John Gwyn Jeffreys.

British conchology; or, An account of the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and the surrounding seas (Volume 4) online

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Skien in the Christiania district, at a height of 100 feet,
and as living at Oxfjord, Bergen, and Chris tianiafiord ;
Lilljeborg also dredged it at Bergen, and obligingly gave
me a specimen for comparison.

Clark described it as Chemnitzia Barleei a well-de-
served compliment to the discoverer, but an unnecessary
synonym. Turbonilla eximia of A. Adams, one of his
recent discoveries in Japanese waters, is not the present

Species. Pyrj-4 \*+ f*n*fc**<v

Wi-^r 26. O. FENESTRA'TA*, (Forbes.)

0. fenestrata, (Forbes) Jeffr. in Ann. & Mag. N. H. 2nd ser. ii. p. 345.
Chemnitzia fenestrata, F. & H. iii. p. 249, pi. xciii. f. 6, 7.

BODY nearly clear white, with a frosted aspect ; the neck is
marked on each side, as far as the tentacles, with a pale lead-

* Covered with latticework, like a window.


coloured stripe of unequal breadth, which is composed of very
minute points so as to give the stripes a mottled look ; a tinge
of the same colour pervades the basal portion of the tentacles
and upper surface of the foot : mantle having a small offset at
the upper angle : snout long and slender, greatly thickened at
its base, and much compressed towards the other extremity,
which is slightly funnel-shaped : tentacles comparatively long
and slender, united at the bases, and having very distinct white
inflated tips : eyes conspicuous, close together, and imbedded
at the inner angles of the tentacles : foot in slow march short,
broad and obtuse ; but when the pace is accelerated it becomes
attenuated and extends to the bottom of the penultimate whorl ;
it makes in front a concave sweep, ending on the right and left
in very slight ear-shaped points ; it has a somewhat lanceolate
shape behind. (Clark.)

SHELL forming an elongated pyramid, rather solid, almost
opaque, glossy : sculpture, numerous fine and oblique or
sometimes tiexuous longitudinal ribs which do not reach to the
base ; the last whorl has about 20 of these ribs ; they are in-
terrupted at the periphery and crossed by 3 prominent spiral
ridges placed near together, which occupy the middle of the
body-whorl, and there is also another but slighter spiral ridge
(and occasionally a 5th, rudimentary one) below the periphery;
the lower part of each of the upper whorls has 2 ridges ; the
points where the ridges cross the ribs are nodulous or tuber-
cular ; the top whorl is smooth : colour whitish : spire remark-
ably turreted, in consequence of each whorl being broader at
the base than the upper part of the succeeding whorl, and ap-
pearing to overlap the suture in an imbricated manner ; nucleus
somewhat excentric and prominent, abruptly twisted inwards :
whorls 8-9, compressed or shelving upwards towards the suture,
and moderately convex on the lower part ; the last occupies
about one-third of the shell : suture deep and slightly oblique :
mouth proportionally small, rhomboid- oval, contracted above,
wide, slightly expanded, and decidedly angulated below; length
scarcely exceeding one-sixth of the spire : outer lip gently
rounded, recurved on the lowermost of the 3 main spiral ridges,
by all of which it is notched or indented at the edge : inner lip
forming on the upper part of the pillar a thin film which is
united with the outer lip, on the lower part nearly straight and
not much reflected, terminating in a rectangular point : umbi-
licus wanting, or now and then represented by a minute and
narrow chink : tooth or fold none in any of the specimens (more


than 50) which I have examined : operculum thin, exquisitely
and closely striated in the line of growth. L. O15. B. O05.

HABITAT : Muddy ground, in 7-12 f., Dartmouth
(M f Andrew and Forbes), Southampton (M 'Andrew),
Exmouth (Clark and Barlee), Torbay (Hanley and
others), Fowey (Barlee) , Falmouth (Hockin), St. Cathe-
rine's Bay, Jersey (Norman). Loire- Infer ieure (Cail-
liaud) ; Vigo Bay, 4 f. (M 'Andrew) ; Spezzia (Marquis
J. Doria and J. Gr. J.) ; in sand from Rimini, nearly 40
years ago (J. G. J.) ; Algiers (Weinkauff).

A specimen which I dredged in Torbay exemplifies
the mode of growth under accidental conditions. It
had been broken ; and a new outer whorl smaller than
the preceding one was added, followed by another which
increased in size at the usual rate ; so that the shell had
the appearance of being double, one placed above the
other. The egg-capsule is semiglobular, attached by its
round and broad base, membranous and thin ; when the
fry are developed, they find their way out through an
oval hole in the centre of the upper part, which then
becomes enlarged from what was at first a narrow slit.

This is the Turbonilla Weinkauffi of Professor Dunker.
Parthenia fenestrata, lately described by Mr. Arthur
Adams, from Japan, is a different species; such du-
plicate names must be changed.

V-l^' 27. O. EXCAVA f TA*,(JPhiKppi.) N

Rissoa excavata, Phil. Moll. Sic. i. p. 154, t. x. f. 6. 0. excavata, F. & H.
iii. p. 305, pi. xcvii. f. 3, 4.

SHELL pyramidal, solid, opaque, rather glossy: sculpture,
prominent spiral ridges, of which there are 3 on the main part
of the body-whorl, and 2 short ones on the base, the last being
close behind the pillar-lip ; the 3 principal ridges are equi-
distant, one just below the suture, another in the middle, and
the lowermost encircling the periphery; each of the other

* Hollowed out.


whorls has 2 similar ridges, representing the upper two of the
body-whorl ; all the ridges are crossed obliquely by sharp and
raised longitudinal ribs, which extend to the base and impart
a strongly and deeply cancellated appearance, the points of in-
tersection being nodulous or tubercular; of the longitudinal
ribs about 25 may be counted on the last whorl of a full-grown
individual ; the top whorl is smooth : colour white : spire
tapering to a bluntly rounded point ; nucleus somewhat ex-
centric, and twisted inwards: whorls 6, turreted, flattened
(except for the angularity caused by the excavated sculpture),
and gradually enlarging ; the last occupies rather more than
half the shell: suture broad and remarkably deep, slightly
oblique : mouth squarish-oval, not contracted above, expanded
and angulated below; length about one-third of the spire:
outer lip projecting, marked by four angular points, being the
terminations of the spiral ridges ; it is abruptly recurved on the
peripheral ridge : inner lip slight on the upper part, but united
with the outer lip, reflected and almost straight below T , where it
also joins the outer lip at a right angle : umbilicus narrow and
contracted, but distinct: tooth small and retired, although visible
in every specimen, and winding round the pillar. L.O15. B.O06.

HABITAT : Coralline zone in Jersey (Dodd), Guernsey
(Metcalfe, Barlee, and J. G. J.), Falmouth (Hockin),
Fowey and Burrow Island (Barlee), Exmouth (Clark),
Miltown-Malbay, co. Clare (Harvey and Humphreys),
Turbot-bank, off Larne (Waller), Lamlash Bay, N.B.
(Landsborough, Bean, and Norman). Cailliaud has
taken it, among Corallina officinalis, in the Departement
of Loire-Inferieure, Gay at Toulon, Mace at Cannes and
Antibes, the Marquis J. Doria and myself at Spezzia,
von Schrockinger and Brusiiia in the Adriatic, Philippi
in Sicily, and Weinkauff at Algiers in 5-20 f. Mediter-
ranean specimens are much smaller than ours.

Professor Harvey, the discoverer of this species on
our coasts, proposed to call it Cingula sculpta-, Mr.
Thompson of Belfast described it as Rissoa Harveyi ;
and in Mr. Hanley's ' British Marine Conchology' it
bears the name of Parthenia turrit a, Metcalfe, MS.


f- 7' 28. O. scALA'Ris*,(Philippi.) N

Melanin (afterwards Chemnitzia) scalaris, Pliil. Moll. Sic. i. p. 157,
t. ix. f. 9. C. scalaris, F. & H. iii. p. 251, pi. xciv. f. 5, and (animal)
pi. FF. f. 5.

BODY nearly clear frosted-white, or pale red-brown [of a
brownish-madder hue (F. & H.)] : mantle having a small cloven
fold at the upper angle of the mouth of the shell : snout deeply
notched in front, with the segments gently curved : tentacles
rather long, strong, and divergent ; they do not quite coalesce
at their bases, being separated by a distinct groove which is the
continuation of one on the snout from the point where the
notch ceases ; terminal bulbs not much developed : eyes black,
not very close together : foot short, slightly auricled, and bluntly
pointed behind. (Clark.)

SHELL forming a very elongated cone, moderately solid,
opaque, rather glossy: sculpture, numerous laminar longitu-
dinal ribs, varying in number from 25 to 30 on the body- whorl ;
they are sometimes nearly straight, at other times set obliquely,
or curved, occasionally flexuous, and they seldom extend to the
base ; their interstices are crossed by tine and more close-set
spiral striae, which are often arranged in pairs and cover the
base ; no cancellation is produced, because the ribs are always
more prominent than the stria3 ; the top whorl is, as usual,
smooth : colour pale-yellowish or creamy, with frequently 2 or
3 faint tawny bands round the last whorl (one broader in the
middle, another below the periphery, and sometimes a third
under. the suture) ; the preceding whorls have only the upper
band or that and the middle one: spire tapering somewhat
abruptly to a rounded point, which forms the nucleus or crown ;
this is remarkably prominent, and, although twisted inwards,
it exposes nearly the w r hole of the reversed portion of the spire :
whorls 8 (exclusive of the nucleus), turreted, convex but com-
pressed, and gradually enlarging ; the last occupies about two-
fifths of the shell : suture deep, slightly oblique : mouth irre-
gularly rhomboidal, owing to the angular shape of the pillar-
side ; it is somewhat contracted above and expanded below ;
length about a fourth of the spire : outer lip rounded, not much
projecting, incurved a little below the periphery: inner lip
adhering to the upper slope of the pillar (although scarcely
perceptible), straight below, and slightly reflected towards the
base, where it shelves inwards: umbilicus or tooth none: oper-

* Resembling a flight of steps.


culum thin and flexible, irregularly striated ; spire extremely
short, minute and germinal. -L. 0-25. B. O'OSo. Itu^^ *|*i
Yar. rufescens. ^ BODY white, slightly tinged with brown :
snout rather narrow and bilobed : tentacles longish, lanceolate,
and set well apart : eyes placed almost centrally at the bases of
the tentacles : foot oblong, lanceolate, obtusely angled in front,
triangular behind. (F. & H.) SHELL longer in proportion to
its breadth, and thinner, having the whorls more convex and
the ribs crowded and slighter, so as to give a less turreted ap-
pearance ; colour more uniformly tawny, with darker bands.
Chemnitzia rufescens, (Forbes) F. & H. iii. p. 253, pi. xciv.
f. 1, and (animal) pi. FF. f. 6.

HABITAT : Coralline zone, Guernsey (Hanley, Barlee,
and J. G. J.), Land's End (Hockin), Dartmouth (M f An-
drew), Torquay (Battersby), Exmouth (Clark), Tenby
(Lyons), Milford Haven (Forbes and M 'Andrew) , Good-
wick Bay, Pembrokeshire (J. G. J.), Dublin coast (Ball
and Warren, fide Thompson, as Eulima Jeffrey sii) . Its
foreign distribution extends from Cherbourg (Mace) to
Vigo Bay and Gibraltar (M f Andrew), and throughout
the Mediterranean, to the .^Egean, at depths varying
from 8 to 35 f. The variety has a more northern habi-
tat, viz. Lough Strangford (Dickie), co. Antrim (Hynd-
man, Waller, and J. G. J.), Aberdeenshire (Macgilli-
vray and Dawson), west coast of Scotland, and Shet-
land. A specimen of'this variety is in Mr. Searles
Wood's collection of Crag fossils in the British Museum.
Sars has dredged it in Finmark, DanieUsen and others
in the lower parts of Norway, Loven and Malm in
Bohuslan, Totten and Professor Adams in Massachusetts,
and Stimpson in New England. These give a bathy-
metrical range of 20-60 f. for the European, and 3 f. for
the last-named American locality.

One of my specimens in Mr. Clark's collection from
Exmouth has the sculpture of the body-whorl the
same as that of the variety, while the sculpture of the


rest of the shell is as usual in the typical form. The
Milford specimens appear also to be intermediate.

The variety is the Turritella indistincta of Fleming,

T. interrupta of Totten, and Eulima decussata of Mac-

gillivray . py M .,fcl.V mt~4h*(r*tHH)

\\ - [\>' 29. O. RUFA*, Philippi.

Melania (afterwards Chemnitzia) rufa, Phil. Moll. Sic. i. p. 156, t. ix. f. 7.
C. rufa, R & H. iii. p. 245, pi. xciii. f. 4.

BODY of a clear pale-azure colour, irregularly aspersed with
snow-white flakes : snout extending from the conjoined ten-
tacular membrane to a little beyond the foot, and forming a
sort of head- veil ; it is long, flat, and bilobed : tentacles short,
broad, very little folded, and diverging ; tips rounded : eyes
placed on the inner bases of the tentacles : foot large, mode-
rately long, auricled in front, tapering behind to a point when
at full stretch, but rounded when at rest. (Clark.)

SHELL forming an attenuated cone, moderately solid, opaque,
and glossy : sculpture, narrow and shallow longitudinal ribs,
from 20 to 30 on the body- whorl ; they are nearly straight,
and never reach the base, being sharper and more distinct on
the upper whorls ; their interstices are crossed, and the base
encircled, by rather broad impressed lines, of which there are
from 8 to 10 below the periphery, and 4 to 6 above it ; these
lines, when magnified, appear double, or sometimes composed
of several threads ; the whole surface is covered with micro-
scopic and close-set striaB in the line of growth ; nucleus
quite smooth : colour pale-fawn or tawny, with frequently a
narrow reddish-brown or orange band round the middle of
each whorl: spire greatly elongated, tapering to a rounded
point which forms the nucleus ; this is remarkably prominent
and exposes the reversed and compact spire of the embryo,
which bends downwards on the first regular whorl in various
directions: whorls 10-13 (exclusive of the nucleus), convex
although more or less compressed, and gradually enlarging ;
the last occupies from a third to a fourth of the shell : su-
ture narrow and deep, slightly oblique : mouth irregularly
rhomboidal, acute-angled above and expanded below ; length
from a fifth to a sixth of the spire : outer lip somewhat con-
tracted, very little incurved below the periphery : inner Up

* Eeddish.


forming a thin film on the upper slope of the pillar, slightly
reflected and nearly straight below : umbilicus none, except a
slight depression of the base in adult specimens: tooth very
retired, slight, and indistinct, formed on the pillar near its
junction with the upper slope of the base : ojperculum as in the
last species. L. O35. B. 0-1. le*v*fr - 10 ,. %

Yar. fulvocincta. BODY whitish : snout long and bilobed :
tentacles leaf- like, rather short and broad, set well apart : eyes
small, sessile on the inner bases of the tentacles : foot squarish
in front, with small angular corners, and pointed behind.
SHELL more slender than the typical form, with a narrower
base, and of a thinner texture : colour whitish, the band being
always present and more conspicuous: whorls not so much
compressed. Turritella fulvocincta, Thompson in Ann. & Mag.
K H. v. p. 98. Chemnitzia fulvocincta, F. & H. app. p. 276,
pi. xciii. f. 3, and (animal) pi. FF. f. 4, as U. rufa.

HABITAT : Coasts of Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset, in
trawl-refuse and at comparatively small depths ; Lang-
land and Oxwich Bays near Swansea, in 15 f., and Fish-
guard in 8 f. (J. G-. J.) ; Tenby (Lyons) ; Anglesea
(M f Andrew) . A local or rare species. Coralline Crag at
Sutton, according to S. Wood; but his specimens appear
to belong to a different and probably an extinct species.
It has an extensive range southward, along the Atlantic
coasts of France, Spain, Portugal, Madeira, and the
Canary Isles, and also throughout the Mediterranean
and Adriatic, at depths of from 8 to 30 f. The variety
occurs on our northern, Scotch, and Shetland coasts,
from the Dogger bank to Unst, at various depths from
30 to 90 f., and in the north, east, and south of Irelanch
Sars has recorded it as fossil from a post-glacial shell-
bank at Skien, 70-80 feet above the sea ; he and many
other Scandinavian naturalists have enumerated the
same variety as living in Sweden and Norway, at depths
of from 20 to 60 f.

My largest specimen, which is from Exmouth, mea-
sures half an inch in length ; and a fragment of another


(from Shetland) represents even a larger size. I regard
the typical form as southern or inhabiting shallower
water, and the variety as northern or inhabiting greater

This may be the Turbo simillimus of Montagu, which
he described from a specimen (probably a bleached and
worn one) said to have been found by Laskey on the
shores of Jura although he omitted to notice the in-
terstitial striae. It is the Pyramis crenatus of Brown,
Chemnitzia fasciata of Requien, and Turritella Danmo-
niensis of Leach, whose Turbonella Hibernica may be
the variety.

With respect to the species described by me in the
( Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' (ser. 2. ii.
p. 347) as O. formosa, and well figured by Forbes and
Hanley (pi. xciii. f. 5) as Chemnitzia formosa, I am
bound to say that I am not satisfied about the origin of
the specimen on which the description and figure were
founded. I received it from the late Mr. G. B. Sowerby
as having been collected at Shellness in Kent ; but I
suspect that he was misinformed, and that the shell is
exotic. The other specimens which I referred to this
species are O. rufa, var. fulvocincta. O. formosa is cer-
tainly distinct, however, from any other known species ;
it is remarkably slender, with flattened whorls and a
deeply channelled suture, which makes the spire appear
scalariform. T

\\^k 30. O.

Turbo lacteus, Linn. S. N. p. 1238. Chemnitzia elegantissima, F. & H.
iii. p. 242, pi. xciii. f. 1, 2.

BODY clear white : mantle even, with hardly a trace of the
usual branchial fold : snout or upper flap -skin (mentura) deeply
grooved in the middle on the tipper surface, and entire at the

* Milk-white.


extremity, which is rounded when at rest, and apparently
truncated when carried before the foot on the march : tentacles
short, very bluntly pointed and leaf-like, having large and
extremely flexible lateral membranes which coalesce for half
their height, and are capable of instantaneously assuming
various shapes : eyes at a little distance from the internal line
of the tentacular bases : foot truncated in front, very slightly
auricled, narrow, not very long, attenuated and tapering be-
hind to a rounded broad termination : opercular lobe obscure.

SHELL forming a greatly elongated cone, rather solid, nearly
opaque, and glossy: sculpture, strong, narrow, and close -set
longitudinal ribs, from 20 to 25 on the last whorl ; they are
more or less curved or flexuous, and placed obliquely, and
they terminate abruptly a little below the periphery, the base
being perfectly smooth ; although no other sculpture is visible
with a low magnifying-power, the whole surface of a live spe-
cimen exhibits under the microscope extremely numerous spiral
lines ; the first whorl is glabrous : colour milk-white, with a
slight bluish tinge in live specimens : spire tapering to a
rounded point; embryonic nucleus as in the last species:
whorls 12 (exclusive of the nucleus), moderately convex, and
gradually enlarging ; the last occupies from a fourth to a third
of the shell : suture narrow and deep, slightly oblique : mouth
irregularly rhomboidal, longer and more expanded at the base
than in 0. rufa, but similar in all other respects : outer Up
gently rounded, except under the periphery, where it is very
slightly incurved and shelves outwards : inner lip forming a
thin glazing or layer on the upper slope of the pillar, very
little reflected and nearly straight below, where it is more ex-
tended than in the last species : umbilicus none : tooth usually
wanting ; but in some specimens an obscure tubercle may be
detected on the upper part of the pillar, far within the mouth :
operculum as in the last two species, sometimes slightly notched
on the inner side to accommodate the tooth when present.
L. 0-35. B.0-1. L^fcv *,-.,.

Var. paullula. Dwarfed and depauperated.

HABITAT : English, Bristol, and St. George's Chan-
nels, all Ireland, and the west coast of Scotland, as far
north as Loch Ewe; Aberdeen (Macgillivray) ; Dunbar
,./efe Brown); Sandwich (Walker); Roach Riven


Essex (J. G. J.). A common but most elegant shell.
It is found living at low-water mark of spring tides, and
in the laminarian zone, as well as dredged without the
animal in the coralline zone. Post-tertiary deposit in
Sussex (Godwin- Austen) ; ? Norwich Crag (W igham, fide
S. P. Woodward); ? Coralline Crag (S. Wood); Italian
tertiaries (Risso, as Turbonilla plicatula, and Philippi).
The variety has occurred to me in several localities ; this
is far less slender or needle-shaped than the Chemnitzia
gracilis* of Philippi, for which I at one time mistook
it. Beyond our shores the present species is widely
distributed, from Tromso in Finmark (Sars) to the
Canary Isles (D'Orbigny and M' Andrew), and in every
part of the Mediterranean and Adriatic; ^Egean (Forbes).
The Red Sea is given by Philippi, on the authority of
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, but, it seems, erroneously.
No mollusk is at present known to be common to the
Red Sea and Mediterranean. The depths recorded by
various authors range from the shore to 50 f.

One of my specimens, which wants the first 4 whorls,
has no fewer than 12 left, and is nearly six-tenths of an
inch long. Mr. Bretherton says, in the ' Zoologist ' for
1858, that it will continue lively in the aquarium for
at least a month.

There can surely be no valid reason why any well
ascertained name, given by the " princeps naturae curio-
sorum" (TroSe? Srj iceWi Tt/uorrarot) to a species de-
scribed in his ' Systema Naturae/ should sink into ob-
livion. In the present instance there is no ambiguity
of definition, no question of identification, no risk of
increasing the confusion which unfortunately pervades
our scientific nomenclature. If the author, indeed, had

* Not Turbo gracilis of Brocchi, which is a miocene fossil, nor C. gra-
eilis of De Koninck, which is palaeozoic.


been obscure or local, instead of cosmopolitan, I should
have hesitated at adopting the name in preference to
one subsequently proposed by some naturalist of
equal reputation, but which was in general use. It is
true that the restoration of ancient names, however ac-
credited, may for a time cause some inconvenience, and
oblige many to go to school again ; but is not the latter
a condition of scientific and even intellectual existence ?
Let us, therefore, not be too indolent, nor too selfish.
Posterity has its claims ; and I write (as every one does
on a subject of natural history) not only for this gene-
ration, but for all those to succeed it. After Linne,
this species was (although loosely) described and figured
by Pennant as Turbo albus, by Donovan as T. acutus,
by Adams as T. subarcuatus, by Montagu as T. elegan-
tissimus, by Scacchi as Rissoa turrit ell a, and by Philippi
as Melania Campanella. Risso misquoted Montagu in
describing his Eulima elegantissima, which appears to
be our E.polita. A specimen having the ribs some-
what more oblique than usual was described by Leach
as Cerithium Spencerianum.

31. O. PUSIL'LA* (Philippi.) fe\7t

Chemnitzia pusilla, Phil. Moll. Sic. ii. p. 224, t. xxviii. f. 21.

BODY differing from that of 0. lactea in the following parti-
culars : the snout has a palish purple streak on either side ;
each of the tentacles is marked with a similar streak ; when
spread, they have the lateral membranes united almost to the
tips, which are minute and acutely pointed, so that the ten-
tacles then appear like a single united leaf; the foot is much
longer, extending on the march to the last whorl but two, and
terminating in almost a needle-point ; whilst in the other
species, under the same circumstances, it is quite rounded, and
does not reach beyond the last or body-whorl. (Clark and

* Little.


SHELL shorter and more cylindrical than 0. lactea, being of
nearly equal breadth throughout, instead of pyramidal and

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