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Upper Canadian legislature at,
93 ; seat of government removed
from, to York, 101

New Brunswick ; originally part
of Acadie and Nova Scotia, 53 ;
province of, founded by Loyalists,
83; capital, ib. ; state of, in 1838,
162; political struggle for self-
government in, 173, 174; takes
part in Quebec Convention, 198,
205; brought into Confederation,
215, 216; boundary dispute with
Maine, 300-304

New Brunswick school question,
201, 202

New Brunswick University ; found-
ed at Fredericton, 163

New Caledonia ; old name of British
Columbia, 232

Newfoundland; delegates from, to
Quebec Convention of 1864, 206;
refuses to join the Dominion, 235

Niagara, see Newark

Nicholson, General ; captures Port
Royal, 9

Norse voyages to Canada, 4

North-eastern Boundary question,
300-303; map of Boundary, 1842,
301

North-west Company; rival of the
Hudson's Bay Company in North
America, 224, 225

North-west Boundary dispute, 296,
297 ; map of, 297

North-west Territories; early history
of, 221-227 ; annexation of, to
Canada, 227, 230; first rebellion
in, 227-230; government of, 277;
second rebellion in, 249-255 ;
districts of, 277

Nova Scotia (Acadie); first settled
by France, 8, 9; foundation of
Port Royal (Annapolis), 8; ceded
to Great Britain by Treaty of
Utrecht, 9 ; population of, at
conquest, 15; first called Nova
Scotia, n; Halifax founded, 49;
settlement by colonists of New



Index.



347



England, 50, 51; expatriation of
the Acadian French, 22, 23, 50,
51; population of, in 1767, 51;
Irish immigration, ib. ; Scotch
immigration, 52 ; early govern-
ment of, 52, 53; included New
Brunswick, C. Breton, and St
John's Island (Pr. Edward I.),
53; early courts of justice, 55;
coming of Loyalists to, 82 ; state
of, in 1837-38, 162; political
struggles in, for self-government,
1 74-1 80; takes part in Quebec Con-
vention of 1864, 198,204; brought
into Confederation, 215; people
opposed to, 212, 218, 219; repeal
movement gradually ceases in, 233
Novelists, Canadian, 164, 285, 286

O'Callaghan, Dr; Canadian jour-
nalist and rebel, 130

O'Donohue; Canadian rebel, 231;
amnesty to, 241

Ohio Valley, French in, 23

Oregon Boundary, dispute respect-
ing, 3<H-3 6

Osgoode, Chief Justice ; first
speaker of legislative council of
Upper Canada in 1792, 94

Ottawa, city of; founded, 158

Pacific Cable; action of Canadian
government with respect to, 271

Palmer, Edward; delegate to Que-
bec Convention of 1864, 206

Panet, Joseph Antoine ; first speaker
of assembly of Lower Canada in

i79 2 > 93

Papineau, Louis J. ; leader of French
Canadian malcontents in rebellion
of 1837, 129-134; conduct of,
on outbreak of rebellion, 134,
135; return of, from exile, 181 ;
opposes responsible government,
ib. ; loses political influence, ib. ;
character of, 180-182

Pardon, prerogative of; instructions
respecting exercise of, 241

Parishes established in French Ca-
nada, 29



Parker, Gilbert ; Canadian novelist,

286
Parr Town, first name of St John,

New Brunswick, 83
Perry, Peter; founder of Upper

Canadian Reform party, 141, 146,

150

Pictou Academy, Nova Scotia;

founded, 163
Pitt, the elder (Lord Chatham);

gives Canada to Great Britain,

25 35. 36

Pitt, William (the younger); intro-
duces Act separating Upper from
Lower Canada (Constitutional
Act of 1791), 90, 91

Plains of Abraham; Wolfe's victory
on, 26

Plattsburg, battle of; pusillanimity
of General Prevost at, 117

Plessis, Bishop (Roman Catholic);
patriotism of, in war of 1812-15,
1 20

Poets in Canada, 192, 284, 285

Pontiac's Conspiracy, 39

Pope, William H. ; delegate to
Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Portuguese discovery in Canada, 5

Post Office in Canada; under Brit-
ish management, 1 64 ; transferred
to Canada, 187

Poundmaker, Indian chief in North-
west; rebels against Canadian
government, 253; punished, 254

Poutrincourt, Baron de; founder of
Port Royal, 8

Powell, Chief Justice; his unjust
treatment of Robert Gourlay, 145

Preferential trade with Great Bri-
tain, 200, 201, 269, 271

Prevost, Sir George (governor-gene-
ral of Canada) ; retires from Sack-
ett's Harbour 1813, 115; retreats
from Plattsburg in 1814, 117;
character of, 113

Prince, Colonel; orders execution
of American raiders in 1838, 155

Prince Ed ward Island. SvtStJoklt*
Island

Prince of Wales visits Canada, 193



348



Canada under British Rule.



Princess Louise, arrives in Canada
with the Marquess of Lome, 244;
her support of Art, 288

Proclamation of 1764; for govern-
ment of Canada, 40-42

Procter, General; defeats General
Winchester in 1813, 115; beaten
at Moraviantown in 1813, 116

Prohibitory Liquor Law ; agitation
for, 240; popular vote on, ib.

Protestantism unknown in French
Canada, 28

Provincial governments established
under Confederation, 217, 218

Provinces, constitution of, under
Confederation, 275, 276

Puritan migration to Nova Scotia, 50

Put-in Bay (Lake Erie); British
fleet defeated at, in 1813, 116

Quebec Act; origin of, 44, 45; its
provisions, 45-47; how received
in Canada, 46; unpopularity of,
in old British colonies, 67

Quebec, Convention of, 1864; dele-
gates to, 199-206; passes reso-
lutions in favour of federal union,
206-209

Quebec founded, 9; celebration of
the three-hundredth anniversary
of the foundation of, 293, 294

Queenston Heights; battle of, in
1812, 114

Railways in Canada; in 1865, 191;
in 1899, 273. See Inter-colonial
R. and Canadian Pacific R. and
Grand Trunk Pacific R. and
Canadian Northern R.

Rebellion in Lower Canada; its
origin, 124-133; Louis J. Papi-
neau's part in, 129-134; out-
break of, 134; prompt action of
authorities against, ib. ; Dr Nel-
son wins success at St Denis, ib. ;
defeat of Brown at St Charles, ib. ;
fl ight of Papineau and rebel leaders,
ib. ; fight at St Eustache and
death of Chenier, ib. ; murder of
Weir and Chartrand, 135; col-
lapse of the rebellion of 1837,



1 35 r 36; loyal action of Bishop
Lartigue, 135; arrival of Lord
Durham as British high-commis-
sioner and governor-general, 136;
his career in Canada, 137-138;
Sir John Colborne, governor-
general, 139; second outbreak
of rebellion, 1838, ib. ; promptly
subdued, ib. ; punishment of
prominent insurgents, ib. ; action
of United States government
during, 139; social and economic
condition of Canada during, 159
162; remedial policy of British
government, and new era of po-
litical development. See Respon-
sible Government in Canada

Rebellion in Upper Canada; ef-
fect of family compact on, 140,
141 ; of clergy reserves on, 141,
142; influence of Archdeacon,
afterwards Bishop, Strachan in
public affairs, 142; unjust treat-
ment of Robert Gourlay, 143-
145; persecution of William Lyon
Mackenzie, 146-148; other pro-
minent actors in, 148; indiscre-
tions of the lieutenant-governor,
Sir Francis Bond Head, 149-
152; outbreak and repression of,
152, 153; flight of Mackenzie and
other rebel leaders, 153; Mac-
kenzie's seizure of Navy Island,
154; affair of the Caroline, ib. ;
filibustering expeditions against
Canada from United States in
1838, 154, 155; prompt execu-
tion of filibusters by Colonel
Prince, 155; action of U.S. au-
thorities during, ib. ; execution of
Vori Schoultz, Lount, Matthews,
and other rebels, ib. ; Sir George
Arthur, harshness of, ib.\ social
and economic conditions of Upper
Canada at time of, 156-159; re-
bellion leads to the enlargement of
political privileges of people. See
Responsible Government in Canada

Rebellion Losses Bill (of 1849); its
nature, 188 ; assented to by Lord
Elgin, 189; consequent rioting



Index.



349



and burning of parliament house
at Montreal, 189; Lord Elgin's
life in danger, ib. ; his wise con-
stitutional action, ib.

Rebellions in North-west: See
North-western Territories, and
Riel, Lotus

Reciprocity of Trade between Ca-
nada and the United States;
treaty of 1814, 190, 191; repeal
of the same, 307 ; efforts to renew
it, 308, 31 1 ; Canadians not now
so favourable to, 314

Recollets, or Franciscans, in Ca-
nada, ii

Redistribution Acts of 1882 and
1897; measures to amend, re-
jected by Senate, 268

Representative institutions in Cana-
da; established in Nova Scotia,
53; in New Brunswick, 88; in
French or Lower C anada (Quebec) ,
91 ; in Upper Canada (Ontario),
ib.} in Prince Edward Island,
54; in Manitoba, 230; in British
Columbia, 232

Responsible government in Canada;
beginnings of, 165-175; con-
summated by Lord Elgin, 173;
struggle for, in New Brunswick,
173, 174; in Nova Scotia, 174-
180; in Prince Edward Island,
180; prominent advocates of,
183-185; results of (1841-1867),
185-192

Revenue of Canada in 1899, 273

Riall, General; defeated by United
States troops at Street's Creek in
1814, 117

Richardson, Major; Canadian au-
thor, 164

Richelieu, Cardinal; his effort to
colonise Canada, 10

Rideau Canal, constructed, 158

Riel, Louis ; leads revolt of French
half-breeds in North-west, 228 ;
murders Ross, 229; flies from the
country, ib. ; elected to and ex-
pelled from the Canadian Com-
mons, 241; reappears in North-



west, and leads second revolt, 249-
253; captured and executed, 253,
254; political complications con-
cerning, 240, 254

Roberval, Sieur de (Jean Fra^ois
de la Rocque) ; attempts to settle
Canada, 7

Robinson, Chief Justice; public
career of, in Upper Canada, 145

Rocque, Jean Fran9ois de la. See
Roberval

Roebuck, Mr; Canadian agent in
England, 131

Rolph, Dr; his part in Canadian
rebellion of 1837, 151-153; cha-
racter of, 183

Roman Catholic Church in Canada,
28, 29, 43, 46, 47

Rose, Sir John ; effort of, to obtain
reciprocity with United States,
308

Rosebery, Earl of; unveils Sir John
Macdonald's bust in St Paul's
Cathedral, 256

Rouse's Point, boundary at, 306

Royal Society of Canada, 286

Rupert's Land ; origin of name of,
224. See North-west Territories
of Canada

Russell, Administrator, 101

Russell, Lord John; introduces re-
solutions respecting Canada in
British parliament in 1836, 13-2;
also Act reuniting the Canadas in
1840, 1 66; lays basis of respon-
sible government in Canada, 167.
See Responsible Government in
Canada

Ryerson, Rev. Egerton; Loyalist,
Methodist, and educationalist,
141, 147. 19*

Sainte - Genevieve (Pillage Bay) ;

named St Laurens by Jacques

Cartier, 7
Salaberry, Colonel de ; defeats

United States troops at Chateau-

guay, 121
Sanderson, Robert; first speaker of

assembly of Nova Scotia, 53



350



Canada under British Rule.



San Juan Island ; international dis-
pute respecting, 305, 306

Sarrasin, Dr; French Canadian
scientist, 35

Saskatchewan, province of; esta-
blished, 238, 277, 293

Saskatchewan River (Poskoiac),
discovery of, 20

Sculpture in Canada, 288

Seaforth, Lord. See Colborne, Sir
John

Secord, Laura ; heroic exploit of,
in 1814, 120

Seigniorial tenure in French Canada,
14* 32 ; abolished under British
rule, 1 86

Selkirk, Lord ; attempts to colonise
North-west, 225 ; death of, ib.

Seven Years' War ; between France
and Great Britain in America, 21
-27

Sewell, Chief Justice (Loyalist);
adviser of Sir James Craig, 96 ;
suggests union of provinces, 194

Shea, Ambrose ; delegate to Quebec
Convention of 1864, 206

Sheaffe, General ; services of, during
war of 1812-15, 114

Shelburne, in Nova Scotia, founded
by Loyalists, 82

Sherbrooke, Sir John ; governor of
Nova Scotia, 118; occupies Maine
in war of 1812-15, ib.

Shirley, Governor ; deep interest of,
in Nova Scotia, 49

Simcoe, Colonel ; first lieutenant-
governor of Upper Canada, 93;
public career of, 94

Simultaneous polling at elections
established, 239

Slavery in Canada, 98

Smith, Chief Justice (Loyalist); first
president of legislative council of
Lower Canada in 1792, 92; sug-
gests federal union of provinces, 1 94

Smith, Donald (Lord Strathcona) ;
intervenes in North-west rebellion
of 1870, 229

Social and economic conditions of
the Canadian provinces; in 1838,
156-164; in 1866, 189-192; in



1900, 272-290
South African War ; Canadians take

part in, 271, 272
Square Gulf, or "golfo quadrado";

old name of St Lawrence Gulf, 7
St Charles ; defeat of Canadian

rebels in 1837 at, 134
St Denis; Canadian rebels repulsed

by British regulars in 1837 at, 134
St Eustache; stand of Canadian

rebels at, 134; death of Chenier,

ib.
St John, New Brunswick; founded,

83

St John's Island ; named Prince
Edward, 53; under government
of Nova Scotia, ib. ; survey of, ib.;
separated from Nova Scotia, 54;
public lands of, granted by lottery,
ib. ; political struggles in, for self-
government, 1 80, 185; takes part
in Quebec Convention of 1864,
206 ; enters Confederation, 234 ;
settlement of its land question, ib.

St Lawrence, River and Gulf of;
origin of name of, 7

St Lusson, Sieur; takes possession
of the Sault, 18

St Maurice forges founded, 30

Stadacona (Quebec), Indian village
of ; visited by Jacques Cartier, 6

Stanley, Lord; governor-general of
Canada, 267

Steeves, William H.; delegate to
Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Strachan, Bishop (Anglican); pa-
triotism of, during war of 1812-15,
121 ; his influence in Upper Cana-
dian politics, 142

Strange, Lt.-Col.; engaged in re-
pressing North-west rebellion of
1885, 253

Stuart, Andrew; prominent Cana-
dian lawyer and politician, 127,

*3 l

Sulpitians in Canada, 37
Superior Council of French Canada.

See Supreme Council
Supreme Council, established by

Louis XIV in French Canada,

28, 29



Index.



351



Supreme Court, established in
Canada, 239

Sydenham, Lord (Poulett Thomson);
governor-general of Canada, 166 ;
carries out scheme of uniting the
Canadas in 1840, 167 ; opinions
of, on responsible government,
1 68 ; death of, 169

Tache, Sir Etienne Pascal; chair-
man of Quebec Convention of
1864, 199; character of, ib.

Talbot, Colonel ; pioneer in Upper
Canada, 157

Talon, Intendant, 13

Tarte, Israel ; accuses McGreevy
of grave misdemeanours, 258 ;
member of Laurier ministry, 206

Temperance Legislation; "Scott
Act" passed, 239; plebiscite on
Prohibition, 240

Thompson, Sir John; prime minister
of Canada, 257 ; sudden death of,
ib. ; great ability of, ib.

Thomson, Poulett. See Sydenham,
Lord

Tilley, Sir Leonard ; delegate to
Quebec Convention of 1864, 205;
public career of, ib. ; introduces
scheme of " National Policy,"
244

Timber trade in Canada, in early
times, 162

Tithes established in French Canada,
29

Todd, Dr ; Constitutional writer,
286

Tonge, William Cottnam Tonge ;
Nova Scotian Liberal, 99 ; his
controversy with Governor Went-
worth, ib.

Trade of Canada in 1899, 273

Treaties, international, affecting
Canada; of St Germain-en- Laye
(1632), ii ; of Utrecht (1713), 9,
21, 22; of Paris (1763), 38; of
Versailles, 296 ; of Ghent, 297 ;
of 1818, 298; Ashburton (1842),
303; Oregon (1846), 305; re-
ciprocity (1854), 307 ; of Wash-
ington (1871), 309, 310; Bering



Sea, 312, 313; Anglo-Russian
(Alaska), 314-316

Treaties with Indian tribes of
Canada, 41, 238

Trutch, Sir Joseph ; first lieutenant-
governor of British Columbia
under Confederation, 232

Tupper, Sir Charles ; prime minister
of Nova Scotia, 192 ; services of,
to education, ib.; delegate to
Quebec Convention of 1864, 204;
introduces legislation for construc-
tion of Canadian Pacific Railway,
244; high commissioner of Canada
in London, 258; re-enters political
life, ib.\ action of, on Manitoba
school question, 264 ; prime
minister of Canada, 265 ; defeat
of, at general elections of 1896,
ib. ; difference with Lord Aberdeen,
when governor-general, ib.\ re-
markable ability of, 204, 258 ;
leader of Liberal Conservative
party from 1896-1900, 258; policy
of, on "preferential trade" with
Great Britain, 271

Tyler, Professor, on U. E. Loyalists,
76

Uniacke, James Boyle; Nova Sco-
tian statesman, 175; advocate of
responsible government, 176; first
minister of Nova Scotia, j8o

Union of the Canadas in 1840, 166,
167

United Empire Loyalists; number
of, during American Revolution,
76 ; justice done to, ib. ; opinions
of, on issues of revolution, 77, 78;
suffering of, during revolution, 79
treatment of, after the peace ol
1783, 80; compensation to, by
British government, 81 ; settle in
British America, ib.; privations
of, in Nova Scotia, 80; founders
of New Brunswick, 83 ; of Upper
Canada, 84; eminent descent of,
86; Canada's debt to, ib.\ origin
of name of, 89; representatives
of, in first legislature of New



352



Canada under British Rule.



Brunswick, 87, 88; of Upper
Canada, 94; services of, during
war of i8ia-r5, 188-120

Universities in Canada, 163, 289, 290

University of Toronto, beginning of,
164

Upper Canada, founded by Loyal-
ists, 84 ; first districts of, 89, 94 ;
made separate province, 91 ; first
government of, 93 ; Newark, first
capital of, ib. ; York (Toronto),
second capital of, 94; rebellion
in, see Rebellion in Upper Canada ;
state of, in 1838, 159; reunited
with Lower Canada, 166; joins
Confederation as Ontario, 216

Upper Canada College, Toronto,
founded, 163

Ursulines at Quebec, 34

Vancouver Island; history of, 231,

,232
Verendrye, Sieur de la (Pierre

Gautier de Varennes) ; discovers

Manitoba and North-west of

Canada, 19, 20
Verrazzano, Giovanni di ; voyages

of, to North America, 5
Victoria College, Upper Canada,

founded, 164
Vincent, General; services of, in

war of 1812-15, 115
Von Schoultz ; leads filibusters into

Canada, 155; executed, ib.

War of 1812-15; origin of, 103-
no; population of Canada and
United States during, 110-112;
loyalty of Canadian people during,
113; services of General Brock
during, 114; campaign of 1812
in Upper Canada, 114, 115"; of
1813, 115, 116; of 1814, 117;
maritime provinces during, 117,
118; close of, 118; services of
Loyalists during, 118-120; Laura
Secord, heroism of, 120; descrip-
tion of striking incidents of battles
during, 121-123



Washington, George ; eminent cha-
racter of, 66
Washington Treaty of 1871, 308,

309
Weir, Lieutenant; murder of, in

Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837,

135
Welland C^nal commenced, 159;

completed, 191
Wentworth, Sir John ; Loyalist

governor of Nova Scotia, 99
Westminster Palace Conference in

London ; Canadian delegates ar-
range final terms of federation at,

214, 215
Wetmore, Attorney-general ; first

minister of New Brunswick after

Confederation, 218
Whelan, Edward ; delegate to

Quebec Convention of 1864,

206
White, Thomas ; Canadian journalist

and statesman, 256; sudden death

of, ib.
William IV visits Canada as Prince

William Henry, 193
Williams, Lt.-Col.; death of, in

North-west rebellion of 1885,

2 54

Williams, Sir Fenwick (" hero of
Kars"); lieutenant-governor of
Nova Scotia, 213, 217

Wilmot, Lemuel A.; father of re-
sponsible government in New
Brunswick, 174, 185; lieutenant-
governor of the province, 217

Wolfe, General ; at Quebec, 25 ; his
bold ascent of heights, 25, 26;
wins battle on Plains of Abraham,
26 ; death of, 26 ; a maker of
Canada, 35

York (Toronto) made capital of

Upper Canada, 101
Young, Sir William ; Nova Scotian

statesman and jurist, 185
Yukon, district of; gold discovery

in, 209; administration of, ib.,

277; boundaries of, 293, 314-316



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Online LibraryJohn George BourinotCanada under British rule, 1760-1905 → online text (page 30 of 30)