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Elizabeth was entertained at dinner, and hence
she returned at night, in state and by torchlight,
to Whitehall. Among other eminent persons who
have been lodged at different times in this man-
sion may be mentioned Anne, Duke de Montmo-
renci, ambassador from Francis the First in 1526 ;
Claude Annibau, ambassador from the same mon-
arch in 1546 ; and Mary of Guise, Queen Dowager
of Scotland, when she visited London, in the reign
of Edward the Sixth. It was from its threshold



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 217

that Jane Shore was led to undergo her penance
at Paul's Cross.

In the reign of Edward the First, St. Paul's
Cathedral, with the bishop's palace and the other
ecclesiastical buildings, were surrounded by a wall,
the gates of which were always carefully closed at
night. Many of the neighbouring thoroughfares,
such as Ave-Maria Lane, Paternoster Row, Creed
Lane, Canon Alley, .Holyday Court, and Amen
Corner, derive their names from their contiguity
to, and their connection with, the old cathedral.

Another interesting building connected with old
St. Paul's was the Lollards' Tower at the west
front, which was long used as a prison for here-
tics, and is said to have witnessed many fearful
scenes of suffering and distress. The tale of
Richard Hunne, who was committed a prisoner
to the Lollards' Tower, in 1514, is one of the
darkest in the annals of human misery. This
person, a merchant-tailor of London, had become
involved in a dispute with his rector, who sum-
moned him before the spiritual court. Hunne
retorted by taking out a writ of premunire against
the rector, an act of defiance which gave such
offence to the Roman Catholic clergy that the
formidable charge of heresy was brought against
him, and he was thrown into the Lollards' Tower.
A few days afterward his lifeless body was found
suspended from a hook in the ceiling, when, the
presumption being that he had committed suicide,



2i8 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

the usual process was commenced against the
corpse, which was condemned to be burned at
Smithfield. In the meantime, however, suspicions
of foul play had got abroad, and, consequently, a
coroner's inquest was appointed to sit on the body.
According to Burnet : " They found his neck had
been broken, as they judged, with an iron chain,
for the skin was all fretted and cut. They saw
some streams of blood about his body, besides
several other evidences, which made it clear that
he had not murdered himself ; whereupon, they
did acquit the dead body, and laid the murder on
the officers that had the charge of that prison.
By other proofs, they found the bishop's sum-
moner and the bell-ringer guilty of it ; and, by
the deposition of the summoner himself, it did
appear that the chancellor and he and the bell-
ringer did murder him, and then hung him up."
The criminals, however, had a powerful champion
in Fitzjames, Bishop of London, and accordingly,
although the crime was clearly brought home to
Horsey, the chancellor of the diocese, not only
did the perpetrators of the crime receive the
king's pardon, but the ashes of Hunne were igno-
miniously committed to a suicide's grave. The
king, indeed, so far interfered on the side of jus-
tice as to obtain the reversion of Hunne's property
to his children. " The last person confined here,"
writes Pennant, " was Peter Burchet, of the Tem-
ple, who, in i 573, desperately wounded our famous



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 219

seaman, Sir Richard Hawkins, in the open street,
whom he had mistaken for Sir Christopher Hatton.
He was committed to this prison, and afterward
removed to the Tower. He there barbarously
murdered one of his keepers ; was tried, convicted,
had his right hand struck off, and then hanged.
He was found to be a violent enthusiast, and
thought it lawful to kill such who opposed the
truth of the gospel.'.'

It was in St. Paul's Cathedral, in May, 1213,
that King John overawed by the disaffection of
his subjects, by the secret combination of his
barons, and the dreaded approach of the mighty
armament with which Philip of France was pre-
paring to invade England consented to submit
himself to the judgment of the Pope, at the same
time formally acknowledging the supremacy of the
Apostolic See. Here, too, it was, in 1401, that
William Sautre, the parish priest of St. Osithes in
London, conspicuous as the first English martyr,
underwent the imposing ceremony of being stripped
of his priestly vestments, and being degraded from
his priestly office, preparatory to his being led
forth to a death of agony in the flames.

With the tale of the illustrious Wickliffe, the
father of the Reformation in England, St. Paul's
is also intimately associated. Here it was, on the
1 9th of February, 1377, that this extraordinary
man took his stand before a solemn conclave of
the Church of Rome, the members of which were



220 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

prepared to crush him with all the weight of their
formidable authority. Instead, however, of pre-
senting the humbled look of a criminal or a sup-
pliant, he appeared before the haughty synod,
supported on one side by the great John of Gaunt,
Duke of Lancaster, and by Lord Percy, the earl
marshal, on the other. Moreover, these great
lords were severally accompanied by a formidable
train composed of their armed retainers. " With
whatever intent," writes Southey, " these powerful
barons accompanied him, their conduct was such
as discredited the cause. Before the proceedings
could begin, they engaged in an angry altercation
with Bishop Courtenay, who appears to have pre-
served both his temper and his dignity, when Lan-
caster had lost all sense of both. Here, however,
the feeling of the people was against Wickliffe,
probably because he was supported by an unpop-
ular government ; and when the citizens who were
present heard Lancaster mutter a threat of drag-
ging their bishop out of the church by the hair
of his head, they took fire ; a tumult ensued ; the
synod was broken up, and the barons were glad to
effect their escape as they could."

After the mysterious death of the ill-fated Rich-
ard the Second in Pomfret Castle, it was to St.
Paul's Cathedral, on a bier drawn by four black
horses, and followed by four knights habited in
black, that his body was conveyed. Here it was
exposed to public view for three days, during



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 221

which period, as Froissart writes, "There came
in and out twenty thousand persons, men and
women, to see him where he lay, his head upon
a black cushion, and his visage open. Some had
pity on him, and some had none, but said he had
long ago deserved death." From St. Paul's the
royal corpse was conveyed to Langley, " and there
this Kyng Richard was buried God have mercy
on his soule ! " According to Stow, among those
who were present at the performance of the pre-
liminary funeral obsequies over King Richard's
body, in St. Paul's, was his rival and successor,
Henry the Fourth.

In 1470, when the revolution effected by the
great king-maker, Earl of Warwick, drove Ed-
ward the Fourth into temporary exile, we find
Henry the Sixth obsequiously led from his prison-
rooms in the Tower, whence, on horseback, clad
in a robe of blue velvet, and with the crown
upon his head, he was conducted by the Duke
of Clarence, the Earls of Warwick and Shrews-
bury, and other noblemen, to St. Paul's, where
he returned thanks for his unexpected deliver-
ance. From this period, till Henry was led back
a prisoner to the Tower the following year, he
appears to have principally held his court in the
Bishop of London's palace at St. Paul's. The
sequel of his melancholy history is well known.
On the very morning after the triumphal entry
of Edward the Fourth into London, the meek



222 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

usurper was found dead in the Tower. From
the Tower his body was brought by torchlight
to St. Paul's, whence, after it had lain for some
days on a bier exposed to the view of the multi-
tude, it was carried by torchlight to the river-
side, where it was placed on board a barge, and
thence conveyed to Chertsey for interment.

From the reign of Queen Elizabeth to that of
Charles the First, the body or middle aisle of St.
Paul's Cathedral was the common and fashionable
resort of the gay and the idle ; of the politician,
the adventurer, the newsmonger, and the man
of fashion. The time of day at which it was
principally resorted to was between the hours of
eleven and twelve in the morning, and between
three and six in the afternoon. Those who fre-
quented it were called Paul's Walkers, and occa-
sionally Paul's Men, in the same way that the
fashionable promenaders of Bond Street were in
our own time styled Bond Street Loungers. For
instance, among the dramatis persona in Jonson's
"Every Man in His Humour," we find "Captain
Bobadil, a Paul's Man." Dekker has left us a
very graphic and amusing account of the strange
medley of persons who were daily to be seen as-
sembled in Paul's Walk. "At one time, in one
and the same rank, yea, foot by foot, and elbow
by elbow, shall you see walking the knight, the
gull, the gallant, the upstart, the gentleman, the
clown, the captain, the apple-squire, the lawyer,



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 223

the usurer, the citizen, the rankrout, the scholar,
the beggar, the doctor, the idiot, the ruffian, the
cheater, the Puritan, the cutthroat, the high-man,
the low-man, the true-man, and the thief. Of all
trades and professions some ; of all countries some.
Thus, whilst Devotion kneels at her prayers, doth
Profanation walk under her nose in contempt of
religion." Massinger, in his " City Madam," also
alludes to the disreputable characters who fre-
quented " Paul's Walk."

" I'll hang you both, I can but ride
You for the purse, you cut in sermon time at Paul's."

" I bought him in Paul's," is Falstaff's expres-
sion, in speaking of Bardolph. Thus, too, the
witty Doctor Corbett, Bishop of Norwich, speaks
of the manner in which, in his time, the old
cathedral was desecrated :

" When I pass Paul's, and travel in that walk,
Where all our British sinners swear and talk ;
Old Harry ruffians, bankrupts, soothsayers,
And youth whose cozenage is old as theirs ;
And then behold the body of my lord
Trod under foot by vice, which he abhorr'd,
It woundeth me."

The once popular phrase of " dining with Duke
Humphrey " was, as we have already remarked,
applied to persons who, not having the means
of providing themselves with a dinner, whiled
away in the aisles of Saint Paul's the hours at



224 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

which others were enjoying their comfortable
meal. " Duke Humphrey's Walk," as the mid-
dle aisle of St. Paul's was occasionally designated,
was so called from its containing a conspicuous
monument, supposed to be that of Humphrey
Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester, but which there
seems to be little doubt was the tomb of Sir John
Beauchamp, the royal standard-bearer at the bat-
tle of Cressy, and one of the original Knights of
the Garter.

" Tis Ruffio : trow'st thou where he dined to-day ?
In sooth I saw him sit with Duke Humfray."

Bishop Hall's Satires.

On the destruction of St. Paul's Cathedral, the
nave of Westminster Abbey became the fashion-
able walk of London.

In old St. Paul's were interred two of our old
Saxon kings, Sebba, King of the East Saxons,
who was converted to Christianity by Erkenwald
in 667 ; and Ethelred the Second, who died in
1016. Here, too, were interred a number of
eminent persons, whose tombs many of them
of great beauty perished with the cathedral in
the great fire of London. Of those persons,
Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, the distinguished
statesman and warrior of the reign of Edward the
First, died "at his mansion-house called Lincoln's
Inn, in the suburbs of London," in 1312. His
effigy in old St. Paul's represented him lying



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 225

down, clad in complete armour, his body being
covered with a short mantle, and his legs crossed.
Another ancient and conspicuous monument was
that of Sir John Beauchamp, Constable of Dover
Castle, to which we have just referred ; his effigy
also representing him in full armour, and in a re-
cumbent posture. Sir John, who was summoned
to Parliament in the reign of Edward the Third
as "Johannes de Bello-Campo de Warrewyk," died
in 1358, when the barony became extinct.

Under a beautiful Gothic arch lay the armed
effigy of the unfortunate Sir Simon Burleigh,
perhaps the most accomplished man of his age.
Living on affectionate terms with Edward the
Third, and the chosen companion of the Black
Prince, he was selected by the latter to be the
tutor of his son, afterward Richard the Second.
Having become involved in the ruined fortunes
of his royal master, he was ordered by the inex-
orable Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, to the block ;
the queen, Anne of Bohemia, in vain throwing
herself at Gloucester's feet, and imploring him
to spare the life of one so accomplished and so
esteemed. By the sentence passed on him he
was to be hanged, drawn, and quartered ; but in
consideration of his being a Knight of the Garter,
and of the services which he had rendered to the
late king, the sentence was changed to decapita-
tion, which was duly carried into effect on Tower
Hill. "To write of his shameful death," writes



226 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

Froissart, " right sore displeases me ; for when I
was young I found him a noble knight, sage and
wise : yet no excuse could be heard ; and on a
day he was brought out of the Tower and be-
headed like a traitor : God have mercy on his
soul."

Perhaps the most magnificent, and certainly
not the least interesting, tomb in old St. Paul's,
was that of the great John of Gaunt, Duke of
Lancaster. Under an exquisitely carved Gothic
canopy lay his effigy, side by side with that of
his first wife, Blanche, the heiress of the Plan-
tagenets, Dukes of Gloucester. Over his monu-
ment hung his ducal cap of state, as well as his
shield and spear, which had served him so often
and so well in the tournament and on the battle-
field. He was alike the son, the uncle, and the
father of kings; yet, as has been justly observed
of him, he had a far stronger title to nobility
as the supporter of Wickliffe and as the friend
and patron of Chaucer.

The next monument which we shall notice was
to the memory of a man of very different fortunes,
the learned John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, the
friend of Erasmus and Budaeus, and the founder
of St. Paul's School. Surmounting his monument
was his bust in terra-cotta ; while underneath was
represented a skeleton lying on a mat, the upper
part of which was rolled up in the form of a pillow
under its head.



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 227

Another sumptuous monument in the old cathe-
dral was that of the crafty but magnificent favour-
ite, William, first Earl of Pembroke, who died in
1570. Having married Anne, sister of Queen
Katherine Parr, he was consequently brother-in-
law to Henry the Eighth. The effigies of the earl
and his countess lay beneath a beautiful arched
canopy ; their daughter Anne, Lady Talbot, kneel-
ing at their head, and their sons, Henry, Earl of
Pembroke, and Sir Edward Herbert, kneeling at
their feet. According to Stow, such was the
magnificence of Earl William's funeral, that the
mourning presents alone cost 2,000.

Another monument of no slight pretensions
was that of Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of the
great Lord Bacon. Although a civilian, his effigy
represented him in complete armour. Sir Nicholas,
who was the first lord keeper who ranked as lord
chancellor, died in 1578, having caught his death
by sleeping in a chair at an open window.

Perhaps the most insignificant monument in old
St. Paul's for it was merely a board contain-
ing eight indifferent lines in verse x was that of

1 England, Netherland, the heavens, and the arts,
The soldiers, and the world have made six parts
Of the noble Sydney ; for none will suppose
That a small heap of stones can Sydney enclose.
His body hath England, for she it bred ;
Netherland his blood, in her defence shed ;
The heavens have his soul ; the arts have his fame ;
All soldiers the grief, the world his good name.



228 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

the chivalrous Sir Philip Sydney. After having
received his death-wound on the field of Zutphen,
his remains were placed on board a vessel at
Flushing, and having been landed at the Tower
wharf, lay in state for a considerable time in the
Minories. At length, every preparation having
been made for his funeral, his body was brought
from the Minories to St. Paul's, where, on the i6th
of January, 1586-87, it was lowered into the earth.
Such was the sensation created by the death of
this illustrious man, that not only did the public
mourn for him as for a near relative, but, for many
months after his death, "it was accounted inde-
cent," we are told, " for any gentleman of quality
to appear at court or in the city in any light or
gaudy apparel."

In the dead of night, on the 6th of April, 1590,
was lowered into the grave in old St. Paul's, in
silence and stealth, the body of the wily, the elo-
quent, and insinuating Sir Francis Walsingham,
he who, with equal grace and versatility of talent,
had breathed soft nothings into the ear of Queen
Elizabeth, had bandied wit with Henry the Fourth
of France, and had discussed the philosophy of Plato
and the graces of Euripides with James the First.
So far was he from having enriched himself while
employed in the service of his country, that his
friends, apprehensive that his body might be seized
by his creditors, buried him at their own expense
in the stealthy manner to which we have alluded.



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 229

Another magnificent monument was to the
memory of Sir Christopher Hatton, the gallant
Lord Chancellor of England, whose graceful danc-
ing at a masque is said to have first attracted the
notice of Queen Elizabeth.

The last monument which we shall mention is
that of Doctor Donne, to which a curious history
attaches itself. In order to have near him a con-
stant memento of the uncertainty of life, he caused
himself to be wrapped up in a winding-sheet, in
the same manner as if he had been dead. Being
thus shrouded, with so much of the sheet put
aside as served to discover his attenuated form
and deathlike countenance, he caused a skilful
painter to take his picture, his face being pur-
posely turned toward the east, whence he expected
the second coming of our Saviour. This painful
picture he kept constantly by his bedside, and it
afterward served as a pattern for his tomb. In
the last hours of his life he summoned several of
his most intimate friends to his sick-chamber.
Having taken an affectionate farewell of them, he
prepared himself to die with the utmost cheerful-
ness and resignation ; pronouncing with his last
breath the words, "Thy kingdom come, thy will
be done." Of all the monuments in old St. Paul's
Cathedral, it is remarkable that Doctor Donne's
was the only one which remained uninjured by
the great fire. It is still to be seen in the crypt
beneath the present edifice, together with the



230 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

mutilated effigies of Sir Nicholas Bacon, of Dean
Colet, and one or two others.

In old St. Paul's was buried the great painter
Vandyke, but no monument seems to have been
erected to his memory.

At the northeast of St. Paul's Cathedral stood
the famous Paul's Cross. " In the midst of the
churchyard," writes Stow, " is a pulpit-cross of
timber, mounted upon steps of stone, and cov-
ered with lead, in which are sermons preached
by learned divines every Sunday in the fore-
noon ; the very antiquity of which cross is to
me unknown. I read that in the year 1259, King
Henry III. commanded a general assembly to be
made at this cross, where he in proper person com-
manded the mayor that on the next day following
he should cause to be sworn before the aldermen
every stripling of twelve years of age, or upward,
to be true to the king and his heirs, Kings of Eng-
land. Also, in the year 1262, the same king caused
to be read at Paul's Cross a bull, obtained from
Pope Urban IV., as an absolution for him, and for
all that were sworn to maintain the articles made
in Parliament at Oxford. Also, in the year 1 299,
the Dean of Paul's cursed, at Paul's Cross, all those
which had searched in the church of St. Martin-in-
the-Field for a hoard of gold. This pulpit-cross
was, by tempest of lightning and thunder, defaced.
Thomas Kempe, Bishop of London, new built it in
form as it now standeth."



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 231

Anciently, on the occasion of sermons being
preached at Paul's Cross, seats were set apart in
covered galleries for the king, the lord mayor, and
the principal citizens, while the remaining part of
the congregation sat in the open air. At Paul's
Cross the Church of Rome was accustomed for
centuries to thunder forth its anathemas on trans-
gressors against its will and power. Here it was
the custom to announce to the assembled citizens
the will and pleasure of the sovereign and the bulls
of the Pope. Hither the Kings of England were
accustomed to repair, whether to listen to some
eminent preacher or to return thanks for the suc-
cess of their arms. Here royal marriages were
proclaimed, and rebellious subjects denounced; and
lastly, here it was that the wanton were made to
perform penance, and the apostate to recant his
religious errors with the emblematical faggot in
his arms.

It was at Paul's Cross, in 1457, that the well-
known Reginald Peacocke, Bishop of Chichester,
submitted to the degrading ceremony of publicly
recanting the religious opinions which he had
advanced in his writings. " Let no one," writes
Southey, " reproach his memory because martyr-
dom was not his choice ! Considering the extreme
humiliation to which he submitted, it can hardly be
doubted but that death would have been the pref-
erable alternative, had he not acted under a sense
of duty. He was brought in his episcopal habit to



232 LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES.

St. Paul's Cross, in the presence of twenty thou-
sand people, and placed at the archbishop's feet,
while fourteen of his books were presented to the
Bishops of London, Rochester, and Dunholm, as
judges. These books he was ordered to deliver
with his own hands to the person by whom they
were to be thrown into the fire, there ready for
that purpose. Then standing up at the cross, he
read his abjuration in English, confessing that, pre-
suming upon his own natural wit, and preferring
the natural judgment of reason before the Scrip-
tures, and the determination of the Church, he had
published many perilous and pernicious books, con-
taining heresies and errors, which he then specified
as they had been charged against him." As many
copies of his books as could be collected were then
thrown into the flames.

It was at Paul's Cross, as has been already
intimated, that Jane Shore, the beloved mistress
of Edward the Fourth, was compelled to perform
penance and to confess her transgression before
the assembled multitude. " In her penance,"
writes Holinshed, " she went in countenance and
pace demure ; so womanly, that albeit she was out
of all array, save her kirtle only, yet went she so
fair and lovely, while the wondering of the people
cast a comely red in her cheeks (of which she be-
fore had most want) that her great shame was her
most praise amongst those that were more amorous
of her body than curious of her soul."



LONDON AND ITS CELEBRITIES. 233

When Richard the Third, then Duke of Glouces-
ter, had matured his designs of taking the crown
from the head of his nephew and placing it on his
own, it was from the pulpit at Paul's Cross that
he caused his intentions to be announced to the
astonished multitude. The preacher appointed
for the occasion was Dr. John Shaw, brother of
the lord mayor.

In 1501, we find the marriage of Margaret,
daughter of Henry the Seventh, with James the
Fourth of Scotland, proclaimed with great cere-
mony at Paul's Cross. The Te Deum was sung ;
and at night bonfires blazed in the streets, and
twelve hogsheads of wine were distributed among
the citizens.

Paul's Cross is intimately associated with the
progress of the Reformation in England. Henry
the Eighth engaged the most eminent divines here
to preach against the Pope's supremacy, and here,
in the reign of Edward the Sixth, Bishop Latimer
upheld the doctrines for which he afterward suf-
fered martyrdom in the flames. Another illustrious


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