John G. (John Gaylord) Wells.

Wells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 online

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Daniel D. Tompkins, elected Vice-President, took the oath of office,
and attended in the Senate, March 4, 1817.

Tho Seminole and a few of the Creek Indians commenced depreda-
tions OD the frontiers of Georgia and Alabama towards the close of
1817, for which they were severely chastised by a force under General
Jackson, and gladly sued for peace.

In Ffcbiuiiry, 1819, a treaty was negotiated at Washington, by
which Spain coded to the United States East and West Florida and
the adjacent islands. In the same year the southern portion of Mis-
souri territory was set off under the name of Arkansas, for which a
territorial government wrvs formed ; and Alabama was constituted a
state, and admitted ioto the Union.

Early in 1820 the prtv-nce of Maine, which had been connecteu
with Massachusetts ciuct 1652, was separated from it, and was admit
ted into the Union as ai. \i ^dependent state.



78



ELECTORAI. VOTES.



ELECTION FOR THE NINTH TERBf.
COMMENCING MAECB 4, 1821, AND TERMINATING MARCH 3, 1825.



I

IS

goa

o «
o


STATES.


PRE.


id't.


VICE-PKRSIDE-N'T




C

? ~
a

a

3


'5 <-

C? c

a

3


=^ o
'a


a?
MO

-a
3


a
K o

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2


it

r

X

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'a

a






U.


8




7

15

4

9

8

29

8

24

4.

11
25
15
11
8
12

8
3
3
2
3

9
3


1


7

4
9
8

29
8

24


"8'




1




T)






4










9












8












?ft












8












Vn












4










4


n






10
Jb
j5
11
8
12

8

3

9




1






25






If)












11






8












12












g












g


(iliio .










3












3












3












3


Illinois










3












fl












3


Vissinni
















VS")


X(i. (if y.lrcw.v?


31


!


-IS


8


1


1


4




^!-,j..li1\ :;8





James Monroe was re-elected President, but there is no notice on
the Journals of Congress that he again took the oath of office.

Daniel D. Tompkins was re-elected Yice-President, hut there is no
record of his having again taken the oath of office.

Public attention was much occupied in 1S24-5 by a visit from the
venerable General Lafayette, who, after the lapse of nearly half a cen-
tury from the period of his military career, v^as again welcomed with
every token of respect that could be devised for honoring the •' Na-
tion's Guest." He landed in New York in August, 1824, and after
remaining there a short time, set out on a tour through all fie states.
Upwards of a year was taken up ii; accomplishing this gratifying
object ; and in September, 1825, he i^ailed from Washington in th«
frigate Brardywine for his native home.



ELECTORAL VOTES.



79



ELECTION FOR THE TENTH TERM,

COMMENCING MARCH 4, 1825, AND TERinNATING lURCH 3, 1829.





STATES.


PKESIDK.NT.


VICE-l-KKSIUKNT.
1 1 1




a

si

« CO

c «
o


i

ll

•s


2 "S
3


r3 rt

s


3
C

>>

3


9 •"




ci -^
•/. c

3


a
.2


1 1


.a

c" e

a, ^

3 i

— «^

> c
a

3


3


g






8
15
4

8

7

26






7
15
S






1






15








4


Rhode Island








"s'






s








7











7
29

8
28

1
10








36




1

8
28


7










g












28




















3




1
3


2
1

24












9.


11




7




'24'








24






15




15
11






15
11

7
11

5
5
3
3
5
9










11












g






9




"7'










14










11




11














16


Ohio .








16










5




3
5
3

2
5


2






5
3
3
6
9
3






















1






























9




"3




















3






















261


WtioXe No. of Electors

Mnjority 131


99


84


41


37


182


30


24


13


9


2



Neither candidate for the Presidency having received a majority of
the electoral votes, it devolved upon the House of Representatives to
choose a President from the three highest on the list of those voted for.
which three were Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and William
H. Crawford. Twenty-fonr tellers (one member from each state) were
appointed, who, after examining the ballots, announced that the votea
of thirteen states had been given for John Quincy Adams ; the votea
of seven states for Andrew Jackson ; and the votes of four states for
William H. Crawford. The Speaker then declared that John Quincy
Adams, having received a majority of the votes of all the states, was
duly elected President of the United States for four years, commencing
on the 4th day of March. 1825 ; on which day Mr. Adams took th«
oath of office, and entered upon his duties.

John C. Calhoun, having been elected Vice-President, took the oatn
of office, and attended in the Senate, March 4, 1825.



80



ELECTuRAl, V()TK3



ELECT 3N FOR THE ELEVEN'H TERM,

COMMENCING MARCH 4, 1829, AND TERMINATING MARCH c 183S.



S

CD V

E-g



I PRESlD'TlVICK-PRESIDENl



STATES.






3 *



Maine ,

New Hampshire.
Massachusetts . . .
Rhode Island ....

Connecticut

Vermont

New York

New Jersey

Pennsylvania

Delaware

Maryland

Virginia

North Carolina..
South Carolina . .

Georgia

Kentucliy

Tennessee

Ohio

Louisiana

Mississippi

Indiana

Illinois

Alabama

Missouri



Whole No. of Electors.
Majority



Andrew Jacksou took the oath of office, as President, and entered
upon his duties March 4, 1829.

John C. Calhoun took the oath of office, as Vice-President, and
presided in the Senate March 4, 1829.

A series of unfortunate political and social occurrences soon led tc-
a rupture of that cordiality which had formerly existed between these
two distinguished individuals, the consequences of which were pecu-
liarly disastrous to the political aspirations of Mr. Calhou i, who waa
never afterwards regarded with much favor beyond the immediate
limits of his own state.



ELECTORAL VOTES.



81



ELECTION FOR THE TWELFTH TERM,
COIIIIENCING MARCH 4, 1833, AND TKRMIXATLVG MAncil 3 1837.







i'Kl-::^IUKNT. 1 Virh;-lHK.sif)L:NT.

...... 1 \ 1 , ,


i

o ca

E-g

c *
d


STATES.


il

"^ c

i:

b.

■a

<


q


c


c
«

So

s


M

c c

> c

a


'5

a!:

2 C


^ c


3


'3

If
go


10




10








10

T










7


New Hampsbire
















U




14
4
8






14
4

8






*


4


Rhode Island
















8


















7








7








7


4^


New York


4-2

8

30






42

8










8


















30












30






R




3
5








3




10




8
23
15






3
23




?.3










Ift










1'










11






11










11




11




11


is


. n




15




...


15
21
5
4
9
5
7
4


15








\r>




15
21












'>^


Ohio










h










4


Mississippi














9


9
5

T
4
















5


















7


















4




































288




219


49


11


T


189


49


30


11


7




Majority 145





Andrew Jacksou, re-elected President, took the oath of ofBee, and
continued his duties. March 4, 1833.

Martin Yan Buren, having been elected Vice-President, took the
oath of office, and attended in the Senate, March 4, 1833.

Early in June, 1833, the President left Washington on a tour
through the Northern states, and was every where received with an
enthusiasm that evinced the cordial approval of his administration by
the people. One of his first measures, on returning to the seat of
government, was the removal of the public moneys from the United
States Bank, for which act he encountered the most virulent hostility
of a small majority of the Senate, who passed resolutions censuring
bis course. But this injustice has not been perpetuated ; for on the
16th of January, 1837, these partisan resolutions were expunged from
the records by order of a handsome majority.



82



KLECTOKAL VOTES.



ELECTION FOR THE THIRTEENTH Ttfiffl,

COMMENONG MARCH 4, 1837, AND TERiUNATIXG MARCH 3, 1841.



g


STATES.


PRESIDE.NT.


V]CK-PKESIDE.\T.


o d
■£2

1


1:2

3
IS


CO
p t„


■- F

"^ 'c

"5)

D
135




3 °






'5
>

a
1


c:
1

1 =
a


10




10

7










10

7

"4

S








7


















14








14




14






4


Rhode Island


4
8








8




"7'


















7






4?.




42








42




8




8








8






RO




30








30








10








3


'ib'




10
















?3




i23
15












23


1.1












15








n










11




11
11

is'




11














15






15








15




15






15










?l


Ohio




21












5




5
4

7








5

4




4


Mississippi
















q


9








9






6










5
7
4
3
3




7














4
















3


Ai-liansas














3


3
































?n4




170


73




14


11


147*


77


47


23




JIajority 148









Martin Van Buren, elected President, took the oath of office, and
entered upon bis duties, March 4, 1837.

Richard M. Johnson, elected Vice-President, took the oath of office,
and attended in the Senate, March 4, 1837.

Urged by the unprecedented financial embarrassments which were
experienced in every branch of industry, and especially by the mer-
cantile class, Mr. Van Buren's first measure was to convene a special
meeting of Congress early in September, '37, which continued in session
forty days, but accomplished very little. A bill authorizing the issue
of ^10,000,000 in treasury notes was passed ; but the Independent
Treasury bill (the great financial measure of the administration) waa
then rejected, although afterwards (in 1840) adopted.

* npcted I J the t?enate-.



ELECTORAL VOTKS.



B?>



ELECTION FOR THE FOURTEENTH TERRI,
COMilENCING lURCH 4, 1841, AND TERinNATIXG ILiRCH 3, 1S45.






STATES.



PRESID'T. VICE-PRESIDEXT.



3 >



Alaine

New Hampshire
Massachusetts.
Rhode Island...
Connecticut....

Vermont

New York

New Jersey . . . .
Pennsylvania . .

Delaware

Maryland

Virginia

North Carolina .
South Carolina.

Georgia

Kentucky

Tennessee . . . . ,

Ohio ■

Louisiana

Mississippi

Indiana

Illinois

Alabama

Missouri ;..

Arkansas

Michigan



No. of Electors.
Majority



William H. Harrison, elected President, took the oath of ofiBce,
and entered upon his duties, March 4, 1841.

John Tyler, elected Vice-President, took the oath of office, and
attended in the Senate, March 4, 1841.

Soon after his inauguration, President Harrison issued a proclama-
tion, couvenino- Congress for an extra session on the 31st of jNIay, to
consider " sundry weighty and important matters, chiefly growing out
of the state of the revenue and liuances of the country. ' But he did
nut live to submit his remedial plans— dying, alter a very brief illness.
o.n the 4th of April, exactly one month alter coming into office. He
was the first President who had died during his ofEcial term, and a
roessenger was immediately dispatched with a letter, signed by all the



84 ELECTORAL VOTES.

members of the Cabiuet, conveyiug the luelaiicholy iutelligeuce to the
Vice-President, then at Williamsburg, \a. By extraordinary means
he reached Washington at five o'clock on the morning of the 6th, and
at twelve o'clock the Heads of Def/artments waited upon him, to pay
their official and personal respects. After signifying hi.s deep feeling
of the public calamity sustained by the death of President Harrison,
and expressing his profound sensibility of the heavy responsibilities so
Buddenly devolved upon himself, he made known his wishes that the
Bcveral Heads of Departments would continue to fill the places which
they then respectively occupied, and his confidence that they would
afford all the aid in their power to enable him to carry on the admin-
istration of the government successfully. — Mr. Tyler afterwards took
and subscribed the following oath of office :

" I d'j solemnly swear, that I will faithfully execute the office of President of
the United States, and will, to the best' of my ability, preserve, protect, and
defend the Constitution of the United States. JOHN TYLER.

"Apeil 6, 1841."

Pursuant to the proclamation of President Harrison, Congress met
on the 31st of May, and continued in session until the 13th of Sep-
tembei'. On the 27th of July a bill for the establishment of "The
Fiscal Bank of the United States," passed the Senate by a vote of 26
to 23, and was concurred in by the House of Representatives on the
6th of August — 128 to 91. President Tyler, however, returned the
bill on the 16th, with his olijections, and it was lost for lack of a con-
stitutional majority. But the friends of a national bank were not to
be deterred from their purpose by a single repulse : another bill (about
the same in substance) was immediately hurried through both Houses,
under the title of "The Fiscal Corporation of the United States," and
this also shared the fate of its predecessor.

A Senate bill for the establishment of a uniform system of bank-
ruptcy throughout the United States, was concurred in by the House
on the 18th of August, and became a law ; but, meeting with very
general condemnation, it was soon after repealed.

A bill M'as also passed at this extra session for the distribution of
the proceeds of the sales of the public lands among the several states,
in proportion to population.

In 1842 an important treaty, adjusting the north-eastern boundary
of the United States, was negotiated at ^Viushington between Mr.
Webster, on the part of this country, and Lord Ashburton, on the
part of Great Britain.

During the last year of Mr. Tyler's administration niucl' excitement
prevailed on the proposed annexation of Texas to the Union, which
was strongly resisted at the North, on the ground that the South and
southern institutions would thereby gain increased power in the
national councils. A treaty of annexation, signed by the President,
»vas rejected by the Senate, but measures were taken by which Texas
was admitted the year follo>ving.



ELECTORAL VOTES.



83



ELECTION FOR THE FIFTEENTH TERM,

COiDIENaNG JLVRCH 4, ]845. AM) TFP.MLNATING JLVRCH 3. 1849.



1

11

o *
6


STATES.


PRE


?id't.


V.PB

w 1=

D




les'T

>

\\

&*^
E-<


9


Maine


9



4
6
6

"7'

"3'

8

'ii'
i'l

13
23

105


9
6

"se'
'26'

'ii'

"9'
10

'e'

6

12
9
9
7
3

6
170




6






1^




T?


4


Rhde Island




4


6






R


fi






6


8fi




36




7




7


?R


Pennsylvania


26




.S




8


8






8


17




17




11




n


9




9
10




10






t;^




1?


13






IS


va


Ohio




?3


6
6


Louisiana


6

6

12

9

9

7
3
5

170




TZ






9






9






T






S






5












V7ft




lOft




Majority 138











James K. Polk took the oath of office, as President, and entered
upon his duties March 4, 1845.

Geor<re M. Dallas took the oath of office, as Vice-President, and
?»ttended in the Senate, March 4, 1845.

The most important incidents of Mr. Polk's administration were the
admission of Texas and the consequent war with Mexico, the latter of
■which resulted in extending our territorial boundaries to the Pacilio
ocean, embracing regions of incalculable value.



86



KLECTORaL V0T£S.



tLECTION FOR THE SIXTEENTH TERM,
COMMENCING SLAROI 4, 1849, AND TERMINATING IViRCil 3, 18.13.



11

gCQ

o


STATES.


FKt>
= 1


ID'T.

c

f


V . PKKrf'T.

i J

c & = g
1 1


9






9
6

"'9'

"•is

"e

12
9

9
7
3
5

""■i
4
4


'12"

4
6
6

SO
7

26
3
S

ii
ib'

'e"

"s



9


6









^■?.




12
4
6
6

36
7

26

8




4


Rhode Island




fi






c






S6






7


New Jer.sey




3






S






17




17


11




11




9




9


10




10
12
13




12






13






23


Ohio


V3


6




6




6




fi


12






t;^


9






9


9






9


7






7


3








5






ft


3




3




4


Texas


4


4






4


4






4










290


Whole No. of Electors


163


127


163


[''1















Ziicliary Taylor took the oath of ofBce, as President, and entored
npon his duties March 4, 1849. He did not, however, long enjoy hia
honors — death suddenly closing his earthly career, July 9, 1850.

^liliard Fillmore took the oath of office, as Vice-President, and
entered upon his duties March 4, 1849. Congress being in session at
the time President Taylor died, the Vice-President sent a messac^e to
both houses on the 10th of July, in which he feelingly announced the
melancholy event. On the same day he took the requisite oath, and
SDtered on the execution of the office of President.

Willie P. Mangum, of N. C, President pro tern, of the Senate, acted
as Vice-President, ex officio, during the remainder of the term.



ELECTORAL VOTES.



«1



ELECTION FOR THE SEVENTEENTH TERM,

OOmiEKaNG MAEQI 4, 1853, AND TERMINATING MARCH 3, 1857



o

tl

M



STATES,



PKKSID T. V.I'UKS'T



SHi



< c



Maiue

New Hampshire.
Ma.ssaclui setts. ..

Rhode Island

Connecticut

Vermont

New York

Now Jersey

P>'nnsylvania

Ue.'aware

Mai viand

Virginia

North Carolina...
South Caiolina. ..

Geoioii.\

Kentuil \ ,

Tenness.'ik>

Ohio

Louisianii. . .. . .

Mississipp.'

Indiana

Illinois

Alabama...

Missouri

Arliansas ,

Michigan

I' lorida

Ttxas

Iowa

Wisconsin

C«lifornia



Whole No. of Elti\ori<

Majority 149



Franklin Pierce took ^lie oath of office, as President, and entered
ipon his duties March 4. 1853.

The oath of office was -idministered to William R. King by a com-
aiission while he was on i:, visit to Cuba for the benefit of his health ;
out he died soon after his return home, and Jesse I>. Bright, of Indi-
ana, then President of the Senate, acted as Vice-President, ex officio.
anring the rentaiuder of this term.

John P. Hale, of N. Hampshire, and George W. Julian, of Indiana,
were nominated by the " Free Democracy " for President and Vice-
I'tRsident, but thev did not receive a single electoral vote.



88



ELECTORAL VOTES



ELECTION FOR THE E GHTEENTH TERM,

COilMEXCIXG MARCH 4, 1S57. AND TERMINATING MARCH 3, ISni.



is


STATES.


FEESIDEXT.


VICE-PRBSIDEXT


"S

S 5

"tj 3

£ o

s


C 0;
^ O

d






H

Mo

d

3




i -
s >

So :


ii



|L1

3
<


s






8 ....
5 ....
13 ....
4 ....


27

15'
10
8
10
12
12

"e'

7

13

11

9

9

4

"3"
4

"4'


8

5
13

4

6

5
35

...j

'23'

"e'

"4'
5




^






]3








4















6

5

35


■•s'




5




















7

27

3










R






R




8






15
10

8
10
12
12


'23'

"e'

"4
5




10






s






10






V






v^


Tennessee




•'3


Ohio




fi




6
7
13
11
9
9
4




i^










^^






19













4






fi






3




3
4




4






4






S


Wisconsin*






4




4










?9ri


Wliole No. of Electors


174


114


8


174


114


R




Majorilj' 149





James Bucbacaii took the oath of office, as President, and entered
upon bis duties, March 4, 1857.

John C. Breckenridge took the oath of office, as Vice-President,
and entered upon his duties, March 4, 1857.

* When II1C Electoral votes were heing counted, iu Joint Convention of the Senate
BO'l Ilnuse of Representatives, objcc^ous ivere made to including the votes of Wiscon-
sin, bpcause the elfctors did not meet unlil the day after that prescribed bv law. The
I'n'sident of the Convention stated that he merely announced that James Buchanan
had been elected President of the United States, without any reference to the -jonteBted
roles, and dfcliuod expres.sing an opinion on the subject.



SEAL OP THE UXITED STATES.



89



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE UNITED STATES

Is one of peculiar inter-
est, and therefore we feel
warranted in giving more
details of its design and
liistory thnu can be allotted
to tlie Seals of the several
.States. Soon after the de-
claration of independence,
Benjamin Fi'anklin, John
Adams, and Thomas Jef-
ferson were appointed a
eomaiiltfc to prepare a
great seal for the infant re-
pabiie ; and t.hi-y emploj'ed
a French West Indian,
named Dn Siniitiere, not
only to furnish designs, but
also to sketch such devices
as were suggested by them-
selves. In one of bis de-
signs, the artist displayed on a shield the armorial ensigns of the several
nations from whence America had been peopled — embracing those of
England, Scotland, Ireland. Franco, Germany, and Holland. On one
side was placed Liberty with her cap, and on the other was a rifleman
in imiform, with his rifle in one hand and a tomahawk in the other —
the di-ess and weapons being peculiar to America.

Franklin proposed, for the device, Moses lifting his wand, and dividing
the Red Sea, and Pharaoh and his hosts overwhelmed with the waters.
I'^or a motto, the words of Cromwell, " Kebellion to tyrants is obedience
to God."

Adams proposed the Choice of Hercules ; the hero resting on a club,
Virtue pointing to her rugged mountain on one hand, and persuading
him to ascend ; and Sloth, glancing at her tlowery paths of pleasure,
wantonly reclining on the ground, displaying llie charms, both of her
eliupience and person, to seduce him into vice.

.Ktf.Tson proposed the Children of Israel in the Wilderness, led by a
cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night ; ajid. on the reverse, ITengist
and Ilorsa, the Saxon chiefs, from whom we claim the honor of being




90 SEAL OF THE UNITED STATES.

descended, and whose political principles and form of pfovernmcnt we
have assumed.

Franklin and Adams then requested Jefferson to combine their ideas
in a compact description of the proposed great seal, which he did, and
that paper, in his handwriting, is now in the office of the Secretary of
State at Washington. This design consisted of a shield with six quar-
terin!>;s, parti one, covpi two, in heraldic phrase. The first gold, and an
enameled rose, red and white, for England ; the second white, with a
thistle, in its proper colors, for Scotlaud ; the third green, with a harp
of gold, for Ireland ; the fourth blue, with a golden lily-flower, for
France ; the fifth gold, with the imperial black eagle, for Germany ;
and the sixth gold, with the Belgic crowned red lion, for Holland.
These denoted the countries from which America had been peopled.
He proposed to place the shield within a red border, on which there
should be thirteen white escutcheons, linked together by a gold chain,
each bearing appropriate initials, in black, of the confederated States
Supporters, the Goddess of Liberty on the right side, in a corslet of
armor, in allusion to the then state of war, and holding the spear and
cap in her right hand, while her left supported the shield. On the left,
the Goddess of Justice, leaning on a sword in her right hand, and in
her left a balance. The crest, the eye of Providence in a radiant tri-
angle, whose glory should extend over the shield and beyond the
figures Motto : E Pluribus Unum — " Many in one." Around the
whole, " Seal of the United States of America, MDGCLXXVI." For
the reverse, he proposed the device of Pharoah sitting in an open
chariot, a crown on his hea^l and a sword in his hand, passing through
the divided waters of the Red Sea in pursuit of the Israelites. Rays
from a pillar of fire in a cloud, expressive of the Divine presence and
command, beaming on Moses, who stands on the shore, and, extending
his hand over the sea, causes it to overwhelm Pharoah and his follow-
ers. Motto : " Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God."

Jefferson's device was highly approved by his coi^djutors, and the
committee reported on the lOth of August, 1776 ; but, for some unac-
countable reason, their i-eport was neglected, not having been even
placed on record ; and the affair was allowed to slumber until the 24th
of March, 1779, when Messrs. Lovell, of Massachusetts, Scott, of Vir-
ginia, and Ploustoun, of Georgia, were appointed a committee to make
another device.

On the 10th of May following they reported in favor of a seal four
inches in diameter, one side of which should be composed of a shield


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Online LibraryJohn G. (John Gaylord) WellsWells' illustrated national campaign hand-book for 1860 → online text (page 20 of 27)