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mar and Red River counties. Prior to his death he
was vice-president of the Farmers and Merchants
Bank of Paris, a director of the First National Bank



of Jefferson, Texas, and president of the Lamar
Ware House Company, of Paris. He was a con-
sistent member of the M. E. Church, South, over
fifty years, and took a great interest in church work.

In March, 1827, be married Miss Araminta Flan-
agan, of North Carolina. Four children were born
of this union. Only two of these lived to maturity,
Mrs. O. C. Connor, now living in Paris, Texas,
and Mrs. W. B. Ward, who died in 1882, at Jeffer-
son, Texas.

In 1881 Col. Aikin founded what is now known
as Aikin Institute, an educational institution that
has since been given to the city. In 1892 he built
and gave to the city of Paris the Aikin Charity
Hospital at a cost of $12,000. He was a liberal con-
tributor to churches and charitable purposes, and in
every way, to the full extent of his means and per-
sonal influence, sought to promote the best interests
of the community and country. He died at Paris,
Texas, .June 2, 1893, and was buried in Evergreen
cemetery. One of the finest granite monuments
ever erected in Texas now marks his grave ; a
tribute to his memory prompted by the love of Mrs.
O. C. Connor.



222



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEEBS OF TEXAS.



J. J. GROOS,



NEW BRAUNSFELS.



The late Capt. Johann Jacob Groos, a man of
fine intelligence and great strength of character,
was well known throughout the State of Texas as
one of her most respected and influential pioneers.
He was a native of Germany, born at Offenbach,
March 6, 1824 ; received good schooling and learned
civil engineering. He came to America with a
young wife and landed at Indianola as a member
of the German Emigration Company's party, who
were the pioneers of their day, and who did so
much to open and develop the portion of the State
of Texas in which they settled. He brought little
with him to this country besides a stout heart,
a strong constitution, a large stock of enterprise
and grit, and a willing and ready helpmeet. He
early took up surveying and had much to do with
the location and surveying of lands in Comal,
Bexar, Kendall and adjoining counties. He lived
many years at New Braunfels where he held the
office of county surveyor of Comal County. In
the meantime he also engaged in farming. During
the late war he served as Captain of Confederate
militia, and in that capacity aided in checking
Indian depredations on the frontier. From 1869
to 1872 he kept the Guadalupe Hotel at New
Braunfels and was a popular host. He was then



elected Commissioner of the General Land Office
of the State of Texas, in which position he served
the people until bis death, which occurred at
Austin in 1878 in his fifty-fourth year. His wife
died two years earlier, in 1876, at fifty-two years
of age. Mr. and Mrs. Groos left seven children,
all born in Texas. Otto, forty-eight years of age,
the oldest living, is a banker, farmer and success-
ful business man at Kyle, Texas. Herman is a
farmer near Kyle. Emma is the wife of Mr.
George Schnabel, and resides with her husband at
Burnet. August, forty-two years of age, holds
a position in the office of the State Comptroller of
Public Accounts. William, forty years of age, is
a farmer and stock-raiser at Munroe, Oregon.
Martin E., thirty-five years of age, is chief clerk
in the General Land Office of the State of Texas.
Annie is the wife of Mr. Joseph Mayer, a well-
known broker at San Antonio.

During his entire career, Mr. Groos was noted
for his excellent abilities, strict integrity, loyalty
to his friends, and constancy, and was in every
way a most exemplary citizen. He transmitted
these excellent characteristics to his sons, all of
whom have assumed places of honor and trust
and have sustained the family name.



ORANGE C. CONNOR,

PARIS.



Capt. O. C. Connor was born at Somerville, Ten-
nessee, September 6th, 1829, attended the common
schools of the country until nineteen years of age,
and completed his education by a course at the
Somerville Baptist College. His parents were
Orange and Judith Connor, the former of whom
died in Morris County, Texas, in 1859, and the lat-
ter at the old family home in that county in 1879.
After the suppression of the Irish rebellion of 1792
by fire and sword the crown of England issued a
proclamation to the effect that all persons who had
held commissions in the Irish patriot army should
be hanged without trial. The grandfathers of both



Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Connor had held such com-
missions, but succeeded in avoiding the vigilance
of the military commanders of the British army of
occupation and effected their escape to America,
and here their descendants have since resided and
many of them risen to positions of prominence in
the various walks of life.

In 1849, Mr. Orange Connor moved to Texas
with his family. He traveled overland by ox and
mule teams, bringing about twenty-five slaves with
him, and settled in Morris County, where he opened
a farm and in time became one of the wealthiest
farmers in the county. On the arrival of the family.




J. J. GROSS.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



223



in Texas, the subject of this memoir secured a
clerkship in a store at Daiilgerfleld and remained in
that place for nearly three years. In 1852 he mar-
ried Miss Mary A. Aikin, daughter of Col. W. B.
Aikin, then a resident of Cass Connty, Texas.
After marrying he moved to and engaged in farm-
ing in Cass County, in which pursuit he continued
until the beginning of the war between the States in
1861. He then enlisted in Company G-. , 19th Texas
Infantry, and was elected First Lieutenant of the
company. He served with fidelity and courage
throughout the struggle, a struggle that has no
counterpart in the annals of human history.
Among other engagements he participated in those
at Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, Jenkins' Ferry, Perkins'
Landing, Millican's Bend and the smaller fights in
Louisiana incidental to the defeat of Banks' army
and its being driven back to the lower part of that
State. In 1864, he was assigned to the Quarter-
master's department, in which he remained until
the final surrender of the Confederate forces.

When he returned home after the war he owned
but little property, nevertheless he possessed
enough to establish himself, in a small way as a
merchant and farmer in Eed River County, where
he remained until 1870. In January of that year
he moved to Paris, Texas, and followed merchan-
dising there until 1877, when his stocli, upon which
he carried no insurance, was burned in the fire of



that year that almost destroyed the town. After
sustaining this serious loss he devoted his attention
for a time exclusively to the management of his
various farms, but later acquired a considerable
interest in the Farmers & Merchants Bank of Paris,
and was elected president of that institution for
two terms; but, owing to failing health, retired
from that position, and is now vice-president of the
bank. Capt. Connor is one of the largest land-
holders in his section of the State. He is a mem-
ber of the M. E. Church, South, of thirty-three
years standing. He has six children: W. A., now
a farmer in Red River County ; E. S., a prominent
lawyer at Paris; O. C, Jr., a cotton merchant and
farmer at Paris ; Pearl, wife of John T. DiCkson,
a leading merchant of Paris ; Daisy, wife of P. J.
Pierce, a cotton merchant of Paris ; and Erminia,
wife of E. F. Bray, a representative of the Brown
Shoe Company, of St. Louis, resident at Paris.

Since the war Capt. Connor has been uninter-
ruptedly engaged in farming and has had as much
as three thousand acres under cultivation at one
time.

He is in every respect a representative man and
citizen, has been an active promoter of every enter-
prise inaugurated for the benefit of his section, and
enjoys the respect and esteem of his fellow-citizens,
among whom he has spent the best years of an
active and useful life.



CELESTIN JAGOU,

BROWNSVILLE.



The subject of this brief memoir is one of the
well-known and successful pioneers of the lower Rio
Grande Valley and probably has done as much if
not more, than any living pioneer to develop its
resources. He is a native of France, born at Lass-
cube, in the department of Basses Pyrenees. His
father, John Jagou, was a respected citizen and
property owner of that department. Young Jagou
received a partial education in the school of the
Christian Brotherhood in his native town and at
about the age of twelve years, his services being
needed at home, left school.

Two years later he entered a liquor distilling
establishment and learned the business. He was
restless and ambitious to accomplish something in
the world and, upon hearing the glowing reports



current of the opportunities offered young men in
the United States, embar'iied from his native land in
1859, for New Orleans. There he remained until
1862, and then made his way to Bagdad, Mexico,
and very soon thereafter went to Matamoros,
Mexico. Matamoros was at that time the best
business point on the gulf coast, the depot for all
the cotton shipments of the Southern States, and a
city of about 100,000 people, which prosperous
state of affairs continued during the Civil War only.
At Matamoros, young Jagou was engaged in the
cotton-pressing business. When the war was ended,
all lines of business at Matamoros declined and
the people disappeared like the melting of the
snow.

In 1863, Mr. Jagou opened a store in Browns-



224



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



ville, Texas, where be sold fancy groceries and
liquors and did a profitable business. In 1865,
Brownsville was raided by Federal colored troops,
who entered his premises and carried off his mer-
chandise by wagon-loads. His loss was later par-
tially made good by the United States Government.
He also sustained heavy losses by the historic
tornado of 1867, which demolished nearly one-half
of the city of Brownsville, including Fort Brown.
With his accustomed energy and undaunted
determination, he continued in trade and, despite
all misadventures, finally succeeded in laying the
foundation for a competency. In 1868, Mr. Jagou
married Miss Adolphine Mailhe, a lady of New
Orleans of French descent.

Four children were born to them, viz. : Christine
and Adolphe, who reside at home with their par-
ents ; Michael, who lives near San Jose, California,



and Albert, who had charge of Mr. Jagou's branch
store at Laredo, Texas. Mrs. Jagou died in 1880
and in 1881 Mr. Jagou married Miss Agathe
Bourdet, of France.

Mr. Jagou is an enterprising, pushing business
man of tireless industry. Besides his large whole-
sale and retail store in Brownsville, he has, as pre-
viously stated, a branch store in Laredo. In 1879,
he purchased the Esperanza ranch, on which he has
the finest improvements and has demonstrated more
than any other man what Texas soil and water, in
the section in which he resides, will produce in the
line of tropical and sub-tropical fruits. He had
over 50,000 banana plants under the highest state
of cultivation. He believes that with irrigation
nearly all the tropical fruits can be profitably grown
in the lower Kio Grande valley. Mr. Jagou's suc-
cess in life is due entirely to his personal efforts.



ALBERT MOVE,

SAN ANTONIO.



Came to the Republic of Texas in 1845. He was
born in Germany in the city of Kassel, September
19th, 1820. He was reared to farming, which as
an occupation he pursued up to the time of his em-
barkation for Texas as a member of the historic
colony of Germans who came to the New World
under the leadership of Prince Solms. Upon land-
ing at Galveston, he, with others of the colony, pro-
ceeded to Indianola, where they were, for want of
transportation facilities, detained for about six
months. He finally made his way to San Antonio
during that year (1845), where he opened the first
saddler's shop established there. San Antonio
was then a town of about six hundred people. Not a
tradesman, he was, nevertheless, of a mechanical
turn of mind, handy with tools, and engaged in this
business, because he was quick to perceive that
such an establishment was needed and would pay.
His shop was located on what is now Commerce
street. He finally disposed of the business to ad-
vantage, located in the suburbs near the city and
engaged in raising vegetables. For seven years
prior to 1861 he held the oflice of justice of the
peace. That year he entered the Confederate army
as Lieutenant of Company B., Third Texas Infantry,
commanded by Capt. Kampman, and upon the pro-
motion of Capt. Kampman to a higher rank, suc-
ceeded him as Captain of the company. He re-



mained in the army two years. Eeturning home, he
engaged first in the lumber business ; later served
as superintendent and architect forMaj. Kampman,
who did an extensive business as a contractor and
builder for many years ; filled this position for
three or four years ; in 1866 engaged in the fire
and life insurance business, which he followed until
1893 and then retired from active business pur-
suits. He married in Germany and was the father
of nine children, four of whom are living: Otto,
Wilhelmina, Emilie, and Edward. Otto, the oldest,
was born in Germany, March 5, 1843; Wilhelmina,
wife of Max Krakauer, was born in San Antonio,
September 8, 1847, and has three sons and two
daughters ; Emilie, wife of Julius Piper, born No-
vember 14, 1852, has four sons and three daughters,
and Edward the youngest was born January 16,
1855, and has one son and one daughter. AH the
children live in San Antonio.

Otto Moye, the eldest, received a good common
school education and for eighteen years was identi-
fied, as salesmen, with one of San Antonio's whole-
sale hardware houses. Edward married, October
31, 1882, Miss Lillie, daughter of Louis Zork, who
was the pioneer dry goods merchant of San Antonio.
Mr. Edward Moye is a member of the well-known
mercantile firm of Krakauer, Zork & Moye, of San
Antonio.




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INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



-225



HON. JOHN CALDWELL,



BASTROP.



The Anglo-American settlement of Texas, the
revolution that followed and the establishment of a
separate republic and its merger into the sisterhood
of States that compose the Union, offered unex-
ampled opportunities for the exercise of the purest
patriotism, the most intrepid bravery and the high-
est mental endowments in the line of statecraft.
Nor were the men wanting to fill the various roles
required to meet the necessities of those stormy and
trying days.

Few States, formed in either ancient or modern
times, can boast a galaxy of greater names, in the
same period of time, than those which adorn the
pages of the early history of Texas.

The subject of this memoir, Hon. John Caldwell,
moved among the leading spirits of his day.

He came to Texas from North Alabama in 1831,
as a member of a considerable company of people
who came at the same time from the same locality.

He brought with him a j'oung wife, whose maiden
name was Lucinda Haynie, and settled on the
Navidad, where he developed a farm and resided
until 1834 when he removed to Bastrop County,
ever after his home. He was born at Frankfort,
Ky., December 10, 1802, was the oldest of six
children and was sixteen years of age at the
time of the death of his father, Mr. Adam Caldwell,
which occurred at Nashville, Tenn., July 12,
1819. The support of the family and the education
of the younger children thereupon devolved upon
him, and he met the responsibilities of the situation
with that firmness and devotion to duty that were
among his distinguishing characteristics in maturer
years.

The family after Mr. Adam Caldwell's death
located and lived at Nashville, Tenn., for a number
of years.

Adam Caldwell was a professional man and his son
doubtless inherited from him a love for books and
study, for he applied himself with great diligence
to the study of law -while supporting the family and
was admitted to the bar at Nashville, when twenty-
one years of age. Subsequently the family moved
from Tennessee to North Alabama and located at
Tuscumbia. There John Caldwell lived and prac-
ticed his profession with marked success until
1831, the year that he came to Texas. He brought
five slaves with him, one of whom, Melinda Pryor,
is now living in Austin, Texas, at an advanced age.
15



He at one time owned a large number of slaves.
The^e he treated with uniform kindness, never
selling one of them to any other master or inflicting
upon them undue discipline. Upon coming to
Texas he relinquished the practice of law and de-
voted himself thereafter to agricultural pursuits.

His home in Bastrop County was located on the
Colorado river, about twelve miles from the present
town of Bastrop (then known as Mina) where he
engaged extensively in farming, developed a hand-
some estate and reared his family.

The Caldwell mansion was known throughout
Central and Western Texas as the " White House "
and the home of one of Texas' most intelligent,
courtly and chivalric gentlemen. Spacious in size
and with hospitable doors always open, it was a
popular stopping-place for men prominent in
military and civil affairs. Here Houston, Hen-
derson, Rusk, Williamson, Wharton, Archer, Bur-
net and their compeers delighted to tarry over
night when traveling through the country, and
discuss issues pending before the people and con-
sult the cool and reliable judgment of their
esteemed host and friend.

The present Caldwell family of four sons and
two daughters were all born here and as they ad-
vanced in years the " White House " was made the
scene of many delightful social events.

Col. Caldwell enjoyed the unbounded and uni-
form confidence of the people of his locality and,
as he became known, of the entire Eepublic and
State as well. He was an active and prominent
participant in the events that led up to the Texas
revolution, was one of the first to respond to the
call to arms that followed the affair at Gonzales,
and was one of the most ardent of those who
advocated the issuance of a declaration of inde-
pendence. From the beginning he deprecated the
policy of fighting for the restoration of the Mexican
constitution of 1824, which Santa Anna had
trampled in blood and dust and bayoneted to
death on the plains of Zacatecas. He clearly per-
ceived that the Anglo-Americans of Texas had
nothing to expect from the Mexican government or
people under any circumstances and that, even if
with the co-operation of the Liberal party in
Mexico Santa Anna could be overthrown, the
Federal constitution of 1824 restored and Texas
allowed a separate State government, the battle



226



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



for independence would untimately have to be
fought. As matters stood, he knew that the
Liberal party had been, or would be, crushed in
Blexico, that Texas could look for no aid from
that quarter, that volunteers from the United States
would be slow to join the Texian standard, if the
fight was to be made merely for the rights of Texas
as a Mexican State, and that the part of wisdom
was to make a fight against Mexico like their heroic
forefathers made against Great Britain — for
absolute independence ; for liberty or for death.
Some great men were opposed to the step, but the
party to which he, Governor Smith, Wharton,
Archer and others belonged prevailed, the declara-
tion was issued, the battle of San Jacinto fought,
and the independence of Texas secured.

While with the army on its retreat he was
detailed by Gen. Houston to ride through the
country and give warning to the settlers of the
approach of the three Mexican columns that were
sweeping eastward under Santa Anna. Having
placed his family in safety at Mina (Bastrop), where
they remained until 1838, the Indians committing
so many depredations after the war as to render it
perilous to live outside the limits of the town, he
set about the performance of the duty assigned him
and, having accomplished it, hurried forward to
join the army under Gen. Houston and reached it
the day after the battle of San Jacinto. It was
always a source of regret to him that he was pre-
vented by circumstances, over which he had no con-
trol, from taking part in that grpat and glorious
engagement.

In September, 1838, he was elected to represent
his district in the House of the Third Texas Con-
gress (the first under Lamar's administration) and
acquitted himself in a manner that fully sustained
the high reputation he enjoyed, and added fresh
laurels to those he had already won.

The Congress assembled at Houston on the 15th
of November.

In the Senate were Harvey Kendrick, of Mata-
gorda; Edward Burleson, of Bastrop; William H.
Wharton, of Brazoria; and in the House such men
as John W. Bunton, Greenleaf Fisk (Col. Cald-
well's associate from Bastrop), Jose Antonio
Navarro, Cornelius Van Ness, John A. Wharton,
Wm. Menefee, Holland Coffee, Moseley Baker,
Isaac Parker, David S. Kaufman, John M.
Hansford and John J. Lynn.

It was a very important session. Laws were to
be enacted to provide for a change from the civil to
the common law (in compliance with an amend-
ment to the constitution previously adopted), a
stable currency was to be provided, steps were to



be taken to lay the foundation for a free school sys-
tem and to effectually check the hostile Indian
tribes in East Texas and elsewhere and suppress
Mexican brigandage on the southwestern border.
All this and more was accomplished by that body
or placed in process of accomplishment. A ranger
force for frontier protection was created, a law
passed for the permanent location of the seat of
government, steps were taken to provide a more
efficient navy, fifty leagues of land were set aside
for a university and lands to each county for free
school purposes; the land, judiciary and probate
laws were improved, land grants vrere extended to
encourage immigration and a score or more of other
much needed and salutary laws enacted.

The law providing for the permanent location of
the seat of government was passed in January,
1839. It was a question of deep interest and
excited more or less sectional feeling. The whole
West and upper frontier wished it located as far in
the interior as practicable in order that it might
become the focus of frontier protection. Col.
John Caldwell, of Bastrop, William Menefee, of
Colorado, James Kerr, of Jackson, and Cornelius
Van Ness, of Bexar, were the especial champions
of the measure and Col. Caldwell is said to have
afterwards pointed out to the commissioners,
appointed under the law, the site on the Colorado
selected by them, for the beautiful capital city of
Austin.

The next session of the Congress convened at the
new capital in November, 1839. This he also at-
tended. He took an active part in all the important
debates and legislation of the session and in shap-
ing the general lines of State policy that were then
developed, many of which, notably those inaugurat-
ing the policy of free popular education and of
erecting and maintaining eleemosynary institutions,
have since been very closely followed.

Returning home, he was called upon more than
once to help chastise hostile Indians and responded
with that alacrity that was characteristic of the
pioneers of that day. The Indian outrages in 1837
and 1838 and in 1839 and 1840, incited by promises
of help from Mexico, were appalling. The frontier
was bleeding 'from savage fury, from San Antonio
to Red river.

On the 5th of August, 1840, a band of a thou-
sand, composed of Comanches and Kiowas, but in-
cluding also many lawless Mexicans and Indians
from some of the more civilized tribes, passed down
the country to Victoria. They committed many
murders along the way, massacred several persons
in sight of Victoria and, after making a feint an
that town, proceeded to the village of Linnville, on



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



227



Matagorda Bay, which they looted and then burned
to the ground, massacring those of the inhabitants
who failed to make good their escape in boats
moored along the shore. The raiders then toolf up
the line of march on their return. The news
spread like wildfire and pursuing parlies were
organized, one of which was led by Col. Caldwell.
A short distance from Victoria, twenty-five volun-
teers came up with the Indians and had a skirmish ;
but, with this exception, they managed to make



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