John Henry Brown.

Indian wars and pioneers of Texas online

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dispense a royal hospitality to their numerous
friends in Texas and other States. Mr. Lutcher has
taken a deep interest and been a potent factor in
the development of the Texas coast country.
Every worthy enterprise has found in him a liberal
supporter. He has been a power for good in
Southern Texas. His is a strong, magnetic per-
sonality that would make itself felt in any assem-
blage, however distinguished, or in any field of
effort. He is an ardent Democrat, but with his
father was bitterly opposed to the late war. He
believes that it was brought on by scheming and
reckless demagogues, indifferent to the long train of
miseries they heaped upon their distracted country.
In the prime of a vigorous mental and physical
manhood and approaching the meridian of an un-
usually successful and brilliant career as a financier,
and full of plans for the future, his influence will
be strongly felt in the future growth and develop-
ment of his adopted State.



The present, with all that belongs to it, is the
outgrowth and summing up of the entire past. Its
meaning to be comprehended must be interpreted
by the past.

To the young it is the border-line that separates
them from the land of promise in which they are to
be the dominant factors in the fight for mastery ;
to the old the Pisgah height from which they gaze
backward over the past through which they have
journeyed, and forward to the future in which
others will continue the work they have begun.

The Texas of to-day is far different from the
Texas of the days of the Republic. There have
been many changes and transformations since the
first rifle shot of the Revolution was fired in 1835.
Many men of remarkable genius have trod its soil
and toiled with hand and brain and voice and pen
to shape its destinies and direct the commonwealth

along the upward course which it has pursued to
its present proud position among the States of the
American Union.

The leaders in the work of pioneer settlement,
the daring spirits who fomented and led the
pre- revolutionary movements, the heroes and
martyrs of the struggle for independence, the
presidents and cabinet oflicers of the days of the
Republic and the men who laid the foundation of
our State institutions have nearly all passed away.

The only surviving Treasurer of the Republic of
Texas is the subject of this sketch, Mr. James H.
Raymond, now a resident of the city of Austin,
with whose prosperity he has been identified for
many years and where he has rounded out a career
as a financier that, in point of success and brill-
iancy, is paralleled by that of few other men in
the State.

En^ '-"iy W T B atli ei-, B kl>T.

SA% Mo ^AVRa®WE)o



James Harvey Raymond was born the 30th
day of June, 1817, in Washington County, New
•York. He was named after Dr. Harvey, the re-
nowned religious and metaphysical writer.

William Raymond, father of the subject of this
■biographical sketch, was born in Connecticut, and
-died in Genesee County, New York, in 1847,
having located there in 1825. He was a merchant
trader, and was well and favorably known in the
community where he resided. He married Mary
Kellogg, daughter of Justin Kellogg, one of the
native farmers of Connecticut. She was an exem-
plary wife and mother, remarkable for all those
qualities of mind and heart which shine with
undimmed brilliancy around the domestic hearth,
and to her is the son indebted for the practical
habits of his life. The greater portion of his early
life was passed in Genesee County, New York,
upon a farm, where he was inured to hard labor,
enjoying no other educational advantages than
were afforded by the ordinary country schools,
which he was only permitted to attend at intervals.
In 1832, being then but fifteen years old, he aban-
doned his home and the State of his nativity, and
came to Cincinnati, Ohio, where; and at Newport
across the Ohio river in Kentuckj', he was engaged
in clerking until 1836. In that year he returned
to New York and clerked at Batavia until 1839,
when he determined to emigrate. Texas was
selected as the objective point, and his plans were
immediately put into execution.

He started, but on the way stopped at Natchez,
Miss., where he remained a short time, proceeding
from thence to Woodville, Wilkinson County,
Miss. Here he passed nearly a year studying
and practicing the rudiments of surveying with
the intention of following that occupation on his
arrival in Texas. In July, 1840, he landed in
Galveston and proceeded thence to Houston, from
which place he went on foot to Franklin, in Robert-
son County. Here he was employed as Deputy
Surveyor to accompany an expedition to the upper
Brazos country. However, in a few days, and
after all necessary preparations were nearly com-
pleted, hostile Indians approached the locality and
the contemplated expedition was abandoned, much
to his chagrin. In October following he went
to Austin in company with Geo. W. Hill, after-
ward Secretary of War under President Houston,
but at that time a member of the Congress of the
Republic of Texas. On his arrival at Austin he
was made Journal Clerk of the House of Repre-
sentatives of the Fourth Congress. In April,
1841, Gen. Lamar, who was then President
of the Republic, appointed him Acting Treas-

urer, the duties Of which office he discharged
with fidelity and marked: ability. In November,
■1841, he was elected by the Fifth Congress Chief _
Clerk of the House of Representatives and in
.this office he was retained by continued annual
elections until 1845, when the Republic ceased its
existence and Texas became a member of the Fed-
' eral Union. In 1842 he served as a soldier in
the expedition organized to repel the Vasquez and
Woll invasions, and in 1844 was appointed Treas-
urer by Gen. Houston, and discharged the duties
of that office in connection with his other offices.
In 1845 he was secretary of the convention that
framed the first State constitution and in February,
J846, was elected chief clerk of the House of Rep-
resentatives of the legislature convened after the
admission of Texas into the Union as a State. He
served but a few days, when he resigned and was
elected State Treasurer, the first Treasurer of the
State of Texas. To this office he was continually
chosen by annual election until November, 1858.
Two years afterward he began banking at Austin
as a member of the banking house of John W.
Swisher & Company, which, in 1861, changed its
uame to Raymond & Swisher, and in 1868 to Ray-
mond & Whites. In June, 1876, Mr. Frank Hamil-
ton and James R. Johnson purchased the interest
of Mr. Whites, and since that time the business
has been conducted under the firm name and style
of James H. Raymond & Company. The State
Agricultural and Mechanical College was erected
under the supervision of a commission of which he
was a member. As a member of this commission
and in other official positions of minor importance
that he has since held from time to time, he has
discharged the duties intrusted to him in a most
satisfactory manner.

In 1843 he was married in Washington, Texas,
to Miss Margaret Johnston, then recently from
Troy, Ohio.

His political connections have been those of the
dominant party in the South and marked by firm-
ness and consistency and a fearless advocacy. He
has never been blind to the political wants of his

In developing the great resources of Texas he
has performed an important part. In religion he
is a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church,
and has been one of the wardens of Austin Church
for fifteen years.

The most attractive scenes with which nature de-
lights the eye owe their charm to the effects of
light and shade. It would be impossible even for
an Angelo to give expression to the visions that fiit
across the horizon of his soul if he employed only



pigments that were bright. Virtue and honor and
courage would be but idle names if there were no
, temptations to evil, no allurements to draw the un-
wary from the patli of rectitude, and no dangers
arose on the way. Human Iffe would lose its beauty,
its pathos and its purpose but for the trials that
accompany it. Sad it is to note those who fall, but
deep and lasting and full of usefulness are the"
lessons taught by the lives of those who guide
their course by the pole-star of duty and perform
the tasks that Providence allots them.

Mr. Raymond has lived beyond three score
years and ten. He has been a moving spirit in

some of the most stirring scenes that have trans-
pired upon the continent and the intimate associate
not only of such men of an earlier day, as Houston,
but of those who have succeeded them as pilotg ^
the ship of State. Jt has fallen to his fortune to,
in a quiet way, perform many valuable public ser-
vices. He has done his duty, as he saw it, faith-
fully under all circumstances, and now, in the quiet
evening of his life and in the enjoyment of the
financial independence that has come to him as
the reward of the labors of former years, he enjoys
the confidence and sincere esteem of the people of



The life and labors of this well remembered
patriot, honored citizen and faithful public servant,
were such as to entitle his name to a place upon
some of the brightest of the undying pages of his
country's history. He was born at Bryan's Mines
on the banks of the Hazel Run, a branch of the
Tar Blue river, in St. Genevieve County, in the
then territory of Missouri, on the 26th day of Sep-
tember, 1817.

He was the third son of James and Emily Mar-
garet (Austin) Bryan. His father, a merchant and
also a miner and smelter of lead ore at Hazel Run,
died at Herculaneum, on the Mississippi river,
twenty-five miles below St. Louis, in 1823.

Mrs. Bryan married in 1824 James F. Perry, a
merchant at Potosi, Washington County, Mo., a
town laid off by her father, Moses Austin, when the
territory belonged to Spain. Young Bryan at-
tended school at Potosi until eleven years of age
and was then employed as a clerk in Perry &
Hunter's store about a year when the firm deter-
mined to move to Texas. He accompanied W. W,
Hunter with the goods down the Mississippi river
to New Orleans, and January 3, 1831, the schooner
Maria, upon which he was a passenger, entered
the mouth of the Brazos, and three days later he
put foot upon Texas soil at the town of Brazoria
and proceeded with Mr. Hunter to San Felipe de
Austin, reaching that place January 10, 1831. In
three or four weeks Perry & Hunter's store was
opened and Bryan worked in it as a clerk during
1831, selling goods to pioneers, hunters and Lipan

and Carancahua Indians. In June of that year he
boarded with "Uncle Jimmy" and "Aunt
Betsey " Whitesides, who were among the settlers
of Stephen F. Austin's first colony. Col. Ira Ran-
dolph Lewis, with his wife and two daughters,
Cora and Stella, arrived in San Felipe at this time
and boarded at the same house. Cora Lewis was
then an infant. In after years, when she reached
lovely womanhood, she became Maj. Bryan's wife.
Stephen F. Austin was absent from San Felipe
when young Bryan arrived. When he returned,
the latter, who had not seen him for more than
ten years, called upon him at the house of Samuel
M. Williams, who was Secretary of Austin's colony,
and was cordially received.

Stephen F. Austin was then a member of the leg-
islature of Coahuila and Texas and invited his
Dephew to accompany him, as his private secretary,
to the city of Saltillo, capital of the provinces.
The offer was accepted and, after an interesting
journey through a country then almost entirely un-
inhabited, they arrived 'at Saltillo, reaching their
destination about the first of April, 1832. In June
the legislature adjourned until fall and Austin left
for Matamoros to see Gen. Terran, commander
of the military district including the Eastern States
bordering on the Rio Grande. While leisurely
prosecuting this journey he heard of the troubles
occurring in Texas and that Gen. Mexia had been
sent with four armed vessels and troops to the
mouth of the Brazos to quell the outbreak. He
therefore hastened forward with the utmost dis-

^^^yf^^c^c..,u^ c^^^.^'^cS^^ ^^^<^



patch, joined Mexia and went with him to Texas,
leaving bis horses, mules and traveling equipage
with Mr. Bedell, expecting to return in the
autumn and attend the session of the legisla-
ture. However, he found the political waters so
stirred by the battles of Anahuac and Velasco be-
tween the colonists and Mexican soldiers, that he
concluded to remain, and wrote to his nephew that
Mr. Bedell and three or four friends would take
goods to the State fair at Saltillo to be held on the
10th of September, the anniversary of the declara-
tion of Mexican independence, and he could return
with them to Matamoros, where Mr. Bedell would
give him the horses, mules and baggage and furnish
a trusty Mexican to pilot the way to San Felipe.

On approaching Goliad, the Mexican heard the
people talk of the battles of Anahuac and Velasco
and refused to proceed further. The alcalde of
the town, however, furnished a guide for the re-
mainder of the journey. On reaching his destina-
tion Bryan at once visited his mother at her home
on Chocolate Bayou. In December, 1832, his step-
father moved the family to Peach Point, ten miles
below Brazoria, where Mrs. Perry, Maj. Bryan's
sister-in-law, now resides.

After visiting his mother, Maj. Bryan returned
to San Felipe, where he re-entered Perry & Hunter's
store. He clerked for them until 1833 and then
clerked for Perry & Somervell. In 1835 he was a
clerk in the land-offlce of Austin's colony and when
Austin, in August, 1835, returned to Texas, after
his long imprisonment in Mexico, and was made
chairman of the Central Committee of Safety at
San Felipe, served with Gail Borden, as Austin's
secretary. In September of the same year Maj.
Bryan participated in the attack upon Thompson's
Mexican warship the Carreo. He was also among
the first to respond to the call to arms that fol-
lowed the battle of (jronzales (the Texas Lexing-
ton) between the colonists and Mexican troops, the
latter led by Ugartechea, who, following instruct
tions from Santa Anna, had demanded a canHon
which had been given to the jKOple of Gonzales
and they had refused to surrefider. When Austin
was elected General of the patriot forces Bryan
went with him to San Antonio in the capacity of
private secretary, and after Austin left on a mis-
sion to the United States, remained with the army
and took part in the storming and capture of San
Antonio under Johnson and Milam. He was after-
ward more or less intimately associated with Austin
as his private secretary until that remarkable man's
dicath, which occurred on the 27th of December,
1836, at Columbia, in Brazoria County, and owned
the sword that Austin wore while commander of

the Texian army. Maj. Bryan, as a spectator,
and as secretary of Lieutenant-Governor and Act-
ing Governor Bobinson, was at the meeting of the
plenary convention that assembled at Washington
on the Brazos, in March, 1836, and was present
when the committee reported a declaration of in-
dependence, and it was voted on and adopted. As
a sergeant in Capt. Mosley Baker's Company, he
was with Gen. Sam Houston (often acting as his
interpreter) on the retreat from Gonzales to the
San Jacinto river. While on this march he was
ordered by Capt. Baker (who acted under instruc-
tions from headquarters) to burn the town of San
Felipe. The order was the result of an erroneous
report, made by scouts, that the enemj' were close
at hand and about to enter the place. Bryan asked
to be excused, on the ground that he felt a natural
repugnance to having any share in putting the torch
to the first town built in the wilderness by his uncle.
He was relieved from the necessity of performing
this unpleasant duty and the town of San Felipe de
Austin was destroyed by other hands. At last the
fateful day (April 21, 1836) arrived that was to
decide the future destinies of Texas. Although
Maj. Bryan was almost prostrated with fever he
insisted upon taking part with his company in the
charge of Burleson's regiment made at ever memor-
able San Jacinto, and behaved with dislinguished.
gallantry. Three holes were shot through his coat
before the regiment carried the breast-works by
storm. After victory had been won, he did what
he could to check the indiscriminate slaughter of
Mexicans that followed, but the memory of the
massacres at the Alamo and Goliad was fresh in
the minds of the Texas soldiers and his noble
efforts were in vain. He was present when Santa
Anna was brought before Gen. Houston by Col.
Hockley and Maj. Ben Fort Smith, who had taken
charge of the prisoner soon after he had been
brought in by the scouts, Sylvester and Matthews.
Col. Hockley said: "General Houston, here is
Santa Anna." Bryan was perhaps the only mem-
ber of the party who understood Santa Anna's reply.

Gen. Santa Anna said in Spanish: " Yo soie
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Presidente de
Mexico, commandante in jefe del exercito de
operaciones y me pongo a la disposicions del vali-
antes General Houston guiro ser tatado como deber
seren general quando es prisoners de guerra."

His speech in English was: " I am Antonio
Lopez de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, com-
mander-in-chief of the army of operations, and I
put myself at the disposition of the brave General
Houston. I wish to be treated as a general should
be when a prisoner of war."



At the close of this speech Gen. Houston rose
up on his right arm (he was then suffering from a
wound received the day before, a ball having
passed through the bones of his- right leg three
inches above the ankle joint) and replied: "Ah!
ah, indeed! General Santa Anna! Happy to see
you, General. Take a seat, take a seat," moving
his hand toward an old. tool-chest nearby.

In the subsequent interview Col. Almonte acted
as interpreter. Santa Anna made a-proposition to
issue an order for (pl-en. Filisola to leave- Texas
■with the troops under his command. Gen. Rusk
replied that, his chief being a prisoner, Filisola
would not obey the . order. Santa Anna replied
that su,ch was the attachment of the officers and
soldier^s of the army to him, they would do any-
thing that he told them to do. Gen. Rusk then
said: " Col. Almonte, teU Santa Anna to order
Filisola and army to surrender as prisoners of

Santa Anna replied that he wa,s but a single Mex-
ican, but would do nothing that would be a dis-
grace to him or his nation and they could do with
him as they- would. He said that he was willing to
issue an order to Filisola to leave Texas. It was
finally decided that he should do so, the order was
issued and a body of mounted Texians, commanded
for a time by Col. Burleson and afterwards by Gen.
Thomas Rusk, followed close upon Filisola's rear
and saw that the mandate was promptly obeyed.
Upon this service Maj. Bryan accompanied Gen.
Rusk as a member of his staff, in which capacity
he rendered valuable assistance as Spanish inter-
preter. The command reached Goliad June 1,
1836, and two days thereafter gave Christian bur-
ial to the charred remains of the men who were
massacred with Fannin at that place on the 27th of
the preceding March, by order of Santa Anna.
Gen. Rusk, standing at the edge of the pit, began
an address, but was so overcome by emotion that
he could not finish it. It was a most affecting -and
solemn ceremony.

At this time Maj. Bryan became the bearer of
dispatches from Gen. Rusk to the Spanish General,
Andrada, demanding the surrender of all prisoners
held by him, a demand that was promptly acceded
to. A few days later a Mexican courier arrived at Gen .
Rusk's headquarters with a letter from two Texas
colonels, Karnes and Teel, prisoners at Matamoros,
stating that the Mexicans were assembling a large
army under Gen. Urrea for the purpose of invading
Texas. The letter was concealed in the cane han-
dle of the courier's quirt and was translated by
Maj. Bryan. A copy was sent to President Bur-
net, who at once (June 23, 1836), issued a proc-

lamation calling upon the people to hold themselves
in readiness to respond to a call to arms.

Santa . Anna, called upon to make good his
pledges, stirred up, through his friends in Mexico,
a revolutionary movement that effectually prevented
Urrea from carrying his plans for the invasion of
Texas into execution.

In January, 1839, Maj. Bryan was appointed
Secretary of the Texas legation at Washington,- D.
C, by President Mirabeau B. Lamar, and served as
such for a number of months. Dr. Anson Jones
was the Texian minister to the United States at the

In February, 1840, Maj. Bryan married Miss
Adeline -Lamothe, daughter of Polycarp Lamothe,
a prominent planter of Rapides parish, Louisiana.
In 1842, as first Iteuteaant of a company organized
at Brazoria, he participated in the Rio Grande
expedition commanded by Gen. Somervell, that
resulted in bringing to an inglorious close the
attempt made by the Mexican general, Adrian
Woll, to invade and find a foothold in Texas.
Afier passing through the thrilling experiences
connected with this expedition, Maj. Bryan de-
voted himself to looking after his plantations in
Brazoria and Washington counties. In May, 1854,
Mrs. Bryan died, and in November, 1856, he mar-
ried Miss Cora Lewis, daughter of Col. Ira Ran-
dolph Lewis, an eminent lawyer, who served with
distinction during the trying times of the Texas
revolution. In 1863, Maj. Bryan, fearing an inva-
sion of the coast-country by the Federals, removed
his family to Independence, Washington County;
which place became his permanent residence.

At the beginning of the war between the States
he enlisted in the Confederate army as a private
soldier in the Third Regiment of Texas State troops,
and was elected Major of his regiment. Upon the
organization of the reserve corps he was elected
Major of the First Regiment, and served as such in
Texas until the close of hostilities, making an
excellent record as a soldier and officer. He,
with a few others, was the founder of the Texas
Veterans' Association, organized in May, 1873.
He was elected and served as its secretary until
April, 1886, when he resigned the position and
nominated as his successor his friend. Col. Stephen
H. Darden, who was duly elected. Maj. Bryan
was one of the Association's chief promoters and
leading spirits. He devoted for several years
a large share of his time to correspondence with
its members, gathering a mass of valuable historical
data and papers now in the hands of his son, Hon.
Beauregard Bryan, of Brenham. This matter will
be of great service to the future historian.



Maj. Bryan served for a time as a member of
the Commissioner's Court of Brazoria County, was
active in the building of the Columbia Tap Rail-
road and was at all times an energetic worker in the
cause of higher education. He served for twenty
years as trustee of Baylor University, then located
at Independence, and donated largely to its sup-
port, being a warm friend of its founder. Judge
Baylor. He has done much for the upbuilding of
his section and the State at large, every worthy
enterprise receiving his encouragement and sup-
port. He ■ was a member of the celebrated tax-
payers convention which met in Austin in 1871,
representing Washington County. He was one oi
the committee of five who were appointed to notify
Governor E. J. Davis of the acts of the conven-

• In religion he was an Episcopalian and in politics
always a Democrat, attending as a delegate all the
State and county Democratic conventions up to the
year 1880. Maj. Bryan died at the home of his
son (Hon. Beauregard Bryan) in Brenham, March
16, 1895, after a brief illness. He left five chil-
dren: James, Beauregard, L. R., S. J., and Austin
Bryan, who Were present at his bedside during his
last moments. His wife had died June 9th, 1889.

As the wires conveyed the intelligence of his
death to all parts of the State, the public heart was
stirred as it could have been stirred by few events,
for all realized that a father in Israel had passed
away, that a man whose life connected the present
with all that is brightest and best and most glori-

Online LibraryJohn Henry BrownIndian wars and pioneers of Texas → online text (page 32 of 135)