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husband she resided at the old family homestead,
with her son, Leonidas, who acted as her business
manager until the time of her death. Mr. and
Mrs. Cartwright were beloved by all who knew
them and numbered among their friends all of the
old settlers in San Augustine and adjoining coun-
ties. Columbus Cartwright, the eldest son, was
born in San Augustine August 23, 1837, and still
resides at the old home. He is engaged in the
real estate business, is a very worthy and highly
respected citizen, and is beloved by those among
whom he has so long resided.

A. P. Cartwright, the second son, born March
27, 1840, was a merchant and dealer in real estate
and a fine business man, but was cut short in his
career by the fatal disease, black jaundice, August
11, 1873, at the age of thirty-three years. He was
one of nature's noblemen, honored by all who
knew him, and his death cast a gloom over the
town in which he lived.

Leonidas, Cartwright, the third son, born No-
vember 27, 1842, at San Augustine, was engaged
in the mercantile business with his father and
brother, A. P. Cartwirght, from 1865 to
1869, but in 1870 devoted himself to farming, his
health having become impaired under confinement
in the store. After the death of his father, he
became business manager for his mother in con-
nection with the management of his own real estate
interests and resided at San Augustine until 1895,
when, in April of that year, he removed to Terrell,
Texas, where he has since continued in the real
estate business and is interested to some extent
in live stock, raising fine horses and cattle.

Columbus, A. P., and Leonidas Cartwright were
all in the Confederate army, the former in the
Trans-Mississippi Department under Gen. E. Kirby




MATTHKW CARTWRIGHT.




MRS. MATTHEW CARTWRIGHT.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



633



Smith. A. P. Cartwright served ia the Missouri
campaign under Gens. Ben McCulloch and Ster-
ling Price— in 1861 and 1862, until after the battle
of Elk Horn, when the Third Texas Cavalry was
transferred to Mississippi. He was First Lieuten-
ant of Company E., in that regiment, but resigned
in the spring of 1862 and served during the re-
mainder of the war in Louisiana and Texas in Gen.
Major's Brigade. Leonidas Cartwright was a
member of Company E.,Tliird Texas Cavalry, and
served through the war with it, first under Gens.
McCulloch and Price in Missouri and afterwards in
Mississippi, Tennessee and Georgia under the
several commanders who succeeded Gen. A. S.
Johnson in command of the army of Tennessee, viz. :
Beauregard, 'Bragg, Joseph E. Johnson, and Hood.
Matthew Cartwright, their fourth and youngest
son, born August 11, 1855, resides at Terrell,
Texas, where he is engaged in the real estate and
live stocli business, is president of the First National
Bank, and is Mayor of the city. He has lived in
Terrell since 1875 and is highly respected (in fact
is beloved by all who know him), being of that
generous and warm-hearted nature that wins the
affections of those who come in contact with him in
a social or business way. He has been very suc-
cessful in business, and for years has worked as few
citizens of that place have worked in the upbuild-
ing of the best interests of Terrell.



Mrs. Anna W. Roberts, a daughter of Mr-
Matthew and Mrs. Amanda Cartwright, was born
April 6th, 1844, and resided at San Augustine until
1888, when she moved to Terrell, Texas; after the
death of her late husband, B. T. Roberts, by whom
she had seven children, all living and three of them
grown to man's estate, active business men and
useful citizens of Terrell. She is one of those
lovable women who live to do good and to train
and teach the members of their families to be
ambitious, to excel in the faithful discharge of the
duties of citizenship.

Mrs. Mary C. Ingram, the second daughter, wife
of Capt. J. M. Ingram, now resides at Sexton,
Sabine County, Texas, on Capt. Ingram's father's
old homestead, but is building a residence at Ter-
rell, intending to make that place their future
home. She was born October 18, 1845, at San
Augustine. After her marriage she resided near
Opelousas, La., until 1870, when they removed to
San Augustine and thence from which place they
moved in 1873 to their present home. She will be
missed in her old home where, by her noble Chris-
tian example, she has won the affections of her
neighbors, and will leave many warm friends to
regret that she saw fit to leave them. But, too,
warm hearts will give her and hers a hearty welcome
to Terrell.



W. U. C. HILL,

DALLAS.



W. M. C. Hill, the efficient postmaster at Dallas
and also a prosperous and progressive farmer and
stock-raiser in Dallas County, was born in Franklin,
Simpson County, Ky., April 5th, 1846, the sixth
of a family of ten children born to Isaac and
Pauline (Carter) Hill, natives of Virginia and Ten-
nessee. The father, a mechanic by trade, was
married in Tennessee and at an early date located
at Franklin, Ky. In 1861 he started for Texas and
died en route at Shreveport, La., in September, and
the mother and youngest daughter, Amanda, also
died about the same time from fever contracted on
the 'journey. Our subject and his sister, now Mrs.
C. G. Gracey, were thus left alone, but were taken
care of by their brother-in-law, J. P. Goodnight.
In 1862, Mr. Hill enlisted, in Dallas County, in Com-



pany K., Nineteenth Texas Cavalry, for three years,
or during the war, and served principally in Arkan-
sas and Mississippi. He was also in the Red River
campaign in Louisiana and at the close of the war
returned to Dallas County and followed freighting
for four years. In 1871 he engaged as clerk for
Uhlman & Co., with whom he remained for four
3'ears. In May, 1875, he engaged in the wholesale
and retail grocery business. In November, 1882,
he was elected County Clerk of Dallas County and
served until 1888, since which time be has been
engaged in breeding fine stock. He has a large
stock ranch of 3,000 acres in Dallas County, where
he is principally engaged in breeding mules and
trotting horses, and raising graded short-horn
cattle. He has opened up Fairview Addition to



634



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



the city of Dallas, has made many profitable in-
vestments in land in Dallas, and is one of the
directors of the American National Bank of that
city. In August, 1885, Mr. Hill bought a lot and
built a fine residence on G-aston avenue, where he
now resides. Politically, he votes with the Demo-
cratic party and in 1877 was elected an Alderman
of the city, which position he resigned after one
year. He is a member of Tannehill Lodge, A. F.
& A. M., has passed all the chairs of Dallas Chap-
ter No. 47, R. A. M., is a member of Dallas Com-
mandery No. 6, and of K. of P. Coeur de Lion
Lodge No. 70. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hill are mem-
bers of the East Dallas Baptist Church.

Mr. Hill was married in Ellis County, Texas, in
July, 1875, to Lena Bullard, a native of Missouri,
and daughter of John Bullard, a native of Ten-
nessee. Mrs. Hill's mother, nee Parmelia Hodges,



was born in Tennessee and died about 1858 in
Missouri.

The father afterwards emigrated with his slaves
to Ellis County, settling first near the Louisiana
line in Texas and later near Waxahachie, where he
bought land. He died at the home of Mr. Hill in
Dallas, in October, 1876. Our subject's father
was prominent in politics in Kentucky for many
years. He was a member of the Church and was
well and favorably known. His wife was a Church
member from her girlhood days and was an excellent
and pious woman.

Mr. Hill was appointed Postmaster at Dallas by
President Cleveland and has discharged the duties
of that position in such a manner as to win the
highest encomiums from the department and to give
entire satisfaction to the people. Dallas has no
worthier or more popular citizen.



SAMUEL D. HARLAN,



AUSTIN.



The subject of this brief memoir, Capt. Harlan,
was an early navigator of Galveston Bay, Buffalo
Bayou, the Brazos and the Trinity.

Capt. Harlan was about twenty years of age
when he embarked at Pittsburg, Pa., on the steam-
boat" Washington," forTexas. The " Washington"
had been built at Pittsburg for the Texas trade and
made her voyage safely. He landed at Galveston
and in time became one of the originators and pro-
moters of the Houston Direct Navigation Company
and one of its most influential stockholders. This
company has done more for the advancement and
growth of the city of Houston and the develop-
ment of its contiguous territory than any other one
business enterprise. At the beginning of the late
war he promptly identified himself with the South-
ern Confederacy and, upon offering his services to
the government, was detailed as a purchasing
agent. He served as such in Texas during the
conflict, devoting the greater part of his time to
buying mules and horses for the service. After the



war he returned to Galveston and engaged in the
cotton trade. He also acquired business interests
at Leadville, Colo., and Chicago, 111. From over-
work and exposure he contracted disabilities which
resulted in a gradual decline in health. He located
in Austin in 1887, which was thereafter, to the time
of his death, August 14th, 1889, his home. He
died at Waukesha, Wis.

Capt. Harlan married at Washington, on the
Brazos, Miss Martha, a daughter of B. McGregor,
a Texas pioneer of 1844. Capt. Harlan was unob-
trusive in manner. He was a man of strict integ-
rity, social and affable and of noble and generous
impulses.

He left a wide circle of friends and a valuable
estate.

Mrs. Harlan and five children survive. The
children are: Mrs. Mary E., widow of Sam J.
Doggett, of Chicago ; Samuel D. Harlan, of Austin ;
and Ada, Lillie and Robert.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEEUS OF TEXAS.



636



THOMAS J. RUSK,



NACOGDOCHES,



Was born in Pendleton District, S. C, Decem-
ber 5th, 1803. He early attracted the atten-
tion of John C. Calhoun, under whose counsels he
was educated and studied law. He then settled in
Georgia, rose rapidly at the bar, married an ac-
complished daughter of Gen. Cleveland and moved
to Nacogdoches, Texas, in the winter of 1834-35.
In personal appearance he was of tall and com-
manding presence, bad a dark, ruddy complexion.



Nacogdoches and his name is affixed to the declara-
tion. Thence till his death in 1857, his history
formed a large and inseparable part of that of
Texas.

By David G. Burnet, the President ad interim
from March to October, 1836, he was made Secre-
tary of War, and later was sent forward to the
army and was a leading actor at the battle of San
Jacinto. When Gen. Houston retired early in May




THOMAS J. RUSK.



deep set and benevolent eyes, and kindly and en-
gaging features instinct with sensibility and reflect-
ing the noble soul within. A single glance won
every heart, and the whole people took him on
trust. Without desire or effort upon his part, he
became the leader of the people of the old munici-
pality of Nacogdoches in the first faint stirrings of
a bloody revolution.

The convention which declared Texas an inde-
pendent Republic met at Washington, on the Brazos,
March 1, 1836. Rusk was there as a delegate from



in search of medical treatment in New Orleans
Rusk was made Commander-in-Chief of the army,
and, at its head, followed the retreating Mexicans
to Goliad. There he called a halt, caused the bones
of Fannin's four hundred and eighty massacred
men to be collected and interred, and over the
remains of the martyred dead delivered an address
that moistened the cheeks of every man in the motley
group of half-naked, half-starved and illy-armed
volunteer soldiery, who with him performed these
last sad rites. For a few months he remained in



636



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



command of the army ; then returned to his home
in Nacogdoches, where he was elected to the first
Congress of the Republic. By that body he was
elected a Brigadier-General of the Republic and as
such in October, 1838, fought and defeated a large
body of Indians at the Kickapoo village in East
Texas.

In July, 1839, he commanded a portion of the
troops in the Cherokee battles of July 16 and
17. In the same year he was elected by Con-
gress, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the
Republic, and held the first term at Austin in the
winter of 1839-40. Under the Republic the
Chief Justice and the District Judges composed
the Supreme Court. He held the position for a
time, then resigned it and devoted himself to the
practice of law, in which he had but a single rival
in East Texas, in the person of his friend. Gen. J.
Pinckney Henderson. He loved the freedom of
retirement and had no taste for office-seeking or
ofHce-holding. However, in 1845, when a conven-
tion was called to form a constitution for Texas as
a proposed State of the Union, he was unanimously
elected a delegate from Nacogdoches. When the
convention assembled on the fourth of July, he was
unanimously elected its president, and when the
Legislature, under its new constitution, assembled
on the 16th of February, 1846, he was elected
by the unanimous vote, of both the Senate and
House, to be one of the two first Senators from the
State of Texas to the Congress of the United States,
his colleague being Gen. Sam. Houston. In 1843
he had been elected Major-General of the Re-
public.

Together, they took their seats in March, 1846 —
together, by the re-election of each, they sat eleven
years, till the melancholy death of Rusk in 1857.
Together, they represented the sovereignty arid
defended the rights of Texas — together, they shed
luster on their State — together, they sustained
President Polk in the prosecution of the Mexican
War — together, they, each for himself, declined a
proffered Major-Generalship in the army of inva-
sion in Mexico — together, they labored to give
Texas the full benefit of her mergence into the
Union in regard to mail routes, frontier protection
and custom house facilities — together, they labored
in behalf of the compromises of 1850, the adjust-
ment of the boundary of Texas and sale (as a peace
offering), of our Northwest Territory to the United
States — and together, they sought to encourage the



construction of a transcontinental railway, on the
parallel of thirty-two degrees north latitude from
the Mississippi river and the Gulf of Mexico,
through Texas, to the Pacific Ocean, an achieve-
ment that found its final accomplishment Decem-
ber 1, 1881, twenty-four years after the death of
Rusk.

For several years Gen. Rusk was elected to
the honorable position of president pro tern, of the
United States Senate and presided with a dignity
and impartiality that commanded the respect and
esteem of every member of that body.

In 1854, with a select band of friends, he
traversed Texas from east to west on the parallel of
thirty-two degrees to see for himself the prac-
ticability of a railway route, and became thor-
oughly satisfied of its feasibility and cheap-
ness. He was a wise man in his day and
generation, a just man in all the relations of life,
a true patriot, a husband and father tender to
weakness, a friend guileless and true, an orator
persuasive and convincing, a soldier from a sense
of duty, in battle fearless as a tiger, in peace
gentle as a dove ; ambitious only for an honorable
name, honorably won, and regarded as dross the
tinsel, display and pomp of ephemeral splendor.
In a word, Thomas J. Rusk was a marked mani-
festation of nature's goodness in the creation of
one of her noblest handiworks. When he died
Texas mourned from hut to palace, for the whole
people, even the slaves, wherever known to them,
loved him.

Would that I could reproduce a few sentences
from the eulogy upon him by that peerless son of
Texas, the late Thomas M. Jack, before a weeping
audience in Galveston. But my copy of it is
among the treasures lost in the late war.

Fidelity to truth bids the statement — so painful
to a whole commonwealth — that this noble citizen,
patriot and statesman, died by his own hand, at
his own home, in Nacogdoches, in the summer of
1857.

His cherished and adored wife, to whom he was
not only attached with rare devotion, but for whom
he had a reverence as remarkable as beautiful, had
died a little before. His grief, quiet but unap-
peasable, superinduced melancholy. A ravenous
carbuncle at the base of the skull racked his brain,
and, in a moment of temporary aberration, he took
his own life, by shooting himself with a gun, and
his soul went hence to a merciful God.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



637



JOHN H. SEARS, M. D.,

WACO.



Dr. Sears is known throughout the State as one
of the pioneers of the medical profession in Texas.

Born in what was at the time Prince Edward, but
now Appomattox, County, Virginia, October 9th,
1826, he was reared under the stable and staid
influence of one of the most historic and patriotic
communities of the Old Dominion. His father,
John Sears, was a thrifty and successful planter
who lived near Appomattox Court House, and the
history of his antecedents, both paternal and



attended a course of medical lectures. Later he
studied medicine at the South Carolina Medical
College, at Charleston, graduating and receiving
his diploma therefrom in the year 1852. He had
visited Texas in 1848, and shortly after the com-
pletion of his medical studies moved to Texas,
influenced in so doing, perhaps, by an elder brother
who had located and become fairly established as a
farmer in Brazoria County. After a brief visit to
his brother. Dr. Sears located for a short time at




JOHN H. SEARS, M. D.



maternal, for generations, dates back to the early
days of Virginia's history. His father was born in
Prince Edward County in 1798 and died in 1890, at
ninety-one years of age.

Dr. Sears' boyhood and youth were spent on the
old homestead where he, with other members of the
family, enjoyed the privileges of good society, good
schooling and a careful and judicious home train-
ing.

After receiving preliminary instruction at Davis
Academy, where he took a special course of study
embracing Greek, Latin and mathematics, he
entered the University of Virginia, where lie



Port Sullivan, where he remained until 1854, and
then moved to Waco, which has ever since been his
home. What is now the beautiful, bustling city of
Waco was then a frontier trading-post, consisting
of one general store and three houses, one of which
was a public stopping-place. Here Dr. Sears " put
out his shingle" and entered upon the practice of
his profession with that vigor and conscientious
devotion to duty that has ever characterized his
professional life. His practice extended over a
wide scope of country, covering the surrounding
counties of Bosque, Hill, Navarro, Limestone, Falls,
Bell, Coiyeli, and adjacent territory.



€38



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



There are probably few, if any, physicians in
Texas who have seen more of pioneer life and had
wider experience as a frontier physician than the
subject of this memoir. As the country became
settled and Waco developed, Dr. Sears' profes-
sional labors were contracted to his home city and
its environs.

Dr. Sears married October 12th, 1854, Mrs.
Angie Amelia Downs, nee Gurley. She was born
in Alabama ; a daughter of Davis Gurley.

Dr. and Mrs. Sears have two daughters and one
son, viz. . Sallie, wife of Mr. J. W. Taylor, the
present efficient District Attorney of McLennan
County ; Mary, wife of Jesse N. Gallagher, of
Waco and candidate for election to the office of
County Judge of McLennan County this year,
1896, and John Sears, a candidate for District Clerk
of McLennan County.

When the clouds of war lowered over the coun-
try. Dr. Sears aligned himself with the cause of
the Confederate States and in 1862 joined the



Thirty-second Texas Cavalry and served as its sur-
geon during the conflict between the States. His
regiment became attached to the army brigade
under command of Gen. Gano, and Dr. Sears was
promoted to the position of Division Surgeon with
the ranli of Major.

When the war closed he returned to his home
and resumed his medical practice. Successful in
all that he attempts, his life and best energies have
been faithfully devoted to his professional labors.
He has long counted among his patients many of
the leading men and women of Central Texas, and
from the time of his arrival in that section has dis-
tinguished himself as a physician and surgeon.
Lofty-minded strength of purpose and a scrupulous
regard for the ethics of the profession are qualities
that have marked his career. He is physically and
mentally well preserved, although in his seventieth
year, and apparently many years of usefulness yet
await him.



ROBERT CALVERT,



ROBERTSON COUNTY.



The subject of this sketch, Judge Robert Calvert,
was born near Wartrace, Tenn., February 9, 1802,
and came of pioneer stock, his parents and grand-
parents being among the early settlers of the trans-
AUeghany country.

His father was William Calvert and his mother,
before marriage, was Lucy Rogers, both reared in
Tennessee, and the latter a native of that State.
His ancestry on his father's side is traced to Ire-
land and on his mother's side to England. His
parental grandfather emigrated from Ireland to
America towards the close of the last century and
settled in Winchester, Va., wlienee he moved at a
later date to Tennessee. He was a Scotch-Irish
Presbyterian and was amply endowed with the
rugged virtues and strict religious views for which
his people were distinguished. Robert was reared
to the practice of these virtues and schooled in the
same religio.us faith, never departing from them in
after life. He grew up in Tennessee and North
Alabama, his parents moving to the latter State
during his boyhood. In Bibb County, Ala., on the
28th of August, 1823, he married Miss Mary
Keesee and, settling on a farm, resided there until



1838. He then moved to Saline County, Ark.,
whence in 1850 he came to Texas and settled in
Robertson County.

In Alabama, Arkansas and Texas, Judge Cal-
vert was engaged in agricultural pursuits, in which
he met with noteworthy success. His plantation in
the Brazos Bottoms was not only the first opened
in that section of Robertson County, but was for
years one of the best equipped and best conducted,
and from its fruitful Belds was annually gathered a
wealth of cotton and corn, then, as now, the
sovereign products of that valley. In a rapidly
settling country, such as Texas was during the early
years of Judge Calvert's residence here, there was a
constant demand for corn and bacon to supply the
incoming settlers, and these commodities he always
had in abundance and sold at reasonable prices.
He was engrossed almost entirely with his farm-
ing operations, but interested himself in a general
way in everything going on around him and was a
firm friend to all sorts of public improvements.
He advocated the extension of the Houston &
Texas Central Railway, through Robertson County,
and, as contractor in connection with Judge William




EOBT. CALVERT.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



639



Davis and Maj. William Hanna, he graded several
miles of that road.

He was past the age for military service during
the late war, but was a friend of the South and gave
the cause of the Confederacy very substantial aid,
fitting the wagon-trains and supplying the soldiers
with horses and equipments. His only son, William
Calvert, was suffering from disease contracted in
the Mexican War and was also unQt for service, but
a grandson, Robert Calvert, then in his eighteenth
year, enlisted and died in the army.

After the war Judge Calvert set himself to work
to repair his wasted fortunes, and during the time
he lived he succeeded admirably with the task. He
was a man of fine business qualifications, had an
extensive acquaintance with the leading men of
Texas, and took up the problems of peace in 1865
with much better prospects of success than did any
of his associates, but unfortunately his life was not
spared to carry forward the work of adjustment
thus begun.

Judge Calvert's only public service in Texas was
as a Eepresentative from Robertson County to the
State Legislature for several terms between 1853
and 1860. During that time he made a creditable
record and strengthened the confidence of the peo-
ple in his honor and ability. In Arkansas he had
been for several terms County Judge of the county



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