-
said, within whose jurisdiction the said olfjoce may have been
committed.

ciEC. 8. That the marshals, their deputies, and the clerks of the
said District and Territorial Courts, shall be paid lor their service?
the like fees as may be allowed to them for similar services in other
cases ; and where such services are rendered exclusively in the arrest,
custody, and delivery of the fugitive to the claimant, his or her agent
or attorney, or where such supposed fugitive may be discharged out oi
custody for the want of sufficient proof as aforesaid, then such fees are
to be paid in the whole by such claimant, his agent or attorney ; and
in all cases where the proceedings are before a Commissioner, he shall
be entitled to a fee of ten dollars in full for his services in each case,
npon the delivery of the said certificate to the claimant, his or her
agent or attorney ; or a fee of five dollars in cases where the proof
shall not, in the opinion of such Commissioner, warrant such certificate
and delivery, inclusive of all services incident to such arrest and
examination, to be paid in either case by the claimant, his or her
agent or attorney. The person or persons authorized to execute the
process to be issued by such Commissioner for the arrest and deten-
tion of fugitives from service or labor as aforesaid, shall also be
entitled to a fee of five dollars each, for each person he or they may
arrest and take before any such Commissioner, as aforesaid, at tha
instance and request of such claimant, with such other fees as may
be deemed reasonable by such Commissioners for such other addi-
tional services as may be necessarily performed by him or them ; such
as attending at the examination, keeping the fugitive in custody, and
providing him with food and lodging during his detention, and until
the final determination of such Commissioner ; and, in general, for
performing such other duties as may be required by such claimant, his
or her attorney or agent, or Commissioner in the premises. Such fees
to be made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by thu
officers of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, aa
near as may be practicable, and paid by such claimants, their agents


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Online LibraryJohn G. (John Gaylord) WellsWells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 → online text (page 17 of 27)