John Hawkins.

A general history of the science and practice of music online

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Da quel ch*io li dird prendi ressempio ;
L*argento e Tor, che da se stess' e degno^
Si mostra nudo, d sol si veste il legno^
Quando s'adoma alcun theatre 6 tempio i

II favor di costei vien presto manco,
£ mille volte il d!, sia pur giocondo,
Si muta il state lor di nero m bianco.

Mi chi h^ virtii, gira k suo mode il mondo ;
Com' huom dhe nuota ed hk la zucca al flantd,
Metti'l sott' aequa pur^ non teme il fondo.

Walther, from the Athenss Belgicss of SWertiuSi
cites the following epitaph on him : —
O mors inevitabilis !
Mors Umara, mors crudelis
Josquinum dmn necasti
Ilium nobis abstulisti ;
Qui suam per harmoniam
Ulustravit ecclesiam,
Propterea die tu musice :
Requiescat in pace. Amen.

Castiglione relates a story which bespeaks thd
high opinion entertained by the world of Jusquin's
ciiaracter as a musician. He savs that at a certain
time some verses were produced to the duchess of
Urbino as of the composition of Sannazaro, which
were applauded as exc^ent ; but that as soon as it
was discovered that they were not really his, they
were condemned as worse than indifferent ; so like-
wise says he a motet s u ng bef ore the^ same Juchess
met with little app robati on till it was known to be of
the composition of Josquin de P rez.*

The following motett of lodocus Pratensis, con-»
taining a canon of two in one, occurs in the Dodeca-
chordon, and is here inserted as a specimen of his
style and abilities as a composer : —

• U Cort«g. lib. II.




O Je - su ft - li Da - - vid mi




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Chap. LXXIL



AND PRAOTICE OP MUSIC.




le id% - mo - nio vex - - a - - tur»



nam et ca




iel - li e



dunt de mi - cis que ca



et ca • tel - li e - dont de mi



dont



ciB que




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886



HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE



Book VIII.




ma-li - er mag - na est Fi - des tu - - m.




mu- lier mag



I0D00U8 Pbatbibu.



CHAP. LXXIIL

Jacobus Hobrechth, a Fleming, is celebrated for
his great skill and jndgment, and is said by Glareanos
to have been possessed of such a degree of strength
and celerity of invention, as that he composed a
whole mass, and a very excellent one, in a night*s
time, to the admiration of the learned. The same
author asserts that all the monuments that are left of
his composition have in them a wonderful majesty ;
and that he did not, like Jusquin, afifect unusual
passages, but gave his compositions to the public
without disguise, trusting for the applause of his
auditors to their own intrmsic merit* He was pre-
ceptor in music to Erasmus.f

Johannes Ockbobm, or as Olareanus calls him,
Okenheim, was also a native of the Low Countries,
and as he was the preceptor of lodocus Pratensis,
must be supposed to be somewhat more ancient than



his disciple. Glareanus mentions a composition of
his for thirty-six voices, which, though he had never
seen it, he says, had the reputation of being admir-
able for its contrivance. In the composition of Fugue
he is said to have been excellent ; Glareanus says he
affected to compose songs that might be sung in
different modes, and recommends to the notice of his
reader the following fugue for three voices, which,
though said by hith to be in the Epidiatessaron, or
fourth below, is in truth in the Epidiapente. or fifth
below after a perfect time. It should seem by the
different signatures at the head of each stave, that
this was intended as an example, of a cantus to be
sung in different modes.

Ambrose Wilphlingsederus of Nuremberg was at
the pains of resolving this intricate composition, and
pubUshed it in his Erotemata Musices Practicsd
printed in 1563. The canon and resolution are here
given together : —



FUGA IN EPIDIAPENTB




Dodaeaehordon, peg. 456.



t lUd.



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Chap. LXXIIL



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



339




Antimo Liberati, a musician of the last century,
and a singer in the pontifical chapel, says that, taking
their example from the schools of those two great
men Okenheim and lodocns Pratensis, many foreign
masters erected musical academies in different king-
doms and provinces, the first of whom was Gaudio
Mell, a Fleming, who instituted at Rome a noble and
excellent school for music, in which many pupils
were instructed in the science, and among them Gio.



JOHAimES OkXNHBIM.

Pier Luigi Palestrina.* The truth of this relation,
so far as it regards the name of Palestrina*s pre-
ceptor, is very questionable, and will be the subject
of a future enquiry.

About this time flourished Adriano Willaert, a
native of Bruges; this person was intended for the
profession of a lawyer, and studied in that faculty in
the university of Paris, but an irresistible propensity

• Letters Bcritta dal Sig. Antimo Libeimtl In rispotto ad una d«l Sig.
Ovidio Persapegi, Roma, 1685.



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340



HISTORY OP THE SCIENCE



Book VIIL



to music diverted his attention from the law, and
engaged him deeply in the study of that science;
upon his quitting Paris he went for improvement to
Italy, and by the favour of pope Leo X. became, to
use the style of Zarlino and other writers, ' Maestro
' di Cappella della serenissima Signoria di Venetia ;'♦
by which appellation is to be understood master of
the choir of the church of St Mark. He seems to
have been the inventor of compositions for two or
more choirs, that is to say, those wherein the offices
are sung alternately by several chorusses, the effect
whereof is at this day sufficiently understood.f
Artusi, Doni, Printz, and other writers speak of
Willaert in general terms as a mere practical musi-
cian, a composer of motets, madrigals, and airs,
among whom they however admit he holds the first
rank ; but Zarlino, who was his disciple, and conse-
quently must have been intimately acquainted with
him, relates that he was incessantly employed in
making calculations and devising diagrams for de-
monstrating the principles of harmony, and, in short,
represents him as the ablest theorist of the age. It
is highly probable that this was his true character ;
and the particulars above related may in a great
measure account for that extreme propensity which
Zarlino throjighout his voluminous works discovers
for that branch of musical science. His master had
made him sensible of its value, and had given a
direction to the studies of his disciple, who in return
has taken every occasion to celebrate his praises, and
to transmit to posterity in the character of Adrian
Willaert, an exemplar of a consummate musician.

There are extant of Willaert's composition, Psalm!
Vespertini omnium Dierum Festorum per Annum,



4 Vocum, 1557; Motettse 6 Vocum, published in
1542; Cantiones MusicaB, sen Motettae, cum aliis
ejusdem Cantionibus Italicis 4, 5, 6, et 7 Vocum ;
and Villanellffi Neapolitan's 4 Vocum, published
together in 1588, and other works-J He is sufficiently
known to those who are conversant with the Italian
writers on music, by the name of Messer Adriano.

A few of the most excellent of Willaert's motets
are pointed out in the Istitutioni Harmoniche of
Zarlino, terza parte, cap. Ixvi. and are there cele-
brated as some of the finest compositions of that time.
His doctrines and opinions respecting some of the
most abstruse questions in music are delivered with
great accuracy in the Dimostrationi of Zarlino. He
was very much afflicted with the gout, but seems by
Zarlino's account of him to have nevertheless retained
the exercise of his mental faculties in all their vigour,
and to have rendered himself singularly remarkable
for his modesty, affability, and friendly disposition
towards all who professed to love or understand
music.§

The Dimostrationi of Zarlino, of which a par-
ticular account will in its place be given, are a series
of dialogues tending to illustrate the Institutes of the
same author. The interlocutors in these are Francesco
Viola, an eminent musician and maestro di cappella to
Alphonso duke of Ferrara ; Claudio Merulo, organist
of the great church at Parma ; Adrian Willaert, and
Zarlino himself. In the course of these dialogues
many particulars occur from whence an adequate
idea may be formed of Willaert, of whom Zarlino
scruples not to say, as indeed do most that speak
of him, that he was the first musician of his time.

The following motet is of his composition : —




QUEMdi»cant ho-mi -nes es-se fi - li-um bo



mi - nes^




- nis.



68-86 fi-li - um ho - mi - nis re-spondens Pe



truB




QUEM di-cunt ho-mi - nes es-se fi - li-umho-mi - nis ro-spon-dens Pe -

• Walth. Lex. in Art. Zarl. RagioiM^* 1-8. f Zarl. Istitut. 846. Documenti Annonici di Angclo Berudi Ub. I. yg, 78.

} Woith. Lex. in Art. f Zarl. Dimostrationi pasdm.



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Chap. LXXHI.



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



841




Ta 68 Christ .ii8Fi - li-ii8De-l vi-



Tu 68 ChristuB Fi - li - us De




-trus dix



it Tu 68 ChiistiiAll-li - ns De-i t! - vi




6t a - it Je



Be



^



I rt I-




i vi



et a - it Je



BUS 6e-a-tu8 68 Si-mon



et a - it Je




a-tu8 ea^ be-a-tuses Simon Pe



tre



qui - a ca




qui - a ca - ro et san - guii nonre-ve- la



vit ti




- vit ti . bi



sed Pa - ter me -us qui est in Co




. bi



BedPa-ter me - us qui est in Cos



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842



fflSTORY OF TBE SCIENCE



Book VIIL




- lis et E - go di - 00 ti



qui - a tu es




lis et E - go di - - CO ti - - bl



qui • a tu



^EEiE^E^ ^fnipT " ^ - °~r I 'J f" rfi - f ^4^-4



qui-a tu 68 Pe-trus et su - per banc Pe




truB et su-per banc Pe - tram et an - per hano




tram e - di - fi - ca - bo ec - cle - si - am me




^ - bo ec-cle - - d - am me - am.



Al - 1e - lu - ia, Al - le - lu - ia,




Al - le - In - ia, Al - le - 1u - ia, . . . Al - le -In




Al - le - lu - ia.



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Chap. LXXIV



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



343



CHAP. LXXIV.

JoHAKNBs MouTOK, ft MMi f le of Adrian Willaert,
was Maestro di Capella to Fnmcis I. king of France,*
and, by the testimony of his contemporaries, was one



of the greatest musicians of the age he lived in. He
composed many masses, which were highly approved
by Leo X. A Miserere for fonr voices of his com-
position is to be found in the Dodecachordon of
Glareanus, as is also the following hymn.




* This prince, m be was a great lorer and encoorager of learning and
the liberal arts, was peculiarly fond of music. In the memoirs of Mr.
I>e la F6ret, ambassador from Francis I. to Solyman II. emperor of the
Turks, for concluding a treaty between those two princes, in the year
15iS, it is related that the king designing to do a pleasure to his new
aLy, sent him a band of most accomplished musicians, making him, as
40 chought, a present worthy of his grandeur. Sol]rman received them
very civilly, and was entertained by them with three diilbtent concerts
at his pabice, in presence of all his court ; he shewed himself greatly

J.'aaaed with the music, but having observed that it tended to -enervate
IS mind, be Judged by himself that it might make still a greater im-



ri - cor



pression upon that of his courtiers. He much applauded the musicians ;
nevertheless, as he was apprehensiTe that music might occasion, In con-
sequence of its establishment, as much disorder in his empire as would
be caused by a permission of the use of w!ne, he sent back the musicians
with a handsome reward, after having ordered all their instruments to
be broken, with a prohibition against their settling in his empire upon
pain of death. Solyman thoroughly believed it to be a stroke of policy in
Francis I., for he told the French ambassador that he imagined hts master
had sent him this amusement to divert him from the business of war,
Just as the Greeks sent the Persians the game of chess to slacken their
military ardour. Histolre de la Musique et ses Eflbts, tom. I. pag. 2 IS.



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844



fflSTORY OP THE SCIENCB



Bo(« vm




di • «



OB pro xu) • bis, pro no




▼e - m - e.

JoHAMNflS HOOTOH.



Thomas Orequilon, a Fkming, was master of th«
chapel to the emperor Charles V. about the year 1566.
He composed hymns for many voices, and some French
songs in four, five, and six parts.

Clemens, otherwise Jacob Clemens non Papa, a
Fleming, was one of the musicians of the emperor
Charles V. and a composer of masses and other
sacred offices. It seems that this prince, though
not an avowed patron of the arts, as was his rival
Francis I. was a lover of music. Ascham, in the
letter above-cited, relates that being at Augsburg, he
stood by the emperor's table, and that 'his chapel
* sung wonderful cunningly all the dinner-while.*

Cyprian de Bore was bom at Mechlin, but lived
great part of his time in Italy, He composed many
very fine madrigals to Italian words. There is extant



in the great church of Parma the following sepulchral
inscription to his memory : —

Cypriano Roro, Flandro

artis musics

viro omnium peritissimo,

cujus nomen famaqae

nee vetustate obrui

nee oblivione deleri poterit,

Hereulis Ferrariens. Duels II.

deinde Venetorum,

postreroo

Octavi Famesl Parmse et Placentise

Duels II. Chori Praefecto,

Ludovicus frater, fil. et hseredes

moestissimi posuerunt.

Obiit anno M.D.LiCV. aetatis xlix.

The following madrigal is given as a specimen of

his abilities in ^at style of musical composition : —



■^ AN - COB chicol


par-ti - re




>*■


io ' mi sen - to


mo-ri -


K .<t?- ^ 1 f> .-J:-^f^—p=


\-^ — ^"—m




E- r mn


=^^=^^=^=^


"Cj ' ^H H »

AN - COB chh col par


- ti - re


io..mi sen-tomo-ri


k^ - 1 - =^^—,-f-^


^P= - ^^£±:ff:


^EEzr^-z^^^P^zJ-d r-r- =


AN . COR chfe


col

-1^


-A 1 L_| _L_ cAJ L.J 1 1

par - ti - ^ io mi sen - to mo


L.


]^ - ifc 1


1 rt-


4: E-


-f-


-4—





i— "—


~^-J—


' ■ '


;



AN-COR ehd eol par-ti -re io misen- tomo



« The tsme author gives the following hnmorofii account of the

behaviour of the emperor at dinner : * He had four courses, he had sod

beef, very good roast mutton, baked hare ; these be no service in

* England. The emperor hath a good face, a constant look ; he fed well

'ofaoapon; I have aid a better firom mine hottest Baroet many timet



*ln mj chamber. He and Ferdinando eat together, tctt haiMloomelj
< carving themselves where ther list, without any curiosity. The em-

* peror annk the best that ever I saw ; he had his head in the glass five
' times as long as anv of us, and never drank less than a good qiiBrt at

* once of Rhenish wine.' Atcham't Workt, peg. 376.



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Chap. LXXIV.



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



345




-re par-tir vor-reiogn* or o - gni mo-men - to tan - t'ilpia-cer che sen



-re par-tir vor-rei ogn* or ogn* or o-gnimomen - to tan - t'U piacerch*io sen - to



It



E^



- n - - re



/



par-tir vor - rei ogn* or o- gni mo- men - to



par-tir vor -rei ogn* or o-gnimo-men- to



tan - t*il pia -



tan -



•-to



tan - t*il piacer che sen - to



del - la vi



ta eh'ao -



^^



^



t«n-t*ilpia-cerche6en - to



del - la vi - - ta ch*ao-qui -



cercheeen - to



tan - tMl piacer chMo sen - to del



vi - ta ch'ac -




' volte il gior - no mille e mil-Ie volte il gior . no



par-tir da voi vor - re -



gior - no



e CO - si mille e mil - le volte 11 gior - no par - tir da voi vor-re



no mille e mil-le volte il gior-no mille e mil - le volte il gior - no par - tir . . da voi . . vor - re -



00 - si mille e mil-le vol - te mille e mil - le volte il gior - no par - tir da voi vor ^




i tan - to Bondol - ci,



tan - to son dol • ci gli



ri • tor - ni



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848



HISTORY OP THE SCIENCE



Book VIIL



r^f^t^


f-"


1 p


hf^ P —


[m t ■ J ?-


-4— ^ — 1 — 1


I J >i


1 1 , 11-


Ht — 1* — {•*-


\-"

- i


~= P-

e


P= ^ - H Ir ' ^ 1 ■ ' ^ 1

00 - d mille e mil-le volte il glor -

-F—f^ f J m 1 w, 1


no, min« e mil -le volte il
1-^= » -J* J I


vt r 1

- -ni mie


^ 1=

- i

1 J 1


^ 1 '

e 00 -

-|» wr^


b! mille e


-^M 1 1—

mille e volte il

kH ^— O


i rt —

gior - no


\- r :
pj=j - 1


-1 1 — =-1-

co - A m^

iJ J J ■ -N.


^ 1 r — — ^^

mie - I e
m-^ - -^


+- F-l"^ — ^' m \ ^ ^ \

00 - si mille emil-Ie volte U gior -

-^, -1 1 :. r-


f-2 f—^r- ' \ — 1 — 1' ' = — s-K-

no, mille e mil • le volte il gior-no, mille e

-d d r-^-F—i — ^ ' — »■


^ inie -





i





' d-

e


_2 u p — -. _j_p — im

00 - si mille e mil-le


-■= ti h

vol - te,




- le e mil - le volte - il gior - no par - tir da voi vor re



mil - le vol - te gior - no par - tir .. da voi . . vor - re



mille e mil - le volteil gior - no par - tir da voi vor



i tan - to sen dol -



i tan - to son dol




tan - to son dol - ci gli • . li - tor • ni



mie



CiPRiANO Db Bobb.



Phiuppub Db Monte, (a Portrait,) a native of
Mons in Hainaolt, born in 1521, was master of the
chapel to the emperor Maximilian II. a canon, and
treasurer of the cathedral church of Oambray. In
that church was a portrait of him, with the fol-
lowing distich under it : —



Cemimus excel8um,mente arte, et nomine Montem,
Quo Muss et Charites constituere domuro.

The print given of him is taken from it, and is to
be found in the Bibliotheca Chalcographica of Boissard.
He composed, besides masses and motets, four books
of madrigals, of which the following is one : —




DA bei ra



dol • ce nel -la me-mo-riau*



5=pgzzif.zqi:^44g-K-J^ |



1 ^



DA bei ra - mi seen - de



dol - ce nel - la me - mo - ria u




DA bei ra



dol - ce nel - la me - mo - ria u



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Chap. liXXIV.



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



347




na piog-gia di fior eov -nil tno gnm - bo iot- r* il nio grem - - bo ed el - la



P^^



« na piog-gia di fior sov • ra il sao grem - bo, 11 sno grem -



• be ed el - la



' - na piog-gia di fior aov - ra il au^^ - o grem -



bo ed el - la




si le



de



mil in tan - ta glo - ria co - per*ta gia dell' a - mo - ro - bo dell



de - a n - mil in tan - ta glo - ria co - per-ta gia deir a - mo - ro - bo nem




>, si se-de-a a-milintan-taglo-na co- per-ta gia deir a - mo - ro



^^^Sff^



a^



m^



bo



qnal fior ca - dea sul lem -



^^=3



IP



a - mo - ro - bo nem - - bo qnal fior ca • dea sul lem - bo, qual fior ca - dea sul lem -




a - mo • ro - so nem



bo qnal fior ca - dea sul lem -bo, qual fior ca • dea sul lem -



. so nem



bo qual fior ca - dea sul lem - bo,





'-bo qual sul - le tree - cie bion



boqualsuMe treccie bi - on-dequalsul-le treccie bion - de ch*0 - ro for - bi-toe per-le e



_. — H



bo qual sul - le tree- cie bionde qual sul - le treccie bionde ch*0 - ro for - bi-toe per-le e



^^ r=Tr r^



SgS:



quail Bul-Ie treccie bion - deqoalsul-le tree -de bion - de ch*0 - ro for - bi-toe per-le e -




- ran quel dla ve-der-le qual si po - sa - vain ter - ra e . . . qual sul* on



ran quel dla ve-der-le qual si po - sa - vain ter - ra e qual sul' on - de.



ran quel dla re - der-le qual si po-sa



vain ter -ra equal. . . sul* on - de e



^ • ran quel dla ve -der-le qual si po - sa - vain ter - ra e qual sul' on -de e



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848



HISTORY OP TEIE SOIENOE



Bms VUL





. de



qual con on v* - . go . . er-ro



i^^

" «««! -«1» ««



qual Bill' OB- deqaalconan va - go er-ro - reqaalconun . • va-go er-ro



re gl -



qualsuron - dequalconon va-go er-ro - re qual con . . unvago er-ro - re gi - ran





>. ran-do pa - rea dir qui re - gn'A-mo



• rando pa - - rea dir qui re - gn'A - mo



re,



gi - ran -do




■^-ran-do pa-rea dir qui re- gn'A-mo



re, gi-ran-do




re, qui



mo - - - re,

FiLiPFO DB Mozns.



Orlandus La88U8, (a Portrait,) otherwise called
Orlando de Lasso, was also a native of the city of
Mons above-mentioned, a contemporary and intimate
friend of Philippo de Monte. He, for the sweetness
of his voice while he was a child, and his excellent
compositions in his riper years, may be said to have
been the delight of all Europe. Thuanus, in his
history, gives the following account of him : ' Or-
' landus Lassns, a man the most famous of any in our

* age for skill in the science of music, was bom at ,
'Mons in Hainault; for this is the chief praise of

* Belgium, that it among other nations abounds in
'excellent teachers of the musical art And he,
' while a boy, as is the fate of excellent singers, was,
' on account of the sweetness of his voice forced away,
' and for some time retained by Ferdinand Gbnzaga in
' Sicily, in Milan, and at Naples. Afterwards, being

* grown up, ho taught for the space of two years at

* Kome. After this he travelled to France and Italy
' with Julius Cffisar Brancatius, and at length returned
' into Flanders, and lived many years at Antwerp,



* from whence he was called away by Albert duke of
' Bavaria, and settled at that court, and there married.
' He was afterwards invited with offers of great
'rewards by Charles IX. king of France, to take
' upon him the office of his chapel-master, for that
' generous prince always retained a chosen one about
' him. In order to reap the benefit of this promotion,
' he set out with his family for France, but, before he

* could arrive there, was stopped by the news of the
' sudden death of Charles ; upon which he was re-
' called to Bavaria by William the son and successor
'of Albert, to the same duty as he had before dis-
' charged under his father : and having rendered
'himself most famous for his compositions both
'sacred and pro&ne, in all languages, published in
' several cities for the space of twenty-five years, he
' died a mature death in the year 1595, on the third
' of June, having exceeded seventy-three years of
'age.

The account given by Thaanus does by no means
agree either in respect to the time of his birth or



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Chip. LXXIV.



AND PRACTICE OP MUSIC.



849



decease, with the inscription on the monument of
Orlando, which is as follows :

Orlandus Lassus, Bergs, Hannonis urhe

uatus anno MDXXX.

Musicus et Symphoniacus sui seculi facile princeps :

Primi state adnuodum puer, ob miram vocis suavitatem

in canendo, aliquoties plagio sublatus :

Sub Ferdinando Gonzaga prorege Sicilis, annis ferm^

sex partim Mediolani, partim in Sicilia, inter symphoniacos

educatus.

Neapoli dein per triennium, ac demdm Roms amplius

biennium Musico prsfectus Sacello longd celeberrimo.

Post peregrinadones Anglicanas et Gidlicanas cum

Julio Qesare Brancacio sutceptas, Antverpin

totidem aunis versatus.

Tandem Alberti et Gulielmi Ducis Bojorum, musics

Magister supremus per integrum vlcennium.
A MaximUiano II. Css. nobilitatus : k summis imperii

Principibus, ac Proceribus summe honoratus.

Cantionibus Harmonicis tarn sacris quam profanis omnium

linguarum in orbe universo celebratiss.

Obiit Monaci anno Sal. MDLXXXV. iEt. lv.

But there is reason to think that the inscription is
erroneous, for there is extant a print of Orlando de
Lasso engraved by Sadler, with a note thereon, pur-
porting tbat he was sixty 'One in 1593 ; but with
this the epitaph agrees almost as badly as it does
with Thuanus's relation. As to the great rewards
which that generous prince, as Thuanus styles him,
Charles IX. offered him upon condition of his
accepting the direction of his choir, his majesty was
induced to this act of beneficence by other motives
than generosity : Thuanus did not care to tell them,
but the reasons for his silence in this particular are
long since ceased ; the fact is, that the king, who had
consented to the massacre of the Hugonots in Paris,
and who, forgetting the dignity of his station, him-
self had a hand in it,* was so disturbed in his mind
with the reflection on that unparalleled act of inhu-
manity, that he was wont to have his sleep disturbed
by nightly horrors, and was composed to rest by
a symphony of singing boys: in short, to use the
language of Job, 'he was scared with dreams and
' terrified through visions.' He was a passionate lover
of music, and so well skilled in it, that, as Brantome
relates, he was able to sing his part, and actually sung
the tenor occasionally with his musicians :t and it was
thought that such compositions as Orlando was ca-



pable of framing for that particular purpose,^ might
tend to alleviate that disorder in his mind, which bid



Online LibraryJohn HawkinsA general history of the science and practice of music → online text (page 97 of 123)