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A TEXT BOOK OF PHYSIOLOGY.




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M-^KENDRICK'S PHYSIOLOGY PLATE A .



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(M(MT(/. iri



A TEXT BOOK



OP



PHYSrOLOGY



JOHN c;RAY M'KENDHICK, M.U, LL.U, F.E.S.,

PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW,
FRLLOW OF THK ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF EDINBURGH.



INCLUDING

HISTOLOGY BY PHILIPP STOHR, M.D.,

PROFESSOR OF UNATOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ZUrICH.



IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. IT.— SPECIAL PHYSIOLOGY



NEW YORK

MACMILLAN AND CO.

1889



SPECIAL PHYSIOLOGY:



INCLUDINi;



NUTRITION, INNERVATION, AND REPRODUCTION.



BY



JOHN GRAY M'KENDEICK, M.D, LL.D., F.R.S.,

PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITCTKS OP MEDICINE IN THE UNIVERSITY OP Gl.ASOOW,
KKLLOW OF THE RIlVAL COT.LEOE OF PHYSKUXS OF EDINBrROH.



NEW YORK

MACMILLAN AND CO.

1889






PRINTED AT THE tINIVERSITY PRESS, GLASGOW,
BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE.



PKEFACE,



It has been my endeavour throughout this volume to lay before the
reader the main facts of physiological science, and, as far as possible,
to state these facts in terms of measurement. The time has gone
past for vague generalities in the description of physiological
phenomena, and physiology is, year by year, drawing nearer to her true
position as a science, dealing as strictly with the phenomena and
basis of organic life as physics deals with those of dead matter. At
the same time, it is impossible altogether to resist the promptings of
speculative inquiry, and I have accordingly yielded to these in several
instances — in i)articular, in treating of the phenomena that lie behind a
cardiac contraction, and in discussing the intimate nature of nervous
action.

I have specially to thank Dr. William Snodgrass, M.A., the Muirhead
Demonstrator of Physiology in the University of Glasgow, for much
valuable assistance in the preparation of this volume, and for reading
the proof sheets as it passed through the press. My friend, ISIr. E. F.
Muirhead, M.A., B.Sc, kindly aided me in the part relating to some
of the optical [)hcTiomena of vision. The value of the volume has also
been enhanced by the description of the method employed by my
friend, Professor A. Crum Brown, in studying the relations of the
semicircular canals.

I beg to express my obligations to certain articles in Hermann's
great Handhuch der Physiologic, in six volumes, and also to Munk's
Physiologic des Menschen und der Simgcthierc The latter work has
supplied me with not a few facts bearing on the physiology of the



viii PREFACE.

domestic animals. By the kindness of Messrs. A. & C. Black, I Avas
also able to make some use of various physiological articles written by
me for the Encydopcedia Britannica, 9th ed. The histological woodcuts
have been largely derived from Stohr's Lehrbuch der Histologie, under
the arrangement mentioned in the preface to General Fhysiology.



JOHN G. M'KENDRICK.



University of Glasgow,
1st October, 1889.



CONTENTIS,



SECTION I.— NUTRITION, FOOD, DIGESTION.



CiiAP. I. — The Nature and Purposes of Nutrition,

Chai>. II. — Food and the Laws of Dietetics,

Chap. III. — Hunger, Thirst, Starvation, and Modified Diets,

Chap. IV. — General Structure of Glands,

Chap. V.— The Mouth, Teeth, and Tongue,

Chap. VI.— The Salivary Glands,

Chap. VII. — Processes in the Mouth,

Mastication; Insa/irafioii ; Ivjiuence 0/ yervoux Si/sti
Secretion.
Chap. VIII. — Deglutition, ....

Chap. IX. — Structure of the Stomach and Intestines, .

Stomach; Intedineis ; Special Phi/xlo/oi/im/ Aiiatoiinj.
Chap. X. — Digestion in the Stomach,
Chap. XI. — Special Modes of Digestion — Eumination, .
Chap. XII. — The Movements of the Small Intestine, .
Chap. XIII. — The Structure of the Liver,
Chap. XIV.— The Bile, .....
Chap. XV.^ — The Pancreas and Pancreatic Juice,
Chap. XVI. — The Intestinal Juice and Intestinal Digestion,
Chap. XVII. — Changes in the Great Intestine, .



m on S'a/irari/



PAOK

1



2C.
32
37
49
;31



04
71

83

9!)

103

lor>

ll;{
123
12<)
131



SECTION II.— ABSOEPTION.

Chap. I. —General Conditions of Absorption,
Chap. II.— Absorption from the Intestinal Canal,
Chap. III.— The Chyle, ....
Chap. IV. — Absorption by other Organs,
Chap. V. — The Lymphatics,



i3(;

138
143
144
140



SECTION III.— THE BLOOD.



Chap. I.— The Blood Glands, .......

Chap. II. — The Functions of the Blood Glands, ....

Blood Corpuscle.^i ; Thynmn : Spleen ; Thyroid Body ; Supra-renal
Bodies ; Pituitary Body ; Pineal Body ; Coccygeal Gland and Caro-
tid Gland.

h



157
103



CONTENTS.



Chap. III.— The Blood, .

Ch-vp. IV. — The Coagulation of the Blood,

Chap. V. — -The Quantity of Blood in the Body,



PAGK

179
186

194



SECTION IV.— THE CIECULATION OF THE BLOOD.
General Statement, .....

A. — The Heart.

Chap. I. — The Physiological Anatomy of the Heart,

Chap. II. — The Action of the Heart, .....

Chap. III. — Modes of Studying the Isolated Heart,

Chap. IV. — Innervation of the Heart, .....

Chap. V. — Action of Physical and Chemical Agents on the Heart,

Chlvp. VI. — The Nature and Causes of Ehythmic Cardiac Contraction,



196



197
202
220
224
232
236



B. — The Blood-Vessels.

Chap. I. — General Physical Considerations,

Chap. II. — Structure and Properties of the Blood-Vessels,

Chap. III. — The Arterial Circulation,

The Pulse.
Chap. IV. — The Capillary Circulation, .
Chap. V. — The Venous Circulation,



246
252
257

266
268



C. — The Cikcul.\tion as a Whole.

Chap. I. — The Pressure of the Blood, ....

Chap. II.— The Velocity of the Blood, ....

Chap. III. — The Duration of the Circulation, .

Chap. IV. — Changes in the Volume of Organs, .

Chap. V. — Special Forms of Circulation ; Hepatic ; Pulmonary,

Chap. VI. — The Innervation of the Blood-Vessels,



272

280
286
287
289
291



SECTION v.— EESPIEATION.

Chap. I. — General Statement, ......

Chap. II. — Structure of the Eespiratory Organs,

Chap. III. — Mechanism of Eespiration, .....

Chap. IV. — Eegistration of Eespiratory Movements, Forces, and Quantities,

Chap. V. — Changes in the Air during Eespiration,

Chap. VI. — Changes in the Blood during Eespiration, .

Chap. VII. — The Interchanges between the Blood and the Air in Eespiration,

Chap. VIII. — The Gaseous Interchanges between the Blood and the Tissues,

Chap. IX. — Quantitative Estimates of the Gases of Eespiration,

Chap. X. — Principles of Ventilation,

Chap. XI. — Abnormal Eespiration,

Chap. XII. — Breathing of Foreign Gases

Chap. XIII. — The Innervation of Eespiration,



297
298
303
313
321
327
330
342
346
348
349
852
353



CONTENTS.



XI



SECTION VI.— ASSIMILATION OR NUTRITION.



Chap. I. — General Statement,

Chap. II.— Conditions of Healthy Nutrition,



PAQR

363

3G7



SECTION VII.— GLYCOGENESIS.



Nature of Glycogen,

Origin of Glycogen,

Sugar of the Liver,

Transformation of Glycogen into Sugar,

Sugar in the Blood,

Transformation of the Sugar in the Blood,

Relation of Nervous System to Glycogenesis,

Formation of Fat by the Liver, .



370
371
372
373
373
374
375
377



SECTION VIII.— EXCRETION.

A.— The Skin.

Chap. I.— The Structure of the Skin and of its Epidermic Appendages, . 378

Chap. II. — The Excretory Functions of the Skin, .... 388

B. — The Kidneys.

Chap. I. — The Structure of the Kidney, ...... 393

Ch.ap. II. — General Characters and the Special Constituents of the Urine, , 398
Principles of Volumetric Ancdyiis. Nitroyenoiis Oryanic Constituents —

Urea; Uric Acid; Kreatinin; Oxaluric Acid; Sulphocyanic Acid;

Hippuric Acid. N on- Nitrogenous Organic Constituents — Oxalic Acid ;

Glycerine- Phosphoric Acid; Lactic Acid; PhenolsulpMiric Acid, etc.

Pigments — Urohiiiii ; Indican ; Urohtematin ; Urochrome. Scdts —

Chlorides ; Phosphates ; Sulphates ; Carbonates ; Calcium ; Bases.

Gases. Abnormal Constituents, Mode of Examination of Urinary

De))osits.
Cmvp. III. — The Physiological Characters of Urine, .... 417
Origin of certain Constituents ; Conditions affecting the Composition of

the Urine ; Urine of Variotis Animals,
Chap. IV. — Mechanism of the Secretion of Urine, .... 426
Chap. V. — The Innervation of the Kidney, ..... 428
Chap. VI. — Expulsion of Urine from the Bladder, .... 429



SECTION IX.— THE INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE BODY. 433



SECTION X.— ANIMAL HEAT.



438



CONTENTS.



SECTION XI.— THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A. — Gexeeal Ixteoductiox.

PAGK

Ch.U'. I. — The Origin of the Nervous System, ..... 44(>

Ch.vp. II. — The General Structure and Functions of Peripheral Nerves, Gan-
glia, and Terminal Organs, ...... 450

Chap. III. — The Chemistry of Nervous Tissue, . . . . . 455

B. — Ner"S"es.

Ch.u>. I. — The Physical Properties of Nerves, ..... 457

Ch.u>. II. — The Tital Properties of Nerves, ..... 458
ExcitahUify ; Efftdx of Electrical Stimulation; Elect rot onu-s ; Conduc-
tivity; Velocity of JVerron.s Impulse.

C. — Gexeeal Physiology of the Cexte.\i Nervous Organs.

Chap. I. — Action of Grey Matter, ...... 471

Chap. II. — Nature of Reflex Actions, ...... 472

D. — Speclal Physiology of the Central Nervous Organs.

Chap. I. — The Evolution of the Central Nervous Organs, . . . 477

Size and Weiijlit of Brain.

C ha p. II. — The Minute Structure of the Central Nervous Organs, . . 486

Chap. III.— The Spinal Cord, ....... 495

Chap. IV.— The Medulla Oblongata, ...... 503

Chap. V. — The Pons Varolii, Cerebral Peduncles, and Basal Ganglia,. . 508

Chap. VI.— The Cerebellum, ....... 514

Chap. VII. — The Cerebral Hemispheres, ..... 517

Chap. VIII. — The Nervous System as a whole, ..... 534

Chap. IX. — The Circulation in the Brain, ..... 541

E. — Functions or the Periphep.al Nerves, . . 544

Chap. I. — Functions of the Spinal Nerves, ..... 545

Chap. II. — Functions of the Cranial Nerves, ..... 545

Ch.u?. III. — Functions of the Sympathetic Nerves, . . . . 559



SECTION XII.— THE SENSES.

General Conditions of Sensory Impressions.

Chap. I. — Mechanism of Sensory Impressions, ..... 562

Chap. II. — Time in Sensory Impressions, ..... 563

Chap. III. — Psychical Phenomena of Sensory Impressions, . . . 56()

A. — The Sense of Taste, . . . 570

B. — The Sense of Smell, . . . 573

C. — The Sense of Vision.
Chap. I. — Structure of the Eye, ....... 579

Chap. II. — ^The Optical Construction of the Eye, .... 601

Chap. III. — The Special Functions of the Eye, ..... 614

lielinal Imarje ; Ojiticai Defect h ; Myopia: Tlyiiermetropia ; Asiiijina-
tism ; Mecha7iism of Accommodation : Frenhyojiia.



CONTENT,^.



Xin



Blind Spot ; Yellow S/io/ ;
tions ; After Imarjes.



Chap. IV. — Absorption and Reflection of Luminous Rays from the Eye,

Ojikthalmo.scope .
Chap. V. — The Functions of the Iris, .....
Chap. VI. — The Normal Excitation of the Retina,

Optof/ranis ; Electrical Variation ; Phoxgenox
Duration and Pi'rsisfence of Ili'tinnl Imprc
Chap. VII. — Sensations of Colour,
Chap. VIII.— The Movements of the Eye,

Binocular Virion.
Chap. IX. — Psychical Relations of Vision,

D. — The Sense of Touch.
Chap. I. — Structure of Tactile Organs, .
Chap. II. — Tactile Impressions, ....

E. — The Sense oe Hearing
Chap. I. — General Structure of the Ear,
Chap. II. — Minute Structure of the Ear,
Chap. III. — Physical Causes of Sound, .
Chap. IV. — Arrangements for Transmission of Vibrations to Terminal Organs
Chap. V. — Physiological Cliaracters of Auditory Sensations,
Chap. VI. — Physiological Arrangements for the Appreciation of Quality of
Tone, .......

Chap. VII. — Psychical Characters of Auditory Sensations,

Binaural Audifion : J\riiKical Senxafionx.
Chap. VIII. — The Semicircular Canals, ....

F. — The Musculak Sense,
G. — Sleep, DREA:\rs, Sojina:mhulism, .

SECTION XIII.— THE VOICE, .
SECTION XIV.— ANIMAL LOCOMOTION,



PAOB

(V2)i



()2()
(i27



(•)84
08!)



r,44



047
()51



()()2
070
(572
(580

()8S
fi92

694
702
703

70r,
721



Chap. I.-
Chap. II.
Chap. III.
Chap. IV
Chai'. V.-
Chap. VI.-
JfilL

Death,

Appendix.

Index,



SECTION XV.— REPRODUCTION.

General Statement, .......

-The Structure of the Sexual Organs, . . . .

—Certain Phenomena connected with the Reproductive Function,
— Development of the Embryo, . . . . .

—The Connection of the Mother and the Foetus,
— Concluding Phenomena of Reproduction and Lactation, .



734
735
743
746
752
762

769

-Special Methods or ^Iakini; Histological Pheparations, . 771

787

Description of Pl^vte A, facing page 272.
Description of Pl-^te B, facing page 288.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



= long-itudmal, H.S.=horizontal, V.S. = vertical, and P.S.=pel•pelldiculal•
section.

Paok



T.S. =tran&verse, L.S.

Xo.

Two Plates of Tracings, ....

1. Diagrams showing Forms of Secreting Structures

2. T.S. Lieberklihn's Glands, ....

3. Sublingual Gland,

4. Diagram of Secreting Gland,

5. Duct Lined with Epithelium,

6. Orbital Gland, at rest, ....

7. Orbital Gland, after slight stimulation,

8. Orbital Gland, after stronger stimulation, .

9. Orbital Gland, exhausted, ....

10. V.S. of Human Lip,

11. Diagram of Incisor Tooth, ....

12. L.S. Crown of Molar Tooth,

13. L.S. Fang of Molar Tooth, ....

14. Odontoblasts, . . . . . .

15. Diagram of Development of Tooth,

16. T.S. Embryonic Lower Jaw of Sheep, .

17. T.S. Jaw of Human Foetus,

18. T.S. Jaw of Whelp,

19. L.S. Mucous Membrane of Human Tongue —

Filiform Papillae, .....

20. L.S. Mucous Membrane of Human Tongue-

Fungiform Papillae, ....

21. Circumvallate Papilhe, ....

22. Human Tonsil, ......

23. Sections of Mucous Glands, ....

24. Sublingual Gland,

2.5. Parotid Gland

26. Submaxillary Gland,

27. Drop of Saliva,

28. Nervous Arrangments of Submaxillary Glands,

29. Manometer,

30. Nerve Endings in Salivary Gland,

31. T.S. Human G'^sophagus, ....

32. Median Section of Head — Deglutition,

33. Median Section of Head — Deglutition,

34. Stomach and Duodenum, ....
.3.5. Secreting Cells of Stomach,



Facing Title.



Stohr,

Frey,

Stohr,

Frey,

Lavdovskii,

Lavdovskii,

Lavdovsky.

Lavdovsky,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,

Stohr,
Stohr,
StiJhr,
Stohr,
Stohr,
Stohr,
Stohr,



Mayer,
Mayer,
Krausc,

Stohr, .



32
33
34
34
34
35
35
36
36
38
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
43

46

46
47
48
48
50
51
51
54
58
60
61
65
66
68
71
72



LmT OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



XV



36. V.S. of Stomach, ....

37. Gland of Fundus of Stomach,

38. V.S. Mucous Membrane of StoniacI

39. L. and T.S. Fundus Gland of Gat,

40. Goblet Cells, ....

41. Villus in State of Contraction,

42. Diagram of Villus,

43. Lieberkiihnian Glands,

44. V.S. Duodenum, showing Brunner's Gland:
4.5, V.S. Intestine, showing Peyer's Glands,

46. Summit of Solitary Gland, .

47. Blood- Vessels of Intestine of Kabbit,

48. Auerbach's Plexus,

49. Meissner's Plexus,

.^0. Great Omentum, showing Endothelium,
51. Frog's Liver, ....

.52. Rabbit's Liver

.')3. Relation of Hepatic Cells to Bile and IJloo

Capillaries

.'54. Bile Capillaries in Rabbit's Liver,
55. Bile Capillaries in Rabbit's Liver,
.50. Frog's Liver after Injection of Sulpho-indigotate

of Soda, ....

57. Hepatic Cells and Bile Capillaries,
.58. Human Hepatic Cells, .

59. Human Hepatic Cells, .

60. Section of Human Liver near Surface

61. Injected Rabbit's Liver,

62. Injected Cat's Liver, .

63. V.S. Cat's Liver, ....

64. Section of Human Liver showing Connective

Tissue, .....

65. Duodenum and Pancreas,

66. Pancreas of Cat, . . . .

67. Male Perineum, ....

68. Drop of Chyle

69. Connective Tissue Corpuscles,

70. Lymphatics in Axilla, ,

71. Lymphatic Gland,

72. Section of Lymphatic Gland of Kitten

73. Section of Lymphatic Gland of Ox,

74. Section of Thymus of Rabbit,

75. T.S. Human Spleen, .

76. Diagram of Splenic Artery, .

77. Elements of Human Spleen,

78. Adenoid Tissue of Spleen, .

79. Nuclear Division in Spleen,

80. T.S. Spleen of Cat,

81. Thyroid Body of Man,

82. Supra-renal Body of Child,

83. Supra-renal Body of Man, .

84. Elements of Bone Marrow,



Stohr,
Stiihr,
Stuhr,
Stiihr,
Stohr,
Stohr,

Stohr,
Stohr,
Stiihr,
Stiihr,
Stohr,
Stiihr,
Stohr,
Stohr,
Stiihr,
Stiihr, ,



Herinff and Eha
Kiipfc r,

Kiipffa;



Kiipfftr,
Chrzoiiszczciv.
Stiihr, .
Stohr, .
Stohr, .
Stiihr, .
Stohr, .
Stiihr, .

Stiihr, .
Krause,
Stiihr, .
Krause,



Krause,
Frcii, .
Stiihr, .
Stiihr, .
Stiihr, .
Stiihr, .

btiihr, .

Stohr, .

Stohr, .

Stohr, .

Stiihr, .

Stiihr, ,

Stiihr, .

Stohr, .



■h',



LIST OF ILLUSTBATIOi\>s.



85. Action of ^Vater on Eed Corpuscles of Frog

86. Blood Corpuscles,

87. Blood Corpuscles,

88. Marrow and Lymph Cells, .

89. Mesentery of Frog showing Diapedesis,

90. Hot Stage, ....

91. Formation of Red Corpuscles,

92. Formation of Vessels in Great Omentum of

Rabbit, ....

93. Human Pituitary Body,

94. Earthy Matter in Pineal Body,

95. Gower's Hremoglobinometer,

96. Gower's Hsemacytometer, .

97. Diagram of Circulation,

98. Heart, from the front,

99. Heart, from behind, .

100. Cavities of Heart, from behind

101. Ajiex of Ventricle,

102. T.S. Papillary Muscle,

103. T.S. of Heart above Level of Valves, .

104. Diagram of Movements of Heart,

105. Tracings from Heart of Horse, .

106. Chauveau and Marey's Cardiac Sound,

107. Posterior Surface of Dog's Heart,

108. Left Lateral Surface of Dog's Heart, .

109. Anterior Surface of Dog's Heart,

110. Section through Upper Third of Ventricles of

Dog's Heart, .

111. Section through Middle Third of Ventricles of

Dogs Heart, ......

112. Projections of Base in Systole and Diastole,

113. Base of Ventricles in Systole,

114. Marey's Cardiograph, .....

115. Normal Cardiac Curve, ....

116. Normal Cardiac Curve on Vibrating Plate,

117. Tracing of Normal Cardiac Beat,

118. Tuning Fork for recording Curve as in Fig. 116,

119. Schema of Caidiac Cycle, .....

120. Apparatus for Hearing Sound of Isolated Heart,

121. Ai)ijaratus for Studying Effects of Heat on Frog's

Heart, .

122. Cardiac Forceps, .....

123. Frog's Heart Manometer, ....

124. Kronecker's Canula for Frog's Heart,

125. Kronecker's Frog Heart Apparatus, .
120. Beats of Heart of Marmot,

127. Roy's Tonometer, .....

128. Cardiographic Tracing from Rabbit, .

129. Tracing showing Slowing of Heart on Pinchin

Posterior Auricular Nerve, .

130. Frog's Heart, from Front, ....

131. Frog's Heart, from Behind,



Schdfcr,
Bfalassez,

StoJir, .
Stohr, .
Stohr, .



Allen Thomson,

Krause,

Krause,

Krause,

Krause,

Stohr, .

Krause,

Beaunis,

Chauveau and Marc'/,



Macalister, after Ludwig,
Macalister, after Ludwig,
Macalister, after Ludtvig,

Macalister, after Ludwig,

Macalister, after Ludwig,
Macalister, after Ludwig,
Ludwig,



Landois,

Landois,

Marey,

Gscheidlen,

Sharpcij and Gairdne)

Dogiel and Ludwig,

Lauder Brunton,
Marey,



Marckwald,



Marey,

Franclc,
Gyon, .
(Jyon, .



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



xvii



KO.










I'AQIS


132.


Electrical Excitations of Frog's Heart,


Murcij, . . . .233


133.


Tambour for Elastic Tube, ....


Mare 11,






249


134.


Apparatus for Recording AVave in Elastic Tube








249


13.5.


Waves in silastic Tube, ....


Marcy,






2.50


13G.


Structure of Artery,








253


137.


Small Arteries,


Slohr, .






2.53


138.


T.S. Brachial Artery,


Sto/ir, .






253


130.


T.S. Thoracic Aorta,


Stohr, .






254


140.


Endothelium of Artery, ....


Stiihr, .






2.^


141.


T.S. of Wall of Kenal Vein,


Stiihr, .






255


142.


Capillaries, .......








2.56


143.


Endothelium, ......








256


144.


Marey's Sphygmograph in position, .








259


14.5.


Transmitting portion of Marey's Sphygmograph








2.59


146.


Mahomed and Byrom Bramwell's Sphygmograpl


, Biiroin Bmniinl/,






260


147.


Diagram of a Sphygmogram, . . - .








260


148.


Normal Tracing from Kadial Artery,








261


149.


Diagram of Sphygmogram of Kadial Artery,


Lnwiois,






261


1.50.


Tracing from Radial Artery, High Tension,








262


151.


Tracing from Kadial Artery, Low Tension,








262


152.


Sphygmograms of "\'arious Forms,








263


1.53.


Weber's Schema of Circulation, .


Rulht, .






271


1.54.


Hale's Tube and Hiemadynamometer of Poisenil


e, . . .






273


155.


Ludwig's Recording Manometer,








274


150.


Mercurial Kymograph,


Bunion Sandevso}


>,




275


157.


Fick's Kymograph,








276


158.


JMercurial Kymographic Tracing,


Marcy,






277


1.59.


Curved Spring Kymographic Tracing,


Biiydon Saudefsoi


,




277


160.


Canula for Vessels, ......








277


161.


Diagram of Pressure in Vascular System,


B< a u II i,<.






279


162.


Volkmann's H;emadronionieter,








280


163.


Vierordt's Htematachometer, . . . .








281


164.


Chauveau and Lortet's Hiemadromograjdi,








281


165.


Simple Hiemadromograph,








281


166.


Improved Hiemadromograph, .








282


167.


Tracings of Hasmadromograph,








283


I(i8.


Ludwig and Dogiel's Stromuhr,








284


169.


Franck's Plethysmograph,








287


170.


Tracing with Plethysmograph, .


F ranch.






288


171.


Tracing with Plethysmograph, .


Franck,






288


172.


Tracing with Plethysmograph, .


Franck;






288


173.


Tracing with Plethysmograph, .


Franck,






289


174.


Nerves in Neck of Rabbit, ....


L'lion, .






293


175.


Relation of Blood Pressure and Respirator)












Tracings,


Foster,






294


176.


Diagram of Respiratory Apparatus,








299


177.


Ultimate Lobules of Lung,








299


178.


T.S. Bronchus,


StiiJir,






300


179.


Section of Lung,


. .mhr. .






301


180.


Sections of Lung,


Stiihr, .






302


181.


Injected Lung,


Sl'iJir, .






303


182.


Apparatus illustrating Mechanism of Breathing


Funkc,






303



XVlll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



NO.

183.
184.
185.
186.

187.
188.

189.
190.

191.
192.

193.
194.
195.
196.

197.

198.

199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.

215.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.

221.
222.
223.
224.



Inferior Aspect of Diaphragm, .

Muscles of Respiration, in front,

Muscles of Respiration, behind.

Respiratory Movements, .

Marey's Pneumograph,

Tracings with Pneumograph, Cardiograph, and

Sphygmograph,
Tracings of Pulmonary Contractions,
Kronecker and Marckwald's Method of Record

ing Movements of the Diaphragm,
Tracing of Movements of Diaphragm,
Minute Construction of Recording Lever of Ap

paratus shown in Fig. 190, .
Anapnograph of Bergeon and Kastus,
Apparatus for Rapid Analysis of Air,
Pflliger's Pump for Gases of the Blood,
Ai^paratus for showing Absorption of Oxygen

by Tissues, ....
Movements of Diaphragm — Common Salt

Dyspnoea, . . • ,



in relation



Posterior view of Medulla Oblongata

to Glycogenesis, .
P. S. Skin of Finger, .



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