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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



ANATOMICAL MEMOIES



OF THE LATE



JOHN GOODSIR






THE



ANATOMICAL MEMOIES



OF



JOHN GOODSIE

F.K.S.

LATE PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH



EDITED BY

WILLIAM TUENEE, M.B.

PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR BY
HENEY LONSDALE, M.D.

FORMERLY LECTURER ON ANATOMY



VOL. II.



EDINBURGH
ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK

1868



Printed by R. CLARK, Edinburgh.



l\ \J( I






CONTENTS OF VOL. II.



DIVISION I.

PAGE
I. ON THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PULPS

AND SACS OF THE HUMAN TEETH . . 1

(Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, Jan. 1839.)

II. ON THE FOLLICULAR STAGE OF DENTITION IN THE
RUMINANTS, WITH SOME EEMARKS ON THAT PRO-
CESS IN THE OTHER ORDERS OF MAMMALIA . 53

(Transactions of British Association for Advancement of
Science, August 1839.)

III. ON THE MODE IN WHICH MUSKET - BULLETS AND

OTHER FOREIGN BODIES BECOME INCLOSED IN

THE IVORY OF THE TUSKS OF THE ELEPHANT . 56

(Transactions of Royal Society of Edinburgh, January 18,
1841.)

IV. ON THE SUPRA -RENAL, THYMUS, AND THYROID

BODIES ...... 66

(Philosophical Transactions, January 22, 1846.)

V. ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONS OF THE NER-
VOUS SYSTEM IN THE ANNULOSE AND VERTEBRATE
TYPES OF ORGANISATION . . . .78

(Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, January 1857.)

VI. ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE

SKELETON OF THE VERTEBRATE HEAD . . 88

(Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, January 1857.)

VII. ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTITUTION OF LIMBS . 198

(Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, January 1857.)



M370133



VI CONTENTS.

DIVISION II.

PAGE

VIII. ON THE EMPLOYMENT OP MATHEMATICAL MODES
OP INVESTIGATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF
ORGANIC FORMS ..... 205

(Daily Mail, July and August 1849.)

IX. ON THE HORIZONTAL CURVATURE OF THE INTERNAL
FEMORAL CONDYLE; ON THE MOVEMENTS AND
RELATIONS OF THE PATELLA, SEMILUNAR CARTI-
LAGES, AND SYNOVIAL PADS OF THE HUMAN
KNEE-JOINT . . . . . 220

(Edinburgh Medical Journal, July 1855.)

X. ON THE MECHANISM OP THE KNEE-JOINT . . 231

(Abstract in Proceedings of Royal Society, Edinburgh,
January 18, 1858.)

XI. ON THE CURVATURES AND MOVEMENTS OF THE

ACTING FACETS OP ARTICULAR SURFACES . 246

XII. LECTURE ON THE RETINA . . . .265

(Edinburgh Medical Journal, October 1855.)

XIII. ON THE MODE IN WHICH LIGHT ACTS ON THE ULTI-

MATE NERVOUS STRUCTURES OF THE EYE, AND
ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN SIMPLE AND COM-
POUND EYES ..... 273

(Proceedings of Royal Society, Edinburgh, April 6, 1857.)

XIV. LECTURE ON THE LAMINA SPIRALIS OF THE COCHLEA 282

(Edinburgh Medical Journal, December 1855,)

XV. ON THE ELECTRICAL APPARATUS IN TORPEDO, GYM-

NOTUS, MALAPTERURUS, AND RAIA . . 289

(Edinburgh Medical Journal, August and September 1855.)

XVI. A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF OR-
GANIC ELECTRICITY ..... 306

(Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, October 1855.)



CONTENTS. VU

PAGE
XVII. ON THE CONFERVA WHICH VEGETATES ON THE SKIN

OP THE GOLD-FlSH ..... 345
(Annals and Magazine of Natural History, IX., 1842.)

XVIII. HISTORY OF A CASE IN WHICH A FLUID PERIODI-
CALLY EJECTED FROM THE STOMACH CONTAINED

VEGETABLE ORGANISMS OF AN UNDESCRIBED FORM
(SARCINA VENTRICULI) . ' . . . 351

(Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, LVIL, 1842.)

XIX. ON A DISEASED CONDITION OF THE INTESTINAL

GLANDS ...... 372

(Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Medical Science, April
1842.)

XX. STRUCTURE AND PATHOLOGY OF KIDNEY AND LIVER 379

(London and Edinburgh Monthly Medical Journal, May
1842.)



Anatomical and Pathological Observations. Edin. 1845.
XXI. CENTRES OF NUTRITION .... 389

XXII. THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE INTES-
TINAL VILLI ..... 393

XXIII. ABSORPTION, ULCERATION, AND THE STRUCTURES

ENGAGED IN THESE PROCESSES . . . 403

XXIV. THE PROCESS OF ULCERATION IN ARTICULAR CAR-

TILAGES ...... 408

XXV. SECRETING STRUCTURES . . . .412

XXVI. THE TESTIS AND ITS SECRETION IN THE DECAPO-

DOUS CRUSTACEANS . . . .429

XXVII. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANES 430



Vlil CONTENTS.

PAGE
XXVIII. STRUCTURE OF THE LYMPHATIC GLANDS . . 439

XXIX. THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN PLACENTA . 445
XXX. THE STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY OF BONE . 461

XXXI. THE MODE OF REPRODUCTION AFTER DEATH OF

THE SHAFT OF A LONG BONE . . . . 465

XXXII. THE MODE OF REPRODUCTION OF LOST PARTS IN

THE CRUSTACEA . . . . .471

XXXIII. OF THE ANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE

CYSTIC ENTOZOA . ... 476



XXXIV. DESCRIPTION OF AN ERECTILE TUMOUR . 504

(Monthly Medical Journal, 1845.)

XXXV. DESCRIPTION OF A CONGENITAL TUMOUR OF THE

TESTIS ...... 506

(Northern Journal -of Medicine, 1845.)

XXXVI. THE CURVATURES OF THE ARTICULAR SURFACES
AND THE GENERAL MECHANISM OF THE HIP-
JOINT 508



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.



DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEETH. PLATE I. page 1.

a. Fig. 1. A tooth-germ a bulging on a mucous membrane.

b. Diagrams illustrating the three stages of dentition.
Fig. 1. Follicular. 2. Saccular. 3. Eruptive stage.

c. Diagrams illustrative of the formation of a temporary and its

corresponding permanent tooth from a mucous membrane.
Fig. 1. Mucous membrane. Fig. 2. Mucous membrane, with a gra-
nular mass deposited in it. Fig. 3. A furrow or groove on
the granular mass. (Primitive dental groove.)

Fig. 4. A papilla (a tooth germ) on the floor of the groove.

Fig. 5. The papilla enclosed in a follicle in the bottom of the groove
(the latter in the condition of a secondary dental groove).

Fig. 6. The papilla acquiring the configuration of a pulp, and its sac
acquiring opercula. The depression for the cavity of re-
serve behind the inner operculum.

Fig. 7. The papilla become a pulp, and the follicle a sac, in conse-
quence of the adhesion of the opercular lips. The second-
ary dental groove in the act of closing.

Fig. 8. The secondary groove adherent, except behind the inner
operculum, where it has left a shut cavity of reserve for the
formation of the pulp and sac of the permanent tooth.

Fig. 9. The last change rendered more complete by the deposition of
the granular body (the enamel organ of Hunter, Purkinje, and
Raschkow). Deposition of tooth substance commencing.

Fig. 10. The cavity of reserve receding from the surface of the gum,
and dilating it at its distal extremity, in which a pulp is
forming. Kudimentary opercula developing near its proximal
extremity and dividing it into a follicular and an extra-folli-
cular compartment. Temporary tooth pulp nearly covered
with tooth substance, and granular body almost absorbed.

Fig. 11. The cavity of reserve become a sac with a pulp, and further
removed from the surface of the gum. Temporary tooth pulp
covered with tooth substance, and granular body absorbed.
(See Hunter, Nat. Hist, of Human Teeth, p. 95.)

Fig. 12. The temporary tooth acquiring its fang by the triple

b



X EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

action described in the paper, and its sac approaching the
surface of the gum.

Fig. 1 3. The fang of the temporary tooth longer, and its sac touching
the mucous membrane of the mouth.

Fig. 14. The temporary tooth sac again a follicle ; free portion of
the latter becoming shorter, and fang of the tooth receding
from the bottom of its socket. Permanent tooth sac re-
moving further from the surface of the gum.

Fig. 15. The temporary tooth completed. Free portion of the sac be-
come the vascular border of the gum ; adherent portion
become what is commonly denominated the periosteum of
the fang, but which in fact is a triplex membrane viz.
mucous membrane, submucous tissue, and periosteum of al-
veolus or jaw bone. The permanent tooth sac much re-
moved from the gum, but connected with it by accord which
passes through the foramen behind the temporary alveolus.

Fig. 16. The fang of the permanent tooth lengthening, and the crown
approaching the gum Fang of temporary tooth undergoing
absorption.

Fig. 17. The same change more advanced.

Fig. 18. The permanent tooth appearing through the gum. Shedding
of the temporary tooth.

Fig. 19. The perfected permanent tooth.

Fig. 20. The shed temporary tooth.

d. Diagrams illustrative of the formation of the thrae molar teeth
from the non-adherent portion of the primitive dental groove.

Fig. 1 . The non-adherent portion of the primitive dental groove.

Fig. 2. The papilla and follicle of the first molar on the floor of
the non-adherent portion, which is now a portion of the
secondary groove.

Fig. 3. The papilla and follicle of the first molar become a pulp and
sac. The lips of the secondary grove adhering, so that the
latter has become the posterior or great cavity of reserve.

Fig. 4. The sac of the first molar increased in size, and advanced
along a curved path into the substance of the coronoid
process or maxillary tuberosity. The cavity of reserve
lengthened out or advanced along with it.

Fig. 5. The sac of the first molar returned by the same path to its
former position. The cavity of reserve again shortened.

Fig. 6. The cavity of reserve sending backwards the sac of the
second molar.

Fig. 7. The sac of the second molar advanced along a curved path
into the coronoid process or maxillary tuberosity. The
cavity of reserve lengthened for the second time.

Fig. 8. The sac of the second molar returned to the level of the
dental range. The cavity of reserve shortened for the
second time.



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. XI

Fig. 9. The cavity of reserve sending off the pulp and sac of

the wisdom tooth.
Fig. 10. The sac of the wisdom tooth advanced along a curved line

into the maxillary tuberosity or coronoid process.
Fig. 11. The sac of the wisdom tooth returned to the extremity of

the dental range.

MUSKET-BULLETS IN TUSKS OF ELEPHANTS.
PLATE II. page 56.

Fig. 1. A portion of a section of a wounded tusk ; a cement ; 5 regular
ivory deposited previous to the wound ; c irregular ivory
deposited after the wound.

Fig. 2. A diagram illustrative of the mode of connection between the
Retzian tubes of the primary and secondary regular ivory,
and the cells and Retzian tubes of the different inosculating
systems of the irregular ivory, after inclosure of a ball ; a
cement with its osseous corpuscles ; b primary regular ivory
with its Retzian tubes ; c the ball ; d the irregular ivory
with its systems of tubes and cells ; e secondary regular ivory

Fig. 3. A copper ball inclosed in a sphere of irregular ivory, on the
surface of which are the orifices of Haversian canals. Some
of the orifices have closed, and present the appearance of
irregular projections. The mass has begun to be attached to
the regular ivory of the tusk,, and would in time have been
inclosed in it. The ball must either have passed across from
the opposite side of the tusk, or must have sunk below the
level of the hole by which it entered.

Fig. 4. Section of a tusk across the cavity of which a ball has passed,
and become inclosed in the ivory of the wall opposite the
hole by which it entered. The hole is filled with irregular
ivory, coated externally with cement. The cement over the ball
has been disarranged by the shock. This section proves that
the track of a ball across the pulp is not necessarily ossified.

Fig. 5. Section of a tusk across the base of which a spear-head has
penetrated and remained in the wound. The weapon has
therefore been separated from the pulp by deposition of
irregular ivory in the form of a tube ; a cement ; b b ir-
regular ivory deposited previous to the wound ; c c regular
ivory deposited after the woimd ; d irregular ivory inclosing
a vacant space e, the seat of an abscess or sinus, and con-
tinuous with the cavity of /, a mass of irregular ivory (coated
with regular ivory) in the form of a tube surrounding the
foreign body. As irregular ivory always contracts in drying,
more than any other kind of dental substance, that portion
of the section marked g g has been bent outwards.

Fig. 6. The same section viewed in profile ; a the broken shaft of the



xii EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

spear ; 6 an irregular mass of cement formed round the orifice
of the wound by the membrane of the tusk follicle, and
which would have closed the wound had the weapon been
removed. The wound inflicted has in this instance, as in
many others, stunted the growth of the tusk at c c, so as
to render the part formed after the injury narrower and
weaker.

Fig. 7. A longitudinal section of a tusk in which a gun-shot wound
had terminated in abscess of the pulp ; a a cement ;
6 6 regular ivory deposited before the injury ; c c regular
ivory deposited after the injury ; d d irregular ivory bound-
ing the abscess ; e e masses of cement and irregular ivory at
the margin of the shot-hole.

Fig. 8. The external aspect of a portion of a tusk, which had been
transversely fractured ; a a the line of fracture united exter-
nally by irregular masses of cement.

Fig. 9. The internal aspect of the same portion of tusk ; a a the line of
fracture united by irregular ivory, a portion of which is
arranged in a reticular form. This reticular ivory is interest-
ing, as affording a natural analysis of the peculiar arrange-
ment of parts in the irregular ivory described in the paper.
Each bar of the reticular ivory is traversed longitudinally by
a medullary canal, from which radiate secondary canals and
Retzian tubes, the whole being coated with regular ivory.
This reticular ivory differs from the ordinary form of ossified
pulp, only in the greater distance between the Haversian or
medullary canals, so that portions of the pulp have remained
unossified between them.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUPRA-RENAL, THYMUS, AND
THYROID BODIES. PLATE III. page 66.

Fig. 1. A portion of an early embryo of the sheep.
a. Heart.
I. Lungs still in front of the intestinal tube.

c. Wolffian body.

d. Lateral mass of blastema, out of which is formed the supra-

renal capsule, thymus, and thyroid.

e. Cardinal vein.
/. Jugular vein.
g. Ductus Cuvieri.

Fig. 2. A portion of the early embryo of the sheep,
a. Intestinal tube and ductus vitelli.
6. Liver.

c. Omphalo-mesenteric vein.

d. Omphalo-mesenteric artery.

c, f. Mass of blastema on the inner side of the Wolffian body, and



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. xiii

around the trunks of the omphalo-mesenteric vessels ; this is
the posterior part of the lateral mass of blastema marked d
in Fig. 1, and becomes in the course of development the
supra-renal capsule.
Fig. 3. An early embryo of the sheep.

a. Head, branchial arches, and rudiment of the eye.

6. Heart.

c. Ductus Cuvieri entering the auricle, and receiving

d. The jugular, and

e. The cardinal vein.

/ The lateral blastema.

g. Wolffian body.

h. Umbilical cord, to which is passing

i. The allantois.

j. The omphalo-mesenteric artery, and

k. Omphalo-mesenteric vein ; traces of the umbilical vessels are

also seen in the parietes of the abdomen.
I. The liver and intestinal tube.
m. Lungs.
Fig. 4. Jugular veins and lateral masses of blastema in the sheep,

soon after the latter have joined across the middle line.
a. The triangular absorption of the cervical portion, which is

the first indication of the separation of the thyroid.
Fig. 5. The next stage, in which the thyroid is more distinct.
Fig. 6. The thyroid is now quite distinct, and differs from the thymus
in being opaque ; the latter exhibits opaque spots in a semi-
transparent matrix.

Fig. 7. The thyroid and thymus have assumed their perfect form.
Fig. 8. A portion of the supra-renal capsule of the adult green monkey,
slightly compressed. It exhibits the minute nucleated par-
ticles of which it consists. Among these, at pretty regular
distances, are seen the germinal spots.

Fig. 9. A portion of the thymus of the brown bear, slightly compressed.
It exhibits the nucleated particles of which it consists. These
are grouped in spherical masses around centres from which
they appear to have derived their origin.

Fig. 10. A portion of the thymus from a human foatus. It has been
taken from the surface of the gland, so as to exhibit the
areolar fibres which form its delicate capsule. The pressure
of the glass plates has almost obliterated the spherical
grouping in the cells.

Fig. 11. A portion of the membrane which covered the contiguous sur-
faces of the lobes of the thymus of a human foetus (the
membrane lining the reservoirs of Sir A. Cooper). It has
the same structure as in Fig. 10. It exhibits no germinal
membrane, but consists of an areolar or fibrous texture inter-
mixed with the cells of the organ, the fibres being more



XIV EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

fasciculated, and running a straighter course than in the
substance of the organ.

Fig. 1 2. A portion of the thyroid from a human foetus, slightly corn-
pressed. It exhibits the same structure as the thyinus, but
its fibrous texture is more developed.

Fig. 13. A portion of the same thyroid to show its vascular network, in
the meshes of which, as in Fig. 12, the cells are seen arranged
in groups.

CENTRES OF NUTRITION. PLATE IV. page 389.

Fig. 1. A portion of the middle and internal membranes of a large
encysted tumour situated under the tongue, and removed by
Professor Syme.

a. The middle or second membrane, which is a germinal
membrane, consisting of flattened cells, the lines of junction
of which are faintly visible, the nuclei remaining as the
germinal spots of the membrane.

b. The internal membrane, a layer of small cells, somewhat
spherical, with slightly granular contents.

The external membrane of the cyst, consisting of areolar
and elastic fibres, contained the blood-vessels of the morbid
growth.

The cyst contained a soft mass resembling thick honey
in consistence. The outer layer of this mass was white, and
consisted of large, flat, transparent cells or scales, with few or
no traces of nuclei. The larger internal part of the mass
was reddish-grey, and consisted of ovoidal cells, resembling
those of the external layer, except that they were turgid
with a transparent oily-like fluid, and contained nuclei in
various stages of development.

Fig. 2, a. Fig. 3, a. Cells of the meliceritous mass those without
nuclei being those of the white external layer, the others
belonging to the reddish-grey part of the mass, presenting
nuclei in various stages of development.

b b. Some of the latter cells, in which the nuclei have become so
much developed as to distend their cells beyond the average
size. In these enlarged cells, it will be remarked that the
nuclei, instead of remaining as single germinal spots for each
cell, have broken up into numerous spots or centres of
nutrition.

In a tumour of this kind, the cyst and its contents are
two distinct parts, and perform two distinct actions. The
cyst is the active agent in withdrawing materials of nutrition
for itself and its contents from the vessels which ramify in
its outer tunic. The organs which accomplish this are the
germinal spots in its middle tunic, which, in virtue of forces



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. XV

of attraction in each, select and remove from the capillary
vessels the matter necessary for the formation of the cells of
the internal layer. These after solution pass in succession
into the cavity of the cyst, to serve as nutriment for the
contained cellular mass.

This mass is evidently the principal element of the
morbid growth. The cyst is a subsidiary or accessory part,
arranged for the protection and due supply of nourishment
for its principal. The cells of which this mass consists have
each its own nucleus or germinal centre. These cells would
appear to be of two classes those whose nuclei produce
young cells in their interior for their own nutrition, but not
for the reproduction of new mother-cells, and those which
act as reproductive individuals for the whole morbid growth.
These latter cells are marked 6 6 in Figs. 2 and 3, and con-
tain numerous nutritive centres or germinal spots in their
interior. The flat cells of the white external layer appear to
be those individuals of the first class, which are about to
close their existence, their nuclei having disappeared ; their
food, therefore, no longer supplied to them, and their position
in the mass removed to the exterior by the eccentric
development of the younger and more active neighbouring
cells. In a morbid mass of this kind, as in the textures and
organs of an animal generally, certain parts are set aside as
reproducers, the remaining parts performing the functions of
the whole mass, texture, or organ ; just as in certain com-
munities of animals certain individuals are set aside to re-
produce the swarm, the others are devoted to the duties of
the hive.

Fig. 4. Two portions of the primary or germinal membrane from the
tubes of the tubular portion of the human kidney. The
germinal spots of the gland are seen imbedded in the sub-
stance of the membrane. The external layer of this mem"
brane, which may occasionally be seen with the nuclei
detached from it, is the basement or homogeneous membrane
of Mr. Bowman. In other instances, as when the epithelia
are but slightly developed, it becomes difficult to decide
whether we have merely the germinal membrane, or both
the membrane and its epithelia before us.

INTESTINAL VILLL PLATE IV. page 389.

Fig. 5. Extremity of a villus immediately before absorption of chyle
has commenced. It has cast off its protective epithelium,
and displays, when compressed, a network of peripheral
lacteals. The granular germs of the absorbing vesicles, as
yet undeveloped, are seen under its primary membrane.



XVI EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

Fig. 6. Extremity of a villus, with its absorbent vesicles distended with
chyle, and the trunks of its lacteals seen through its coats.

Fig. 7. Protective epithelium-cells from a villus in the dog.*

Fig. 8. Protective epithelium-cells cast off preparatory to absorption of
chyle ; instead of nuclei, they present, in their interior,
groups of globules.

Fig. 9. A group of the same cells adhering by their distal extremities.

Fig. 10. Secreting cells thrown out of the follicles of Lieberkiilin
during digestion.

Fig. 11. Diagram of mucous membrane of jejunum when absorption is
not going on. a. Protective epithelium of a villus. &.
Secreting epithelium of a follicle, c c c. Primary membrane,
with its germinal spots or nuclei, d d. e. Germs of absorbent
vesicles, f. Vessels and lacteals of villus.

Fig. 12. Diagram of mucous membrane during digestion and absorption
of chyle, a. A villus, turgid, erect ; its protective epithelia
cast off from its free extremity ;t its absorbent vesicles, its
lacteals and blood-vessels turgid. 5. A follicle discharging its
secreting epithelia.

PROCESS OF ULCERATION IN ARTICULAR CARTILAGE.
PLATE IV. page 389.

Fig. 13. a. A section of articular cartilage and absorbent membrane.
In the lower part of the section the cartilage - corpuscles
retain their natural size and appearance ; as they approach
the rugged ulcerated edge, they increase in size, and contain
numerous young cells, apparently the progeny of their nuclei ;
beyond this edge, rounded masses of cells, originally con-
tained within the cartilage-corpuscles, are seen embedded in
the cellular absorbent mass.

I. Absorbent cells of the false membrane, with two globular
masses derived from the cartilage-corpuscles.

SECRETING STRUCTURES. PLATES IV. V.

PLATE IV. page 389.

Fig. 14. Four secreting cells from the ink-bag of Loligo sagittata.

Fig. 1 5. Five cells from the liver of Patella vulgata. In this instance
the bile is contained in the cavities of the secondary cells,
which constitute the nucleus of the primary cell.

* It may be noted that both in figures. 7 and 9 the clear space at the broad free
ends of the columnar intestinal epithelial cells, to which several German anatomists
have recently directed attention, is figured by the author. EDS.

t The author subsequently abandoned the idea that the epithelial cells were
cast off during absorption. EDS.



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. XV 11

Fig. 16. Three cells from the kidney of Helix aspersa. The contained
secretion is dead white, and presents a chalky appearance.

Fig. 1 7. Two cells from the vesicles of the testicle of Squalus cornubicus.
The contained bundles of spermatozoa are developed from
the nucleus each spermatozoon being a spiral cell.

PLATE V. page 412.

Fig. 1. Five cells from the mamma of the bitch. In addition to their
nuclei, these cells contain milk-globules.

Fig. 2. A portion of duct from the testicle of Squalus cornubicus. A



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