John Gould.

Biographical dictionary of painters, sculptors, engravers, and architects, from the earliest ages to the present time; interspersed with original anecdotes online

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ployed him in painting some frescoes
for the Vatican, which he executed
>o much to bis satis&ction, that he
^*«towed upon him the honour of
luiighthood. He chiefly applied him-
Klf to the painting female saints ;
««»d is celebrated for the loTely,
modest, yet dignified air of his Ma.
donnas, the grace of^his angels, the
devout characters of his saints, and
t^ festive dresses. The most
f«lebratcd jricture of this great artist
•V David viewing Bathsheba; a
^^t wljich it ii easier to feel than

to describe. He was much em-
ployed by the nobility and ecclesi-
astics of Rome; and few of the
churches and palaces are without
some of Maratti's pictures* He re-
sided some years in France, and was
appointed painter in ordinary to
Lewis XlV.^D'ArgenviUe.

MARCEL(N.),aGerman painter
of fruit, flowers, &c. bom at Frank-
fort in 1628, and died in 1683,
aged 55, He was a disciple of
George Flegel or Tlugels, whose
manner he imitated, and always
adhered to ; but he proved &r supe-
rior to his master. The subjects
which he generally painted were
vases filled with different kinds of
fruits and flowers, and also curious
shells; which subjects he copied
exactly from nature, and finished
them highly, with a light touch, and
natural colouring. — Pilk,

MARCENAY( Anthony de Ghuy),
a French engraver, who flourished
about the year 1760. He was one
of the most successful imitators of
the style of Rembrandt, and has
engraved several plates of portraits
and other subjects, in which the dry
point is used with great dexterity.
We have the following prints by
him: — Henry IV. of France; the
Duke of Sully ; the Chevalier Bay-
ard ; the Maid of Orleans ; Viscount
Turenne; Prince Eugene; Marshal
Villars; General Paoli; Stanislaus
Augustus, King of Poland ; Marshal
Saxe; &c Strutt

MARIETTE (John), a French
engraver and printseller, bom at Paris
about 1654. He was instructed in
drawing by his broiher-inrlaw, J. B.
Comeille, with the intention of be-
coming a painter, but by the advice
of Charles le Brun, he changed his
pursuit, and devoted himself to
engraving. Several of his plates are
from his own designs ; and his com-
pogitionii possess considerable merit.

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though his drawing is not very cor-
rect. He worked both with the
point and the graver, in a slight,
and rather a coarse »ty\e..~^StrtUt


Italian jNunter and sculptor, bom at
Arezzo in 1198, and died in 1275,
aged 77. He painted after the manner
of the Greek artists who contributed
to ^e revival of the art of painting in
Itaiy. He painted small as well as
large, both in fresco and distemper,
and was eminent as a sculptor and
architect. The art of gilding with leaf
gold upon Armenian bole, was first
invented by Maigaritone; and at
Pisa he painted the Legendary His-
tory of St. Francis, with a number
of small figures, on a gold ground.
By the command of Pope Urban
lY. he painted some fine pictures
for St. Peter's church at Rome.
Gregory X. dying in the city of
Arezzo, he was employed by the
citizens to execute the sculpture for
his tomb — De Piles^ Pilk.

MARINARI (Onorio), an Italian
painter, bom in 1627, and died in
1715, aged 88. He was a disciple
of Carlo Dolce, whose style he
imitated with the most assiduous
industry, and his endeavours were
attended with a success equal to his
wishes. There appeared so great a
similarity in the colouring and high
finishing of those two eminent artists,
that it proved np easy matter, even
at the time they painted, to dis-
tinguish their hands ; though in the
choice <of his subjects, in disposing
them with greater elegance, and also
in giving them more harmony and
expression, Marinari was thought
superior to Carlo. He painted poi>
traits in an a4mirable manner, also
historical subjects. — D*ArgenviUe,

MARIO NUZZI, (but better
known by the name of Mario di
FioRi, because he excelled in paint-

ing flowers), bom in the kingdom
of Naples in 1603, and died iif 1673,
aged 70. His pictures are rarely to
be met with, and are very valuable.
— WArgenville.

MARTIRELLI( ),an Italian

landscape painter, bom at Naples in .
1670, and died in 1720, aged 50.
He was a disciple of Giacomo del
Po ; but not finding himself fit for
the higher branches of the art, lie
determined to practise a different
branch, and studied only landscape
in which he became an excellent
master. In that style he found
room to exert all the powers of his
imagination and invention ; and ac-
quired an extraordinary readiness of
hand. His colouring was natural^
his sites full of p^^asing variety ; his
figures were elegatat, and always in*
troduced with propriety and great
judgment; his scenes of life have
generally a lovely effect, and his
perspective is true. — PUK

M AROT (Francis),a French pain-
ter, bom in 1667, and died in 1719,
aged 52. He was a disciple of La
Fosse, and an associate and pro-
fessor of the French academy of
painting. He is not to be con-
founded vrith an architect of that
name, whose designs have been
engraved in quarto D^Argenville,

MARSY(Balthasar), a celebrated
French sculptor, bom at Cambray
in 1620, and died in 1674, aged 54.
He executed a beautiful vase, on
which were represented Latona and
her children. This was placed in
the royal garden at Versailles. —
Nouv, Diet. Hist

MARTEAU (Giles de), the elder,
a German engraver, bom at liege in
1722. He went to Paris when he
was very young, where he acquired
considerable reputation as one of the
most successful revivers of the dot-
ted style of engraving, whkh be
brought to great perfection. He

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was received into the academy at
Paris in 1764. He engraved several
plates of academical figures, after the
designs of some of the most eminent
French artists. — Strutt

MARTEAU(Gaesde, the Younger).
He was the nephew and pupil of the
preceding artist, bom at Liege about
the year 1750. He engraved some
plates in the style of his uncle,
which are not without merit. Among
others, the following were his best
prints : — Innocent Pleasure, after
Huet; The Favourite Lamb; Two
Hunting Pieces; Cupid crying. —

M ARUCELLI (Giovanni Stefano),
an Italian historic^ painter, bom in
1646, and died in 1706, aged 60.
He was a disciple of Andrea Boscoli,
by whom he was taught design,
colouring, and perspective. In a
little time he distinguished himself
in that school, and gradually became
so eminent, that he was invited to
Pisa to paint a grand altar-piece,
which he executed in such taste, as
established his reputation through all
Italy. Another very admired picture
of this master was, the history of
Abraham entertaining the Three
Angels ; that performance being de-
signed in a grand style, the expres-
sion good, and the taste of the com-
position truly elegant. This master
excelled in architecture, and was the
inventor of many curious and useful
machines. — Vas.

MASO, called MASACCIO (Gio-
vanni), an Italian pointer, bom in
1401, and died in 1443, aged 42. He
was a disciple of Masonino da Pali-
cale ; but proved as much superior to
his master as his master was superior
to all his contemporaries; and is
accounted the principal artist of the
second or middle age of modem
punters, from its revival under
Gimabue. His genius was very ex-
tensive, his invention ready, and his

manner of design had unusual tmth
and elegance. He considered paint-
ing as the art of representing nature
with tmth, by the aid of design and
colouring: and therefore he made
nature his most constant study, till
he excelled in a perfect imitation of
it. He is accounted the first who,
from judicious observations, removed
the difficulties that impeded the
study and knowledge of the art,
by setting the artist an example of
his own works, of that beauty which
arises from a proper and agreeable
choice of attitudes and motions, and
likewise from such a spirit, boldness,
and relief, as appears tmly just and
natural. He was the first among
the painters who studied to give the
draperies of his figures more dignity,
by omitting the multitude of small
folds, so customarily practised by the
preceding artists, and by designing
them with greater breadth and ful-
ness. He was also the first who
endeavoured to adapt the colour of
his draperies to the tint of his cama-
tions, making the one harmonise with
the other. He was unconmionly
skilled in perspective, which he had
learned from P. Bmnelleschi. His
works procured him universal appro-
bation : but the same merit which
promoted his fame, excited envy;
and he died, to the r^ret of every
lover of the art, not without strong
suspicions of having been poisoned. —
De Piles, Pilk.

(Thomas), a goldsmith of Florence
in the 15th century, who is said to
have invented the art of engraving
on copper. — Moreri.

MASOLINO (Da Panicale), an
Italian painter in the Florentine ter-
ritory, learnt chiaro-scuro, the part in
which he excelled in painting, from his
master L. Ghiberti, and colour from
Stamina. By this union of the dif-
ferent arts, he formed that new style,


which, though still dry and meagre,
exhibited symptoms of a certain har-
mony and grandeur unknown before.
The proofs of this still remain in the
chapel of S. Pietro al Carmine,
where besides the Evangelists, he
painted various incidents from the
life of St. Peter. Intercepted by
death, he left the remainder to be
finished by Maso de S. Giovanni,
celebrated by the name of Masaccio,
his scholar. — Pilk.

French engraver, bom at Lisle about
the year 1741. . He was a pupil of
J. P. le Bas, at Paris, where he
engraved several plates, in the neat
spirited style of his instructor, which
possess considerable merit, particu-
larly his landscapes. — StruU.

MASS ARD (John), a French en-
graver, bom at Paris about the year
1740. He was a pupil of J. G.
Wille, and has engraved several
plates in the neat finished style of
that artist. The following are among
his most esteemed prints: — The
family of Charles II ; Louis XIV. of
France, when Dauphin; Nicholas
de Livri, Bishop of CalUnique.—

MASSARI(Lucio), an Italian his-
torical painter, bora at Bologna in
1569, and died in 1633, aged 64.
For some time he studied in the
school of Passerotti, and placed him-
self in the academy of Lodovico
Caracci, to perfect himself in the
true principles of the art, and com-
pleted his studies at Rome. At his
return to Bologna, he adorned the
cloister of St Michael in Bosoo, and
many of the chapels and palaces of
that city with his performances; and
obtained an established reputation,
being accounted, through all Italy an
excellent master. This work did
great honour to the academy where
he was instracted, particularly the
copies which he painted after some

of the finest compositions of Lodo-
vico; and which have such an un-
common spirit, freedom, and exact-
ness, as to make several of them
pass at this day, for undoubted

originals of that illustrious artist


(Otho), a celebrated Dutch painter of
reptiles, plants, &c. bom at Aqister.
dsanin 1613, and died in 1673, aged
60. He being desirous of acquiring all
possible improvement in his profes-
sion, travelled through most parts
of Italy, and spent a considerable
time at Rome and Naples ; and for
several years was retidiied in the
service of the Grand Duke of Tus-
cany. In France he was employed
by the Queen-Mother, who allowed
him a pistole for every four hours in
each day that he painted. Houbraken
relates that he had a small spot of
ground near to the city of Amster-
dam, well enclosed, where he pre-
served all his poisonous reptiles, and
fed them every day with his own
hand: by which management he
made them so familiar, that they
would at any time readily come
abroad into the open air, whenever
he wanted to paint them, and lie
quietly in any position, just as he
thought proper to place them, and as
long as he had occasion to observe
them. No painter could represent
those subjects with more tmth and
nature than he did, nor finish them to
a higher degree of perfection. — Houb.

MASSE (John Baptiste),a French
miniature painter, bom at Paris in
1687, and died in 1767, aged 80.
He not only painted miniatures for
the French King, but also copied
the great pictures of Le Bran at
Versailles, from which some fine
engravings were published in 1753.
.-JVouv. Diet Hist.

M A SSON (Anthony). This cele-
brated French engraver was bora near

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Orleans about the year 1636. He
was bred to the business of an ar-
mourer, and first exercised the burin
in graving ornaments on steel. Early
in life he settled at Paris, where he
applied himself to drawing with great
assiduity, and acquired some celebrity
in painting and designing portraits.
But he is principally distinguished
as an engraver ; and in some of his
plates, particularly his portraits, he
reached an excellence which has
seldom been surpassed. His plates
are executed entirely with the gra-
ver, which he handled with firmness
and facility, and at the same time
with the utmost delicacy. His por-
trait of Brisacier, known by the name
of the Grey-headed Man, is a mo-
del of lightness and precision. That
of Oliver d'Ormcsson is admirable.
Of his subjects the celebrated print
of Christ with the Disciples at Em-
maus, afier Titian, commonly called
the Table-doth, may be reguded as
a chef-d'cBUvre in that style of en-
graving. — StrutU

MASSON (Magdalen). This- in-
genious lady was the daughter of
Anthony Masson, bom at Paris about
the year 1660. She was a pupil of
her fiither*s, in whose fine style she
engraved several portraits, or heads,
as lai^ as life. The following are
her best prints : — Duchess of Or-
leans ; Duchess of Alen^on ; Maria
Theresa of Austria, Queen of France ;
Elizabeth Maria Josephine, Infitnta
of Spain. — Strutt.

an Italian painter, bom at Bologna
in 1577. He was instracted in the
school of Caracci, and afterwards
studied the works of Parmesan. But
employing black more than any other
colour, he thereby lessened the value
of his works. Being of a melancholy
tnm, he entered into a monastery
"^bere he died. — De Piles.

MATSYS ( Quintin), a Flemish

historical painter, bom at Antwerp
in 1450, and died in 1520, aged 79.
He followed the trade of a black,
smith or fiurrier for several years, at
least till he was in his twentieth year.
Houbraken, and other authors, vary
in their accounts of the cause of his
quitting his first occupation, and
attaching himself to the art of paint-
ing. Whatever may have been his
motive) it is certain that he appears
to have had an uncommon talent;
his manner was singular, not re-
sembling that of any other master ;
and his pictures w^re strongly colour-
ed and carefully finished, though
somewhat dry and hard By many
competent judges it was believed,
when they observed the strength of
expression in some of his compo-
sitions, that if he had studied in
Italy to acquire some knowledge of
the antiques, and the great masters
of the Roman school, he would have
proved one of the most eminent
painters of the Low Countries. But
he only imitated ordinary life, and
seemed more inclined, or at least
more qualified, to imitate the defects
than the beauties of nature. Some
historical compositions of this master
deserve commendation, particularly
a Descent from the Cross, which is
in the cathedral at Antwerp, justly
admired for the spirit^ skill, and de-
licacy of the whole. But the most
remarkable and best known picture
of Matsys, is that of the Two Misers,
in the gallery at Windsor. His son,
John Matsys was also an eminent
artist — ^Tot**., Pilk,

MAZZA (Damiano), an Italian
historical painter. Italian historians
are silent as to the circumstances of
the birth and death of this artist.
He was bom at Padua, in which
city he was taught the mdiments of
painting; but he travelled to Venice,
and placed himself as a disciple with
Titian, whose maniuqr he carefully

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studied, and imitated it with very
great success. Having in a few
years sufficiently improved himself
under that incomparable master, he
returned to Padua, and was employed
to paint the history of the Rape of
Ganymede ; which subject he exe-
cuted with such elegance of taste,
and with so charming a tint of colour,
that it might deservedly be taken for
the composition and hand of Titian.
However, the art of painting was too
soon deprived of one of its greatest
ornaments, by the untimely death of
Damiano Mazza, who happened to be
cut off in the flower of his age, at a
time also when there was a general
expectation of his being equal to any

of the greatest masters of Italy.

Vas., Pilk.

MAZILENE (Peter), a sculptor
of Rouen, bom 1632, and died in
1709, aged 76. He was a member
of the French academy of sculpture
and painting. His principal works

are in the gardens of Versailles

D* Argenville.

GIANO (Francesco), a celebrated
Italian historical painter and en-
graver, bom at Parma in 1504, and
died in 1540, aged 36. He was in-
structed in the art of painting by
two of his relations, and by the
vivacity and readiness of his wit I
made great proficiency in the art.
He visited Rome at an early age,
and studied the works of Rafiaelle,
Michel Angelo, and other eminent
artists. His invention was ready, |
his attitudes were graceful, and his I
heads had a peculiar fine finish; and i
it is visible he endeavoured more to ■
please in this way, than by the just
expression of his subject. The taste
of Parmegiano was excellent, but it '
led him more to imitate the effects l
than the principles of his masters ; i
with less comprehension than ardour,
he adopted the grace of Raffaelle, the

contrast of Michel Angelo, and the
harmony of Corre^o, without ad-
verting that they were founded on
propriety, energy, and grandeur of
conception. He reduced nature to
a habit which he contracted, grace-
ful, it is true, but it was his own,
and sunk into what is called man-
ner. He was an admirable engraver,
and etched most of his designs him-
self. He was the first inventor of
printing in mezzotinto. The most
celebrated works of this master are,
Cupid scooping his bow, with two
infants at his feet, the one laughing
and the other crying ; the Madonna
with the Infant, St. John and St.
Catherine, and the head of St.
Zachariah, in the fore-ground.—
Vas., De Piles.

cis), an Italian painter, bom at Rome
in 1571, and died in 1626, aged 55.
There are several grand altar-pieces
of his painting at Milan. Charles
Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, conferred
on him the honour of knighthood.
— /) 'Argenville.

MECHAN (James), a German
painter and engraver, bom at Leip-
sic about 1748. He was for some
time a pupil of Bernard Rode, at
Berlin ; and afterwards frequented
the academy at Leipsic. He painted
history and landscapes, in which he
acquired considerable reputation in
Germany ; but he is more generally-
known as an engraver. He etched
several plates, some of which are from
his own designs ; and engraved a
variety of views in Italy in aqua-
tinta. He handled the point with
considerable dexterity. — Strutt.

MECHELN (Israel Van, fether
and son). It was for some time sup-
posed that the various prints attri-
buted to Israel Van Mecheln, were
the works of one and the same per-
son; but on account of the great
difference observable in their style.

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as well as from ^e dates inscribed
on some of them, M. Heineken, and
others, have very reasonably con-
cluded, that both the father and the
son practised engraving. Israel Van
Mecheln the Elder, is stated by M.
Hulen, to have been bom at Mecheln,
a village near Bocholt, a small town
in the bishopric of Munster, in West-
phalia, about the year 1424. He is
r^arded as one of the earliest engra-
vers of whom we have any account,
and was a contemporary of Martin
Schoen. That he was not a dis-
ciple of Schoen is evident from the
total difference in their style. It has
not been found practicable to distin-
gnish precisely the prints of the elder
Mecheln from those of his son, but it
may be naturally concluded, that the
ruder part of them, in point of design
and execution, should be ascribed to
the father. M. Heineken estimates
the number of their prints at about
two hundred and fifty. — StrtUt,

MEDICIS (Pietro), an Italian
historical painter, bom at Florence
in 1586, and died in 1648, aged 62.
He was descended from the illus-
trious family of that name at Flo-
rence. He was a disciple of Cigoli,
and had a pleasing manner of
colouring, a correctness of outline,
and an expression that was very
natural. — Pilk.

MEDINA (Su- John), a Fle-
mish painter, bom at Brussels in
1660, and died in 1711, aged 51.
He was a disciple of Du Chatel;
but he studied the works of Rubens,
and made that eminent master his
model. He visited England in 1686,
and met with oonsiderable encourage-
ment during his stay in London.
By the favour of the Earl of Leven,
who procured for him a subscription
of five hundred pounds, he was
at last induced to visit Scotland,
where he painted the portraits of
the principal nobility. By order

of the Grand Duke of Tuscany,
the portrait of Medina, painted by
himself, was placed in the gallery
at Florence, among the most memo-
rable artists. He was the last per>
son who was knighted in Scotland
before the union of the two king-
doms De Piles, Pilk.

MEEREN or MEER, called the
Old (John Yander), a Dutch land-
scape painter, bom in 1627) and
died in 1691, aged 64. It is not
mentioned by Houbraken from whom .
this artist received his instructions in
the art of painting. His subjects
were sea pieces, and views of the
sea and its shores, which he painted
with great truth, as he had accus-
tomed himself to sketch every scene
after nature. The forms of his trees
are easy and natural, his distances
well observed, and the whole sce-
nery has a striking effect, by a happy
opposition of lights and shadows.
He perfectly understood the con-
struction of ships, and had com-
petent skill to represent their natural
appearance in all their different
positions; so that his compositions
in that style of painting were held
in much estimation. The figures
which he inserted in his landscapes
were well designed; and though
they might be said to want elegance,
yet they were placed with judgment,
and well adapted to their situations.
He also painted battles, in such a
style as met with approbation; as
they showed good composition,
were touched with spirit, and had
a great deal of transparence in the
colouring. The principal fault im-
puted to this artist is, that in some
of his pictures the back-grounds
are a little too blue, and some of his
landscapes have a tint that appears
rather too yellow. — flbwfc., Pilk.

MEEREN or MEER, called the
Young (John Yander), a Dutch
landscape painter, who flourishtd


about 1608. He was the son of
old John Vander Meer, and learned
the first rudiments of his art from
his father ; but being deprived in his
youth of his instructor, he became
a disciple of Nicholas Berchem, and
was accounted the best scholar edu-
cated in the school of that master.
He applied himself with great assi-
duity to imitate the delicate style of
Berchem ; and also took care to
study nature with an equal degree
• of attention. He painted landscapes
after the manner of his master ; and
his usual subjects are cottages, with
peasants at their rural occupations
and diversions, or tending flocks of
sheep and goats; which are excel-
lently designed, drawn with cor^
rectness, and delicately finished.
His skies, trees, and figures, are in
a good taste; and his grounds are
diversified and broken with abun-
dance of judgment and skill ; but it
is observed of him, that he very
rarely introduced cows, horses, or
any other species of animals, except
goats and sheep; the latter of
which he so highly finished, that
one would imagine the wool might
be felt by the softness of its appear-
ance. His touch is scarce perceptible,
and yet the colours are admirably
united. His genuine works bear a
very high price, and are esteemed
even in Italy, where they are ad-
mitted into the best collections;

Online LibraryJohn GouldBiographical dictionary of painters, sculptors, engravers, and architects, from the earliest ages to the present time; interspersed with original anecdotes → online text (page 2 of 59)