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give his personal attention to the diverse and
extensive interests of that pioneer investor in land
within and adjacent to the limits of that city.
Since the death of Mr. Stillman he has managed
the affairs of the estate.

He has pointed the way for many extensive
enterprises, which would have placed Brownsville
in a much more exalted position than she occupies
to-day had he been properly supported and sec-
onded by the community at large ; but, the spirit
of conservatism, and the hesitancy to disturb the
primitive business methods of this completelj' iso-
lated city, have acted as constant stumbling blocks
in his way, and prevented progress, to a great
degree. Nevertheless, he knows that the value of
his plans remains undiminished, and quietly bides
the time when his work will be appreciated at its
true worth.

In connection with the Stillman estate, he has
had 1,200 acres in the city of Brownsville plotted
into lots, and placed in marketable shape, by the
New York and Brownsville Improvement Com-



pany. He is agent for a tract of land on which
is situated La Sal del Rey (the King's Salt), one
of the most wonderful salt lakes in the world ; has
interests in immense fisheries on the coast of Mex-
ico, near Tampico, and is a joint owner of Mexican
silver and lead mines.

In an official capacity, the Hon. Thomas Carson
has been closely connected with the city and county
governments for a long term of years. He has
been successively installed as Mayor at every elec-
tion since 1879. In the fall election of 1892 he
was elected Judge of the County Court of Cameron
County, which of necessity vacated his office of
Mayor ; but he continued to act in the latter
capacity until his successor was legally e^lected.
His services as a County Commissioner were grace-
fully acknowledged by the citizens of the county by
placing him on the bench in 1892, where he has
presided with dignity, and exerted a powerful in-
fluence for good.

Mr. Carson has been a principal promoter of
every public movement inaugurated in recent years
for the upbuilding of the town and section in which
he resides, and has thoroughly identified himself
with their best interests socially, financially and
politically, and no citizen of Brownsville is more
generally and highly esteemed.

He was married in Mobile, Ala., January 20th,
1870, to Miss Lydia C. Truwit. They have one
of the most elegant and best appointed homes in
Brownsville.



INDIAN WAES AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



411



GEORGE S. BONNER,



COOKE COUNTY.



George S. Bonner, until the time of his death a
leading citizen of Cooke County, this State, came
to Texas from Tennessee in 1840 and settled first
in Lamar County, where he remained until 1861.
In the latter year he moved to Cooije County and
established himself as a farmer and stoclc-raiser on
Elm creek, six miles distant from the town of
Gainesville. His wife still survives and resides
with her son, Mr. George M. Bonner, in Cooke
County. Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs.
George S. Bonner, viz. : Martha, now Mrs. John
Gillam, of Runnels County; Sallie, now Mrs. E.
C. Peery, of Gainesville; Tennie, now Mrs. Judge
Lindsay, of Gainesville ; Duckie, now Mrs. T. P.
Aiheart, of Colorado ; George M. , of Cooke
County ; and Kate, who married Mr. G. W. Lindsay,
but is now deceased.

December 21st, 1863, hostile Indians from the
Territory made a foray into Cooke County for pur-
poses of murder and robbery. Two of these
Indians rode up to the Bonner home in sight of the
house and drove off with them two horses belonging
to Mr. George S. Bonner.

He at once armed himself, mounted and started
in pursuit. He followed them for several miles
when he came upon about three hundred mounted
Indians. They started after him, but he succeeded,
by hard riding, in effecting his escape.

Mrs. Bonner, with her little son, had walked about
a mile from the house, and she had climbed a tree
to see if she could see her husband, and he, seeing
her as he approached, called to her to go back.
The Indians, hearing him calling, thought he was
calling to men behind the hill and slackened their
speed, which enabled him and his wife and child to
get back to their home. One of his daughters, a
widow, Mrs. Martha Milliken, now Mrs. John
Gillam, of Eunnels County, prepared for their
coming. When they first leftshe got on an oldf amily
horse and started to town for help, but the horse



scented the Indians and refused to go farther, and
she returned to the house, and there gathered up
all the axes, hatchets and pitchforks about the place
to arm the household. Mr. Bonner stood in front
of the house with his gun and frightened the
Indians away by shouting to imaginary supporters,
"Come on boys, we can kill them all." The
Shannons, a family living out on the prairie, heard
the Indians coming, and started for Mr. Bonner's
house. They were overtaken by the Indians and
Mr. Shannon and a little nephew were shot four
times each with arrows, but all managed to make
their waj' in and the wounded afterwards recovered.
Some men who were hunting saw the savages com-
ing and rushed to town to notify the people that
the whole country was alive with Indians, and at
about the time that Mr. Bonner took his stand in
the yard, twenty-eight men from town came up.
The Indians had crossed the creek and formed in
line opposite. The twenty-eight men thought the
Indians too many for them, did not charge them,
and in retreating had one of their number killed.
He was carried to Mr. Bonner's house and taken to
town the following day. Mrs. Milliken was ready
to fight and wanted all others to do so. After kill-
ing the man referred to, the Indians left and Mr.
Bonner's daughters were safely conveyed to town
that night. He, with the remainder of his family,
followed the next day. They did not move back
to their country place for several years thereafter.
They returned to their home eventually, however,
and were there at the time of the formidable Indian
raid of 1868. Mr. Bonner died in April, 1864,
following the last mentioned raid, and is buried in
Gainesville. This pioneer family encountered its
full share of the dangers and hardships incident to
the settlement of the country, audits members have
always been among the most useful and highly
respected citizens of the communities in which they
have made their homes.



412



INDIAN ^^'ARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



DAVID HIRSCH,



CORPUS CHRISTI,



Was born April 24, 1834. His parents were
Judah and Henrietta Hirsch, of Darmstadt, Ger-
many, botli of wiiom died before he came to America.
He was educated at Darmstadt and left home in
1852, and went to Havre, France, where he secured
a position as clerk in an emigrant furnishing store,
where he remained until 1853, and then took pas-
sage to New Orleans, from which city he, with three
hundred other passengers, started to St. Louis,
Mo., aboard the Mississippi steamer Uncle Sam,.
Cholera broke out on the boat and fifty-three pas-
sengers died before reaching Memphis, where Mr.
Hirsch left the vessel and took another for St.
Louis. There he secured a place with Greeley &
Gail, grocers. The house still exists under another
name. He remained with this house until Octo-
ber, 1854, when he moved to Texa:". Landing at
Indianola, he proceeded from that port to Gonzales
where he began peddling afoot. In a short time
he was able to get a horse, with which he continued
the business until the fall of 1858, and then moved
to Belton, in Bell County and opened a general
store, which he continued to conduct until late in
1863, when he moved to Matamoros, Mexico, where
he remained until the close of the war and made
money. In 1865 he moved to New Orleans and en-



gaged in business there. In 1899 he returned to
Texas, making his home at Corpus Christ!, where
he built up one of the largest mercantile establish-
ments in the State.

He was united in marriage to Miss Jeannette
Weil, of Lockhart, Texas, May 14, 1860, who died
at Corpus Christi, May 11th, 1873, leaving two
children, Haltie, now the wife of Silus Gunot, of
San Francisco, and Joseph, also living in San Fran-
cisco, where he is manager for M. A. Gunot & Co.

July 9, 1878, Mr. Hirsch married Miss Olivia
Benedict, of New Orleans. Two sons have been
born to him by this, his second marriage, Alcan,
born in 1885, and Mark, bornin 1887. Mr. Hirsch
retired from the dry goods business in 1878 and
bought wool and loaned money until 1890, when
he organized the Corpus Christi National Bank, of
which he has since served as president and owns a
majority of the capital stock. When he landed at
Indianola in 1854 he borrowed six dollars to pay
his way from that place to Gonzales.

He is now considered one of the wealthiest men
in Corpus Christi. The measure of success that he
has achieved has been due to the possession of
business talents of an unusually high order, personal
integrity, industry and economy.



SIMON H. LUMPKIN,

MERIDIAN.



Simon H. Lumpkin, one of the leading citizens
of Bosque County and a prominent lawyer of Cen-
tral Texas, was born in June, 1850, in Fairfield
District, S. C. He was the ninth in a family of
twelve children born to Abram F. and Patience
Partridge (Pickett) Lumpkin, natives of South
Carolina and descendants of old colonial families.

On the paternal side two brothers, William and
Joseph, were soldiers in England and came to
America in 1765 with Gen. Braddock, marched
with his army over the Allegheny Mountains and
fell with him into the disastrous ambuscade on the
Monongahela river, where Joseph was killed and



William badly wounded. On account of his wound
William Lumpkin was discharged from the army
and settled on the James river, where he married
and became a planter and the father of a family
of four sons: Joseph, Thomas, Robert and Squir-
relskin, who became the progenitors of all the
Lumpkins now in the United States. Joseph and
Squirrelskin moved to Georgia, where they married
and reared families whose descendants have held
the highest oflflces in the gifo of the people of that
State — one becoming governor and another chief
justice of the Supreme Court, both well remem-
bered throughout the land. Robert remained in







ly^r t!:H^^'<^-/i:' x^ c^>-^^i:t:::^^^^cJ



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



413.



Virginia and of his family little is known to the
writer. Thomas moved to South Carolina, where he
married Miriam Ferguson, a daughter of the noted
Tory Ferguson, who was captured at the battle of
the Cowpens by Gen. Marion. This couple were
the grandparents of the subject of this memoir
and of Dr. J. J. Lumpkin, of Meridian, Texas.
To Thomas and Miriam Lumpkin two sons were
born, Bradshaw and Abram Ferguson Lumpkin,
the latter the father of Simon H. and Dr. J. J.
Lumpkin.

Bradshaw Lumpkin is still living in South
Carolina and is now nearly one hundred years
old. He participated in many battles with the
Indians in Florida, took part in the Texas revolu-
tion and war between the United States and
Mexico. His brother, Abram F. (a farmer), when
the war between the States began, entered the Con-
federate army and served until its close. Six of
his sons (three of whom yielded up their lives
on the battle-field) also entered the army. Those
who fell in the defense of the South were:
William, killed February 4, 1865, while on
detailed scouting duty near Richmond, Va. ; Philip
P., killed in the battle of Cold Harbor, May 31,
1864, and Abram Joseph, killed in the battle of
Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. The other sons are
still living. Mr. Abram F. Lumpkin died Feb-
ruary 25, 1875, and his wife January 13, 1892.
Simon H. Lumpkin, the subject of this notice,
completed his literary education at Wafford Col-
lege, S. C, and Transylvania University, Lexing-
ton, Ky. ; taught language in a private school at
Lexington for a time ; taught school for about
a year at Centerville, Ga. ; in October, 1873,
moved to Texas, and became principal of the La
Grange College ; remained at the head of that
institution for about a year, and in November,



1874, was admitted to the bar, having assiduously
studied law at leisure moments during the pre-
ceding four years. Soon thereafter he moved to
Bosque County and entered upon the practice of
his profession. He was very successful from the
start. At first he took criminal as well as civil
cases, but for years past he has confined himself
strictly to civil business. He practices in all the
State courts and in the United States Supreme
Court, and is considered one of the ablest lawyers
at the bar of Central Texas. He has been active
in politics as a Democratic leader, has attended
the various conventions, served as a member of
State and county executive committees, and has
done yeoman service upon every occasion when
a battle was on for party supremacy. He was
married April 4, 1876, to Miss Laura Alexander,
the third white child born in Waco, and daughter
of Capt. T. C. Alexander. She is also a grand-
niece of the noted Rev. Bob Alexander, the pioneer
Methodist preacher of Texas. She graduated at
the University of Waco in 1872. Of this union-
three children have been born: Jimmie (a daugh-
ter), Abram and Ora. The family are all members
of the M. E. Church South. Mr. Lumpkin is a
member of the Masonic and I. O. O. F. frater-
nities. He has an elegant residence in Meridian,
and the grounds are tastefully adorned, and he
has a fish lake on the place. He also owns among
other realty nine farms in the county, aggregating-
three thousand acres, which he is constantly im-
proving. In 1887 he bought out the lumber yard
in Meridian, and in 1891 also bought the lumber
interests at Walnut Springs, and is doing a thriv-
ing business at both places. His success in life-
has been due to the possession not only of natural
abilides of a high order, but constant study, firm-
ness of purpose and unbending integrity.



THE HARDINS,

OF LIBERTY.



The Hardin family are known to be descendants
of a widow lady who emigrated from France to
America, landing in Philadelphia with four sons,
John, Henry, Mark and Martin Hardin. Her hus-
band, in some of the internal commotions in France,
had to flee for his life. Whether he was pursued
and killed, or died by other casualty, is unknown.
He was never heard of by his wife after bidding her



adieu and riding away. From the best information
that can be obtained, she was one of the Hugue-
nots who came to America to escape persecution by
Louis XIV. , in the year 1685. William Hardin , the
grandfather of Frank Hardin, subject of this
memoir, is supposed to have been a grandson of
this widowed lady.

Frank Hardin was born on the 25th day of



414



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



January, 1803, in Franklin County, Ga., and was
the fourth son of Swan and Jerusha (Blackburn)
Hardin. His father moved to Maury County, Tenn. ,
with his family, when Frank was three or four years
of age, and resided there until about 1825. In that
year Frank Hardin came to Texas, and about the
same time four^ brothers, Augustine B., William,
Benjamin W., and Milton A., and his father came
to the then Mexican province, and they all settled
in what is now Liberty County, on the east side of
the Trinity river. His first employment after be-
coming settled in his new home was to split rails, in
company with his brother A. B. Hardin, for an old
man living on the Trinity river, and the same year
they made a crop of corn without plow or hoe, cul-
tivating it with "hand-spikes." The first official
position that^Frank Hardin is known to have held
was that of municipal surveyor, in the year 1834.
He was afterward appointed surveyor by Commis-
sioner Jorge Antonio^Nixon, under which appoint-
ment he located and surveyed in 1835 many of the
old le_agues granted by the Mexican Government to
colonists introduced into Liberty and adjacent
counties, under Vehlin's empresario contract. On
the 6th of March, 1836, he enlisted in Capt. Wm.
M. Logan's company of volunteers, of which com-
pany he was elecied First Lieutenant. This com-
pany was raised from Liberty and vicinity,
and joined Gen. Sam. Houston's army at once,
and was a part of Sherman's regiment of
infantry, which performed such gallant service in
the battle of San Jacinto. After participating in
that memorable and glorious engagement, which
deserves a place among the important and decisive
battles of the world's history, he remained with the
army for three months — until his term of enlist-
ment expired. He then returned home and very
soon afterwards. raised and organized a company,
of which he was made captain, and joined an ex-
pedition against the Indians, and went up the Brazos
river as far as the Waco village. He was several
months in this service. Under the act passed by
the Congress of the Republic providing for the
national defense, he was, on the 9th day of Janu-
ary, 1837, appointed by the President, a Captain,
for the purpose of organizing the militia of liberty.
December 19th of that year he was also appointed
by President Houston surveyor for the county of
Liberty. At an election held in the county Septem-
ber 6th, 1841, under an act of Congress, approved
January 24th, 1839, he was elected Colonel of the
sec6nd regiment, of the second brigade, of the
militia of the Republic of Texas, E. Morehouse,
Brigadier General, with headquarters at Houston,
which position he held for several years. In 1842



he was again elected surveyor of Liberty County
and in 1857 elected as representative from that
county and served as a member of the Seventh
Legislature of the State of Texas. He was not
fond of public life and never accepted oflBcial posi-
tion, after the independence of Texas was secured,
except at the urgent solicitation of the people.
He resided in the county for over fifty years, and
died at his residence in the town of Liberty on the
20th of April, 1878, and was buried on the anni-
versary of the battle of San Jacinto.

Benjamin Watson Hardin, the oldest of the five
brothers who came to Texas, was for many years
Sheriff of Liberty County, and died at his home-
stead near the town of Liberty, January 2d, 1850.

Augustine Blackburn Hardin, the next in age,
was a member of the General Council of Texas
held in 1835, and also of the Consultation at San
Felipe de Austin, the same year, representing the
municipality of Liberty, and showed himself in
those bodies to be a stanch patriot, a determined
advocate of resistance to Mexican tyranny, and a
firm supporter of the views of those who favored a
declaration of Texian independence. He died in
Liberty County, July 22, 1871.

William Hardin, the third brother, was one of
the ten original proprietors of what is now the
city of Galveston. Under the Mexican govern-
ment, previous to the revolution, he was Primary
Judge of the Jurisdiction of Liberty, Department
of Nacogdoches. He took an active and leading
part in the revolution which separated Texas from
Mexico, was a man widely influential, and was
highly respected by all who knew him. He died at
Galveston, in July, 1839.

Milton Ashley Hardin, the youngest of the five
brothers, was also in the service of Texas during
the revolution. He died at Cleburne, Texas, in
1894.

Hardin County, Texas, was named after the
" Hardins of Liberty," a deserved honor to a
family whose name is linked by so many sacred
memories, and by such valiant and self-sacrificing
service, to the history and imperishable glory of
the Republic and State of Texas.

Mrs. Cynthia A. Hardin, wife of Frank Hardin,
was born October 29, 1812, in St. Mary Parish,
La., and was the second daughter of Christie
O'Brien and Ann Dawson Berwick, his wife, who
resided many years and both died at Berwick's
Bay, in St. Mary Parish, La. She came to Texas,
a few years before her marriage, to reside in the
town of Liberty with her sister, Mrs. Catherine
Farley. She was married to Capt. Frank Hardin,
August loth, 1839, at the residence of Mrs. Far-



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



415



ley. Capt. Hardin resided in the town of Liberty
with his family, until the latter part of the year
of 1843, when they removed to the country, about
nine miles northward from the town. They were
there engaged in farming and stock-raising, until
about the year 1857, when they removed again to
Liberty. Mrs. Hardin died November 1st, 1889,
at Dallas, Texas, while on a visit to her daughter,
Mrs. George W. Davis, and was removed to Liberty
for burial.



daughters, Camilla Gertrude, wife of Judge George
W. Davis, of Dallas; Cynthia A., wife of Capt.
John F. Skinner, of Lampasas, Texas ; and Helen
Berwick Hardin, the youngest child, who resides
with her brother, Wm. F. Hardin, at the old
family homestead in the town of Liberty.

The independence of Texas having been secured,
and there being no fear of Indian depredations,
the neighboring tribes all being friendly, the life of
Mrs. Hardin after her marriage was a quiet one.




MRS. C. A. HARDIN.



Their eldest child, a daughter, was named
Kaleta, for the old Indian, Chief of the Coshattee
tribe of friendly Indians — the old chief being
especially known and designated as the "Friend
of the White Man." This daughter died October
7th, 1884, at the family homestead, in the town of
Liberty. She was never married. The oth^r chil-
dren were two sons, William Frank and Christie
O'Brien (the latter of whom died January 13th,
1867, of a gunshot wound received by accident
while hunting in the Trinity -bottom), and three



and without incident of special note. It was spent
in the discharge of the daily routine of household
duties, visiting neighbors (of whom, when living in
the country, there were but three or four families)
and entertaining friends and strangers, as well, for
the door of the log-house in which they lived was
open without charge to every belated traveler who
passed that way.

William Frank Hardin, first son of Frank and
Cynthia A. Hardin, was born in the town of
Liberty, May 2, 1841, and resides with his young-



416



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



est sister at the old homestead in the same town.
He was four years in the Confederate service dur-
ing the war between (he States. He first enlisted
in Col. E. B. Nichol's regiment for six months
service in Galveston. At the expiration of this
term he joined the Second Battalion of Waul's
Texas Legion, enlisting for the war, which com-
mand was a part of Gen. Sterling Price's division
in the Mississippi campaign, which ended with the
siege and fall of Vicksburg. After the surrender
and parole of Gen. Pemberton's army, he returned



home, where he remained until exchanged, when?
he again joined his command. The two battalions
were afterward consolidated into a regiment, desig-
nated as "Timmon's Regiment," Col. B. Timmons^
being in command after the promotion of Gen.
Waul. He remained with the army until the final
surrender, and then returned to his old home,
where he has since been engaged mainly in the
mercantile business and stock-raising. He was
once elected County Judge of Liberty County, and^
has since refused to accept official position.



H. SCHUMACHER,

NAVASOTA.



This gentleman, one of the leading citizens of
Navasota, president of the First National Bank of
that place, proprietor of the Navasota Cotton-Seed
Oil Mill, and a resident of Grimes County for forty
years, is a native of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger-
many, where he was born in 1832. At the age of
fifteen he came to Texas, his father having died and
his mother having come out the year previous to
find a home for herself and four children. Mr.
Schumacher reached Galveston, November 25,
1847, where his mother had established herself, and
there he at once went industriously to work to earn
his own support. He learned the carpenter's trade
and followed it as a journeyman until 1853. He
joined the Howard Association and devoted his
attention to nursing the sick during the visitations
of the yellow fever in 1853 and 1864. In 1855 he
moved to Anderson, Grimes County, being led to
this step by the condition of his wife's health, she
having been a sufferer from the fever and finally
dying at Anderson from the effects of the disease
several months after their removal at that place.

At Anderson Mr. Schumacher established a sash,
door and blind factory on a small scale, which he
conducted with fair success until the War put an
end to all operations of this sort. He entered the
Confederate army in 1861 as a member of the
Eighth Texas Infantry, Walker's Division, with



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