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animal forms, stones, stumps, waters, anything and every-
thing. In all these animal transformations so prevalent in
myth and fable, there is no presence of a ghost, no spirit is
yet eliminated. It is only in the after tales conceived
under a new inspiration that men portray the ghostly
powers of change. The real old-world literature knows
no ghost.

We have defined the transcendental powers as the
elimitation of time and space, the capacity to become invul-
nerable and invisible, the permeability of substance, super-
sensuous powers that of thought transmission, and these
more or less combined under ecstatic forms. All these
states of being are induced by charms; many we have
already expressed, and the reader will recognize most of
them in common charms. These make invulnerable and
invisible like the quartz stone j they can permeate the
body of the Australian aborigine, and, in the form of
toxics, induce supersensuous states and powers.



The Differentiation of the Medicine-man.

IT seems a necessary consequence of the diverse range of
the individual faculties in men that they should differentiate
in diverse directions, and as their various powers became
more fully evolved and their results accumulated, each
successive series of manifestations became specialized. It
was so when individuals first came to recognize the
uncanny ; it was so when the individual reduced them to
special forms of manifestation; and it is so in the stage
we have now to consider, in which, owing to the many
supernal presentations and the wide results deduced from
their influences, general man remits to a special class of
visionaries the consideration of the forms and control of
the various supernal manifestations. First, we were aware
of faith in the unknown, then of faith in the seeming;
now we have the birth of faith in men devoted to occult
ideas and sentiments. These men very early stand out in
every community among every isolated group, and they all
affirm that not only are there supernal virtues in things,,
but that they, as men, are endowed with supernal attributes.
Ordinary men look with awe on the medicine-man, the
shaman, the wizard, the priest ; they are not as other men ;
they may not, like the Pope, hold the keys of heaven, but
they hold the keys of the human soul and thereby lead
them as they list.


Before describing the modes by which such power is
manifest, we have to consider its nature and origin and
enunciate the forms it assumes among various races of
men. We are not aware that the subject in its fulness of
character has ever been considered; local and isolated
magical and spiritual claims have been described and
explained, but the common nature of the supernal influence
or accepted influence has never been presented. Yet it
follows, as we have seen, that powers one man affirms
others may affirm, and the supernal presentations one
now recognizes may, under other forms, be the common
attribute of a like class of men in far distant communities.

That some men claim the possession of supernal powers
that other men know nothing of, is a common assertion.
We have it in various forms in every advanced community,
and there are few but come across individuals who assert
such pretensions. Among some races these mental cha-
racteristics are accounted for by the presence of a distinct
supernal power a personal virtue may-be that enters and
influences the minds of those who have in various occult
ways been prepared for such presentations. Even with
so low a race of men as the Australian aborigines, the
medicine-men have generally ascribed to them the pos-
session of a special power to read, manifest and control all
occult things and occult influences. This power is known
as boylya, and a man may become possessed of it by means
of the many ascetic observances that in other countries
produce like neurotic conditions, and the sentiments thus
induced in all cases raise in the mind pretensions of magic
powers and the capacity to influence whatever supernal
conditions that have been evolved amongst them. Among
the Australians some believed that a man became a wizard
by meeting with Ngetje, who put quartz crystals in him ;
since then such an one can pull things out of himself and
others. Some were instructed by the ghosts which took
them up into the sky. One said, " My father is Yibai


the Iguana. When I was quite a small boy he took me
from the camp into the bush to train me. He placed two
large quartz crystals on my breast, and they vanished into
me. I felt them going through me like water. After that
I used to see things mother could not see : these were
ghosts. After the initiation rite when the tooth was out,
my father said, 'Come with me,' and I followed him into a
hole leading into a grave where there were some dead
men, who rubbed me over to make me clever and gave me
crystals. Then when I came out a tiger-snake was pointed
out as my Budjan. Then my father as well as myself
got astride two threads and went through the clouds."
Another said, " I had some dreams of my father. He and
the other men with him made me a cord of sinews, swung
me about on it, and carried me over the sea. Then my
father tied something over my eyes and led me into the
rock, and I was in a place bright as day. After I was
taught to make things go into my legs and pull them out,
and to throw them at people." One man became a biraak
by having dreamed three times he was a kangaroo ; after
that he heard the ghosts speaking. The wizards were
supposed to have the power of throwing men into a mag-
ical state by pointing at them with the yertung. They are
believed to walk invisible, to turn themselves at will into
animals, stumps or logs of trees, or go into the ground
out of sight. They could draw the victims to them by the
magic of their enchantments. They could make rain, raise
storms, by squirting water out of the mouth in the direction
the rain comes and shouting. They could heal by sucking
the stone out of the patient's body, and by charms.
They claimed the power of being carried up into the sky.
All these capacities arose from the mystic boylya power
that they had obtained. (Jour. Anth. Inst. XVI. pp. 30-51.)
This same mysterious power, though with them nameless,
is claimed by the Andaman Okopaids, and the Peaimen of
Guiana. In Melanesia, where the claim to it as an acquired


occult power is general, it is known as Mana. This super-
natural power exists in stones ; snakes and owls possess it,
and men acquire it ; and they can even transmit the power
from one stone to many. If a man dives to the bottom of
a pool and sees nothing strange ; to sit for an instant at
the bottom will give him mana supernatural power.
(Jour. Anth. Inst. X. p. 277.) This supernatural power
may be manifested through the Tamatetiqa ghost shooter.
This was a bit of hollow bamboo in which a bone, leaves
with whatever else would have mana for such a purpose
was enclosed. Fasting on the part of the person using
these charms added much to their efficacy ; when he lifted
his thumb the magic power shot out and whoever it
hit would die. Cannibalism imparted mana. (Ibid. X.
p. 284.) In order to obtain mana, boys and young men
will spend months in some canoe-house, separate, where
they sacrifice, or some one who has mana does so for them.
This mana is neither a person or thing, but a power which
may be in a person or thing ; in the islands further west
the Florida people suppose a stronger mana to prevail than
among themselves. Heads are preserved in chiefs' houses
as they give mana to it, even reflecting mana on the dead
chief in whose honour they were obtained. They also
give mana to his successor by his holding possession of
them. A new war canoe is not invested with duo mana
until some man has been killed by those on board her.
(Ibid. X. pp. 303-314.)

This mana was imparted by the medicine-man to the
charms he made use of, and like the old sympathetic inaiia
that Sir Kenelm Digby loved to discourse upon, it caused
a mystic influence to exist between a weapon and the
wound it had caused. Thus, when a man was shot by a
poisoned arrow the possession of the arrow-head went far
to influence the result. If the shooter regained it he put
it in the fire ; if the wounded man retained it he put it in


water, and the inflammation was violent or slight accord-
ingly. (JUd. X. p. 314.)

The North American Indians recognize this mysterious
power, this boylya or mana, in the word wakan. School-
craft says, " This word signifies things generally which a
Dakotah Indian cannot understand ; whatever is wonderful,
superhuman, or supernatural, is wakan. Of their gods,
some are wakan to a greater, others to a less degree; some
for one purpose, some for another; but wakan expresses
the chief quality of them all. Medicine-men pass through
a succession of inspirations till they are fully wakanized ;
they are invested with the invisible wakan powers of the
gods their knowledge and cunning, their influence over
mind, instinct, and passion, to inflict and heal diseases,
discover concealed causes, and impart the power of the
gods." (Indian Tribes, IV. p. 646.)

To explain the origin of this mysterious wakan power,
Schoolcraft writes : " The blind savage finds himself in a
world of mysteries oppressed with a consciousness that he
comprehends nothing. The earth on which he treads teems
with life incomprehensible. It is without doubt wakan.
In the springs which never cease to flow, and yet are
always full, he recognizes the breathing places of the gods.
When he raises his eyes to the heavens he is overwhelmed
with mysteries, for the sun, moon, and star are so many
gods and goddesses gazing upon him. The beast which he
pursues to-day shuns him. with the ability of an intelligent
being, and to-morrow seems to be deprived of all power to
escape from him. He beholds one man seized with a
violent disease and in a few hours expire in agony, while
another almost imperceptibly wastes away through long-
years and then dies. He finds himself a creature of a
thousand wants which he knows not how to supply, and
exposed to innumerable evils which he cannot avoid ; all
these, and a thousand of other things like these, to the


Indian are tangible facts, and under their influence his
character is formed. He hails with joy one who claims to
comprehend these mysteries. The wakan men and women
to establish their claims cunningly lay hold of all that is
strange, and turn to their own advantage every mysterious
occurrence. At times they appear to raise the storm or
command the tempest."

A power more or less akin to the boylya or wakan,
though often nameless, is recognized by all races of men.
Here it is obtained by charms and spells, there by many
ritual observances; now it comes by the laying on of
hands, breathing over the face, or by mesmeric passes.
Some obtain it by spells that command spirit appearances,
others by fetish ceremonies, magic, and incantations. It
is often earnestly sought as the reward of great austerities ;
penance can command it, or as a divine influx it comes in
inspiration. It may come in cloven tongues of flame, ov
descend like a dove on the devotee. We have no name
for this mystery of mysteries fuller than that of glamour,
which rather expresses the effect on the mind of the trans-
cendentalist than the nature of the power he is supposed
to obtain. But ever the man so recognized is in his own
and others' estimation separated from his fellows, capable
of knowing and doing all things, not only of controlling
the nature and virtues in things, but the relations of all
living things. The qualities they are assumed to hold
they can endow others with, and they ever maintain
intimate and special relations with ghosts and spirits and
all the exuberant creations in spiritual idealisms. All
the transcendental powers attached to material forms and
principles they transfer to the ghosts and spirits they
embody, and as they advance in the conscious knowledge
of nature and in higher human relations, they endow tlich
mystic mind-creations with corresponding attributes until
the poor abused ghost advances to be the master spirit in


The many phases in which this \vakan power is present
among- the various races of men we will now illustrate.
Of the Shamans of the Salish we are told that they " are
able to see ghosts, their touch causes sickness, they make
violators of the tabu mad their touch paralyzes men.
They know who is going to die, and approach the villages
in the evening to take the souls of the dying away. They
drive away the ghosts by making a noise and burning the
incense herb. They have a spell language handed down
from one to another ; they used it to endow men or parts
of the body or weapons with special power. He becomes
a shaman by intercourse with supernal powers, sleeping in
the woods until he dreams of his guardian spirit who
bestows supernal power upon him. He cures the sick,
blowing water over him, and applying his mouth sucks the
diseased place, then produces a piece of deer-skin or the
like sucked from the body, the cause of the illness. He
causes sickness by throwing a piece of deer-skin or the
loop of a thong, or he obtains the man's saliva or hair and
causes sickness ; he can harm one by looking at him."
(Report Brit. Assoc. 1890, p. 582.)

We recognize the assumption of this wakan power
among the Kaffirs, not only in the smelling out of a witch
causing and controlling disease, making rain, and in
various ways defining the action of the nature forces, but
in that subtle prescient power of intimation described by
Dr. Callaway, " When a thing is lost which is valuable,
they begin to search for it by an inner power of divining.
Each begins to practise this inner divination and tries to
feel where the thing is, and not being able to see he feels
internally a pointing which says if he goes down to such a
place he will find it. A.t length he feels sure he shall find
it, then he sees it and himself approaching it. If it is a
hidden place he throws himself into it as though he was
impelled by something. Some boys have the power more
than others ; some never have it at all. Some have it so


strong that they are looked up to by their fellows." (Jour.
Anth. Inst. I. p. 176.)

We might pause to describe the manifestations of
supernal power, more or less of a like character, by
medicine-men, magi, and priests, but we will be content to
show some of the dogmatic claims that have been asserted
in old world faiths and in modern spiritualism. All are
familiar with the many pretensions made by priests and
rishis of the power of exorcizing and anathematizing of
capacity to redeem souls from hell and purgatory or to
consign them to perdition ; of communing with saints
and gods, summoning angels and spirits, healing the sick,
raising the dead, punishing the sinner both in heaven and
on earth. The penances of a Brahmin can command even
Mahadeva, and, as Elkins says of the Chinese Buddhists,
they claim that the prayers of the Hoshang have the power
to break open the caverns of hell. Nor are the pretensions
of the occultist as to the power he has obtained by initiation
less than those of the medicine-man and the priest. The
power ascribed to the Akas and the Mahatmas is a form of
mana unproven and unprovable ; by it they claim to have
power to transport objects to a distance, disintegrate them,
convey their particles through solids, and reintegrate them.
The adept in occultism can summon spirits and present
them in materialized forms. Ho can consciously see
the minds of others ; he can by his soul force his wakan
power, act on external spirits; he can accelerate the growth
of plants, alter the natural action or quench fire; he can
subdue wild beasts ; he can send his soul to a distance and
there not only read the thoughts of others but speak to
and touch them, exhibiting to them his spiritual body in
the likeness of that of the flesh. More, he can from the
surrounding atmosphere create the likeness of physical

Nor is the existence of this complex supernal power
alone an attribute of man and spirit. Long before men


had acquired the art of using it, or the ghost was elevated
to a spirit-power, this mana was an integral attribute of
things. Luck, fate, and destiny are but forms of mana.
Mana is the presiding power, the ever present actuating
force in things. By it they prognosticate the future, they
command the present, they inform us of the past; by it
they manifest every transcendental attribute cure, protect
and divine. It exists unconsciously in the animal, and the
relic of a saint, the stone in the brook, possesses it; it
is present in the herb and sea. The stars above, the
mountains and the rivers, pour it out upon mortals. They
even manufacture this power, endowing weapons and
utensils with it, the water of baptism, the wine and bread
of the 'sacrament. Nor is this a mere modern symbol.
The old Chaldean ascribed the same power the Catholic-
recognizes in the host, to the unknown mamii of his
devotions, the treasure which presented to the sick healed
them, the treasure which never departeth, the one God
who never fails. The old Peruvians had a divine food of
the nature of the host in the sancu, that cleansed away all

The earliest form of mana presents it as an attribute in
things or appearances, denoting an oinen or a curative or
protective virtue. It may only signify luck. Then when
men come to test these powers and to manufacture them
they advance into abstract powers the result of the com-
bination of several objects or of influences created in
them by times, conditions, or words. Then it is that
transcendental attributes or abstract qualities pass from
the observer or the spell and influence, other personali-
ties, other powers. We have many expressions of this
secondary power influencing others than the immediate
agents, and this leads to the evolution of it as a distinct
supernal principle, and the after conversion of those
devoted to supernal studies into medicine-men.

Of the working of this abstract power through animals


and material objects we may find examples in the folklore
of most people. Of simple forms in which this mana is
presented in things, we may note the luck induced in a
new boat by launching it with a flowing tide. Wild
animals must not touch milking vessels or the cow's udder
would fester. All forms of transferring diseases implies
the passing of evil mana from one to another. A form
of abstract mana passes into the dog who shuns people
ubout to die, or into the mole whose burrowing at a house
intimates a death therein. So the bridal bed made by
a woman giving suck, or there would ensue no family.
The Salish say if a beaver's bones are not thrown into
the river the beavers will no more go into the traps. It
is singular that the same people ascribe the same form of
mana in the structure of a beaver that is so often ascribed
by many races of men to a human structure, that is, that
to give stability to a building it must be founded on a
corpse. Most people are familiar with many home legends
of incidents by which this supernal power was obtained.
So the Salish say, when the beaver is constructing its dam
it kills one of its young and buries it under the dam that
it may become firmer and not give way to floods. (Rep.
r.r'it. Assoc. 1890, p. 644.)

All the forms of tabu are upheld by the supposition that
the power in the mana is made to have an evil influence
"ii the violator of its ordinances. So, in like manner, all
the supernal sentiments expressed through the fetish
ras of initiation, male and female, at puberty, those
regarding a woman's courses, childbirth and death, also
those of the couvado and a widow's practices, are the
:il> tract workings of the mana. Among the innumerable
illustrations of this working of the mana, one instance will
suffice. With one of the Northern Indian tribes in British
Columbia, the father and mother after a birth are not
allowed to go near the river for a year or else the salmon
would take offence. (Rep. Brit. Aasoc. 1 889, p. 837.)


Among the same people the girl at puberty must not
only fast, remaining alone and unseen, for a fortnight, but
as the mana is working in her then she must not chew her
own food, for, if she desires afterwards to hare boys, men
must chew it for her if girls, women. (Ibid. 1889, p. 836.)

The Salish also ascribe a special supernal mana as
influencing twins. The mother of twins must build a hut
on the slope of the mountains, and live there with them
until they begin to walk ; if she went to the village with
them her other children would die. The mana in twins
is affirmed to be so great that they can produce rain by
allowing water to percolate through a basket; they can
make clear weather by throwing a flat piece of wood
attached to a string in the air. They can produce storms
by strewing the ends of spruce branches, and their mother
can tell by their play when children if her husband, though
distant, is successful in his hunting. (Ibid. 1890, p. 644.)

The principle of sympathetic influence in persons and
things is but one of the many forms in which mana is
supposed to be presented. In Lord Bacon's description
the power is supposed to be worked into a science. He
writes : To superinduce any virtue or disposition in a
person, choose the living creature wherein that virtue
is evident, of this creature take the parts wherein the
same virtue chiefly exists. Thus to superinduce courage
take a lion or a cock and choose the heart, tooth, or paw
of the lion, and take these immediately after he has been
in fight, so with a cock, and let them be worn on a man's
heart or wrist. With this special mana power Sir Kenelm
Digby is said to have cured a wound by applying a garter
having blood from the wound upon it, to the weapon that
caused the injury. In another case, the axe which caused
the cut was dressed with a salve, wrapped up warmly and
hung in a closet. The injured carpenter is said to have
been at once relieved, and all went well for a time, when
suddenly the wound again became painful, and, on


examining the closet, it was found the axe had fallen
from the nail, and, of course, when placed secure the man
was soon sound. (Pettigrew Medical Superstit. p. 160.)
We have seen that in one case it was customary so to treat
the arrow-head, and of the same mana influence we read
that only weapons that have taken a life are fit for the
warrior's use. So Roderick Dhu affirmed the influence
of a supernal mana power when he said, " Who takes the
foremost foeman's life, that cause shall conquer in the
strife." The Salish say that "an arrow, or any other
weapon which has wounded a man, must be hidden, and
care taken that it is not brought near the fire until the
wound is healed. If a knife or arrow still covered with
blood is thrown into the fire the wounded man will become
very ill. (Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1890, p. 577.)

Mystic mana powers were not only present in things
generally on the earth, they were also present in the
heavens. The sun and moon and stars, through the mana
in them, influenced men and women, animals, and all things
on the earth. In general, through the great development
in later times of spirit influence it has been assumed that
men have always conceived the supernal powers in the
heavenly bodies as due to the action of spirits, but we feel
assured that the primary concept regarding them was as
with children, mere wonder at their brightness, and in the
case of the sun its heat-producing power. Long before
it even became a person it was a power, and the suporn:il
influence of it as expressing mana only exist, to this day,
in many spoils and charms. Besides this stage in sun and
moon lore, we recognize another, in which, as with children,
they are personified, they are beings like men and women
in tln-ir material aspect; no sentiment of their being
controlled by a self-contained ghost or spirit-power is
entertained. In many representations of the sun as a
personality, its material nature is expressed by a disc with
human features, its power by lines as rays. In other


cases, as with the races of Northern Europe, it was a

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