John George Bourinot.

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1867 two only demand special mention in this short review.
One of these is A History of the days of Montcalm and Levis
by the Abbe Casgrain, who illustrates the studious and literary
character of the professors of the great university which bears
the name of the first bishop of Canada, Monseigneur Laval.
A more elaborate general history of Canada, in ten octavo
volumes, is that by Dr Kingsford, whose life closed with his
book. Whilst it shows much industry and conscientiousness
on the part of the author, it fails too often to evoke our
interest even when it deals with the striking and picturesque
story of the French regime, since the author considered it his
duty to be sober and prosaic when Parkman is bright and

A good estimate of the progress of literary culture in
Canada can be formed from a careful perusal of the poems of
Bliss Carman, Archibald Lampman, Charles G. W. Roberts,
Wilfred Campbell, Duncan Campbell Scott and Frederick
George Scott. The artistic finish of their verse and the
originality of their conception entitle them fairly to claim

IX.] Confederation. 1867 1909. 285

a foremost place alongside American poets since Longfellow,
Emerson, VVhittier, Bryant and Lowell have disappeared.
Pauline Johnson, who has Indian blood in her veins, Arch-
bishop O'Brien of Halifax, Miss Machar, Ethelyn Weatherald,
Charles Mair and several others might also be named to prove
that poetry is not a lost art in Canada, despite its pressing
prosaic and material needs.

Dr Louis Frechette was a worthy successor of Cre"mazie, and
has won the distinction of having his best work crowned by
the French Academy. French Canadian poetry, however, has
been often purely imitative of French models like Musset and
Gautier, both in style and sentiment, and consequently lacks
strength and originality. Frechette had all the finish of the
French poets ; and, while it cannot be said that he ever
originated fresh thoughts which are likely to live among even
the people whom he has so often instructed and delighted, yet
he has given us poems like that on the discovery of the
Mississippi which proved him to be capable of even better things
if he had sought inspiration from the sources of the deeply
interesting history of his own country, or entered into the inner
mysteries and social relations of his picturesque compatriots.

The life of the French Canadian habitant has been ad-
mirably described in verse by Dr Drummond, who had long
lived among that class of the Canadian people and was a
close observer of their national and personal characteristics.
He is the only writer who has succeeded in giving a striking
portraiture of life in the cabin, in the "shanty" (chantUr\ and
on the river, where the French habitant^ forester, and canoe-
man can be seen to best advantage.

But if Canada can point to some creditable achievements of
recent years in history, poetry and essays, there is one depart-
ment in which Canadians never won any marked success until
recently, and that is in the novel or romance. Even Mr Kirby's
Le Chief i- (?Or, which recalls the closing days of the French
regime the days of the infamous Intendant Bigot who fattened

286 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

on Canadian misery does not show the finished art of the
skilled novelist, though it has a certain crude vigour of its own,
which has enabled it to live while so many other Canadian
books have died. French Canada is even weaker in this par-
ticular, and this is the more surprising because there is abund-
ance of material for the novelist or the writer of romance in
her peculiar society and institutions. But this reproach has
been removed by Mr Gilbert Parker, now a resident in London,
but a Canadian by birth, education and sympathies, who is
animated by a laudable ambition of giving form and vitality to
the abundant materials that exist in the Dominion for the true
story-teller. His works show great skill in the use of historic
matter, more than ordinary power in the construction of a plot,
and, above all, a literary finish which is not equalled by any
Canadian writer in the same field of effort. Other meritorious
Canadian workers in romance are Mr William McLennan,
Mrs Coates (Sarah Jeannette Duncan), and Miss Dougall,
whose names are familiar to English readers.

The name of Dr Todd is well known throughout the
British empire, and indeed wherever institutions of government
are studied, as that of an author of most useful works on the
English and Canadian constitutions. Sir William Dawson, for
many years the energetic principal of McGill University, the
scientific prominence of which is due largely to his mental
bias, was the author of several geological books, written in a
graceful and readable style. The scientific work of Canadians
can be studied chiefly in the proceedings of English, American
and Canadian societies, especially, of late years, in the trans-
actions of the Royal Society of Canada, established over
eighteen years ago by the Marquess of Lome when governor-
general of the Dominion. This successful association is
composed of one hundred and twenty members who have
written "memoirs of merit or rendered eminent services to
literature or science."

On the whole, there have been enough good poems, histories,

IX.] Confederation. 1867 1909. 287

and essays, written and published in Canada during the last
four or five decades, to prove that there has been a steady
intellectual growth on the part of the Canadian people, and
that it has kept pace at all events with the mental growth in
the pulpit, or in the legislative halls, where, of late years, a
keen practical debating style has taken the place of the more
rhetorical and studied oratory of old times. The intellectual
faculties of Canadians only require larger opportunities for
their exercise to bring forth rich fruit. The progress in the
years to come will be much greater than that Canadians have
yet shown, and necessarily so, with the wider distribution of
wealth, the dissemination of a higher culture, and a greater
confidence in their own mental strength, and in the oppor-
tunities that the country offers to pen and pencil. What is
now wanted is the cultivation of a good style and artistic

Much of the daily literature of Canadians indeed the chief
literary aliment of large numbers is the newspaper press,
which illustrates necessarily the haste, pressure and super-
ficiality of writings of that ephemeral class. Canadian journals,
however, have not yet descended to the degraded sensationalism
of New York papers, too many of which circulate in Canada to
the public detriment. On the whole, the tone of the most
ably conducted journals the Toronto Globe, and the Montreal
Gazette notably is quite on a level with the tone of debate in
the legislative bodies of the country.

Now, as in all times of Canada's history, political life claims
many strong, keen and cultured intellects, though at the same
time it is too manifest that the tendency of democratic con-
ditions and heated party controversy is to prevent the most
highly educated and sensitive organisations from venturing on
the agitated and unsafe sea of political passion and competition.
The speeches of Sir Wilfrid Laurier the eloquent French
Canadian premier, who in his mastery of the English tongue
surpasses all his versatile compatriots of Sir Charles Tupper,

288 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

Mr Foster and others who might be mentioned, recall the
most brilliant period of parliamentary annals (1867 1873),
when in the first parliament of the Dominion the most promi-
nent men of the provinces were brought into public life, under
the new conditions of federal union. The debating power of
the provincial legislative bodies is excellent, and the chief
defects are the great length and discursiveness of the speeches
on local as well as on national questions. It is also admitted
that of late years there has been a tendency to impair the
dignity and to lower the tone of discussion.

Many Canadians have devoted themselves to art since
1867, and some Englishmen will recognise the names of
L. R. O'Brien, Robert Harris, J. W. L. Forster, Homer
Watson, George Reid the painter of " The Foreclosure of the
Mortgage," which won great praise at the World's Fair of
Chicago John Hammond, F. A. Verner, Miss Bell, Miss
Muntz, W. Brymner, all of whom are Canadians by birth and
inspiration. The establishment of a Canadian Academy of
Art by the Princess Louise, and of other art associations, has
done a good deal to stimulate a taste for art, though the public
encouragement of native artists is still very inadequate, when
we consider the excellence already attained under great diffi-
culties in a relatively new country, where the great mass of
people has yet to be educated to a perception of the advantages
of high artistic effort.

Sculpture would be hardly known in Canada were it not for
the work of the French Canadian He'bert, who is a product of
the schools of Paris, and has given to the Dominion several
admirable statues and monuments of its public men. While
Canadian architecture has hitherto been generally wanting in
originality of conception, the principal edifices of the provinces
afford many good illustrations of effective adaptation of the
best art of Europe. Among these may be mentioned the
following: the parliament and departmental buildings at
Ottawa, admirable examples of Italian Gothic; the legislative

IX.] Confederation. 1867 1909. 289

buildings at Toronto, in the Romanesque style; the English
cathedrals in Montreal and Fredericton, correct specimens
of early English Gothic ; the French parish church of Notre-
Dame, in Montreal, attractive for its stately Gothic proportions;
the university of Toronto, an admirable conception of Norman
architecture ; the Canadian Pacific railway station at Montreal
and the Frontenac Hotel at Quebec, fine examples of the
adaptation of old Norman architecture to modern necessities ;
the provincial buildings at Victoria, in British Columbia, the
general design of which is Renaissance, rendered most effective
by pearl-grey stone and several domes ; the headquarters of
the bank of Montreal, a fine example of the Corinthian order,
and notable for the artistic effort to illustrate, on the walls of
the interior, memorable scenes in Canadian history; the county
and civic buildings of Toronto, an ambitious effort to repro-
duce the modern Romanesque, so much favoured by the
eminent American architect, Richardson; Osgoode Hall, the
seat of the great law courts of the province of Ontario, which
in its general character recalls the architecture of the Italian
Renaissance. Year by year we see additions to our public and
private buildings, interesting from an artistic point of view, and
illustrating the accumulating wealth of the country, as well as
the growth of culture and taste among the governing classes.

The universities, colleges, academies, and high schools, the
public and common schools of the Dominion, illustrate the
great desire of the governments and the people of the provinces
to give the greatest possible facilities for the education of all
classes at the smallest possible cost to individuals. At the
present time there are perhaps 15,000 students in attendance at
the universities and colleges. The collegiate institutes and
academies of the provinces also rank with the colleges as
respects the advantages they give to young men and women.
Science is especially prominent in McGill and Toronto Uni-
versities, which are the most largely attended ; and the former
affords a notable example of the munificence of the wealthy

B. c. 19

290 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

men of Montreal, in establishing chairs of science and other-
wise advancing its educational usefulness. Laval University
stands deservedly at the head of the Roman Catholic insti-
tutions of the continent, on account of its deeply interesting
historic associations, and the scholarly attainments of its pro-
fessors, several of whom have won fame in Canadian letters.
Several universities give instructions in medicine and law.
Degrees are open to women in nearly all the Canadian uni-
versities. At the present time, at least one-fifth of the people
of the Dominion is in attendance at the universities, colleges,
public and private schools. The people of Canada contribute
upwards of ten millions of dollars annually to the support
of their educational establishments, in the shape of government
grants, public taxes, or private fees. Ontario alone, in 1907,
raised about seven millions of dollars for the support of its
public school system ; and of this amount the people directly
contributed ninety-one per cent, in the shape of taxes. On
the other hand, the libraries of Canada are not numerous ; and
it is only in Ontario that there is a law providing for the
establishment of such institutions by a vote of the taxpayers in
the municipalities. In this province there are at least 420
libraries, of which the majority are connected with mechanics'
institutes, and are made public by statute. The weakness of
the public school system especially in Ontario is the con-
stant effort to teach a child a little of everything, and to make
him a mere machine. The consequences are superficiality a
veneer of knowledge and the loss of individuality.

SECTION 5. The Confederation since 1900.

War, in spite of its horrors, is sometimes beneficial, as the
solvent of political problems ; and, no doubt, the war in South

IX.] Confederation. 1867 1909. 291

Africa helped to bring more closely together the scattered
divisions of the British Empire. At the time of the coronation
of King Edward VII, in 1902, this sense of unity was more
apparent than ever; and it must now be counted as a per-
manent factor in the life of the British peoples. Periodical
Imperial Conferences, held with a view to promoting the com-
mon interests of various sections of the Empire, have now
become well established; the last, held in London in 1907,
made clear that some common system of Imperial defence on
land and sea was inevitable. Great Britain, fearing that her
supremacy on the sea may be menaced, is resolved to spare no
cost to preserve it; and Canada is pledged to bear her fair
share of the burden.

The recent annals of Canada have to do only with peaceful
progress. The Liberal party, which came into power in 1896,
is still (1909) in office; the Canadian electorate when once it
gives its confidence is slow to change its mind. The govern-
ment of Canada has had some difficult problems to face.
Chief among them have been the opening up of the great West
and the granting to it, in due course, those powers of local
self-government which, under the federal system, the older
provinces enjoy.

To open up the West has meant the bringing-in of settlers
and the building of railways. The first proved a difficult task ;
the climate was thought to be harsh, and the land itself
unprofitable. In time, however, the outside world began to
understand that the climate varied; that in parts of British
Columbia, for instance, it was mild ; and that, even in the
coldest regions, the dry air and the clear sky made winter an
attractive season. The amazing fertility of the soil became
known too, with the result that during the last five years
settlers have poured into Canada in numbers so great as to be

Many thousands came from the United States the first


292 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

emigration movement from its own borders that that country
has known. Of course many came from Britain. From all
parts of continental Europe too emigrants crowded in. Nearly
300,000 came in a single year. It was soon evident that care
must be taken in the selection of the people who should occupy
these great vacant spaces and aid to form the type of the
future Canadian citizen. Recently, therefore, the Canadian
Government has put restrictions upon immigrants. They must
have money enough on entering the country to show that
they are not paupers; incapables and those with a record
as criminals have been promptly deported. The result is that
the volume of immigration has somewhat declined, but the
quality of immigrants has improved. They come now chiefly
from the British Isles and from the United States.

These new-comers must be put within reach of markets;
and so railways had to be built. In 1902 a project for building
a new transcontinental railway, to parallel the Canadian Pacific
Railway, was broached. By 1903 the project had become
a definite reality. Its chief promoter is the Grand Trunk
Railway, which has played so great a part in the development
of Eastern Canada. This Grand Trunk Pacific Railway will
stretch from the Atlantic seaboard at Monckton, New Bruns-
wick, to a terminal in British Columbia, on the Pacific Ocean,
called Prince Rupert, in honour of the dashing cavalry leader
of Charles I's time, who had a share in founding the Hudson's
Bay Company. From Monckton to Winnipeg the line will be
built by the Canadian Government, and will be leased to the
Grand Trunk Pacific Company ; from Winnipeg to the Pacific
the railway company will itself build the line. The cost is
estimated at something over $200,000,000 (^40,000,000).
Twenty-five years ago the Canadian Pacific Railway was thought
by many to be a wild project which, if realised, could never be
profitable. It shows the progress of Canada that a second
transcontinental line should so soon be found necessary. A

IX.] Confederation. 1867 1909. 293

third is indeed in progress. The Canadian Northern Railway
is pushing through its own line from Winnipeg to the Pacific
coast, and will in time have connections extending from the
Atlantic to the Pacific.

The growing population of the West made possible two
new provinces; and, in 1905, these were set up, so that the
Canadian Confederation consists now of nine provinces. The
Western territory between the province of Manitoba and that
of British Columbia, stretching northward from the boundary
line between Canada and the United States, has been divided
into two great areas, the more easterly known as Saskatchewan,
the more westerly as Alberta. North of these new provinces
there is still, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, a great
sub-arctic region out of which further provinces may some day
be formed. This region contains the rich gold-bearing district
of Yukon, and is a land of vast lakes and rivers. We know
that it has great mineral wealth. Parts of it may be found
in time to possess agricultural wealth also. At present its
chief inhabitants are the Indians and the Eskimos and
the few Europeans engaged in the fur-trade and in mining.
Outside of her nine organised provinces, Canada possesses a
vast region of almost continental dimensions within the arctic

The celebration at Quebec in 1908 of the three-hundredth
anniversary of the founding of that city by Champlain shows
that the history of Canada now reaches back to a very respect-
able antiquity. The occasion itself was of surpassing interest.
The Prince of Wales came out to Canada escorted by a mag-
nificent fleet of ships-of-war. France, to which land so many
Canadians owe their origin, and the United States, whence
came too, in the persons of the Loyalists, many of the fathers
of English-speaking Canada, each joined in the striking cele-
bration of the coming of age of a new nation united to
them by close ties. During those days in Quebec one was

294 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP. IX.

not only impressed with the pageantry which told of the past ;
the multitude who travelled from all parts of the world to see
what Canada had become in the present showed how vital
and world-wide is the interest in the new great state stretching
from the Atlantic to the Pacific.



(1783 1900).

I HAVE deemed it most convenient to reserve for the con-
clusion of this history a short review of the relations that have
existed for more than a century between the provinces of the
Dominion and the United States, whose diplomacy and legisla-
tion have had, and must always have, a considerable influence
on the material and social conditions of the people of Canada
an influence only subordinate to that exercised by the impe-
rial state. I shall show that during the years when there was
no confederation of Canada when there were to the north
and north-east of the United States only a number of isolated
provinces, having few common sympathies or interests except
their attachment to the crown and empire the United States
had too often its own way in controversial questions affecting
the colonies which arose between England and the ambitious
federal republic. On the other hand, with the territorial ex-
pansion of the provinces under one Dominion, with their
political development, which has assumed even national attri-
butes, with the steady growth of an imperial sentiment in the
parent state, the old condition of things that too often made
the provinces the shuttlecock of skilful American diplomacy
has passed away. The statesmen of the Canadian federation

296 Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

are now consulted, and exercise almost as much influence as
I if they were members of the imperial councils in London.

/ I shall naturally commence this review with a reference

V to the treaty of 1783, which acknowledged the independence
of the United States, fixed the boundaries between that
country and British North America, and led to serious inter-
national disputes which lasted until the middle of the following
century. Three of the ablest men in the United States
Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay succeeded by their
astuteness and persistency in extending their country's limits
to the eastern bank of the Mississippi, despite the insidious
efforts of Vergennes on the part of France to hem in the new
nation between the Atlantic and the Appalachian Range. The
comparative value set upon Canada during the preliminary
negotiations may be easily deduced from the fact that Oswald,
the English plenipotentiary, proposed to give up to the United
States the south-western and most valuable part of the present
province of Ontario, and to carry the north-eastern boundary
up to the River St John. The commissioners of the United
States did not accept this suggestion. Their ultimate object
an object actually attained was to make the St Lawrence the
common boundary between the two countries by following the
centre of the river and the great lakes as far as the head of Lake
Superior. The issue of negotiations so stupidly conducted by
the British commissioner, was a treaty which gave an extremely
vague definition of the boundary in the north-east between
Maine and Nova Scotia which until 1784 included New
Brunswick and displayed at the same time a striking example
of geographical ignorance as to the north-west. The treaty
specified that the boundary should pass from the head of Lake
Superior through Long Lake to the north-west angle of the
Lake of the Woods, and thence to the Mississippi, when, as a
matter of fact there was no Long Lake, and the source of the
Mississippi was actually a hundred miles or so to the south of
the Lake of the Woods. This curious blunder in the north-


Relations with the United States.


west was only rectified in 1842, when Lord Ashburton settled
the difficulty by conceding to the United States an invaluable
corner of British territory in the east (see below, p. 299).



The only practical advantage that the people of the pro-
vinces gained from the Treaty of Ghent, which closed the
war of 1812-15^ was an acknowledgment of the undoubted
fishery rfghts of Great Britain and her dependencies in the
territorial waters of British North America. In the treaty of
1783 the people of the United States obtained the "right" to
fish on the Grand and other banks of Newfoundland, and in
the Gulf of St Lawrence and at "all other places in the sea,

2gS Canada under British Rule. [CHAP.

where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time here-
tofore to fish"; but they were to have only "the liberty" of
taking fish on the coasts of Newfoundland and also of "all
other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and
also of drying and curing fish in any of the unsettled bays, har-
bours, and creeks of Nova Scotia (then including New Bruns-

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