John Henry Brown.

Indian wars and pioneers of Texas online

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federate States, re-construction and State, he has
witnessed the many and strange vicissitudes to
which the Commonwealth has been exposed, and
through them all, seen the beloved lone star move
through light and shade from its nadir proudly up-
ward toward the zenith and the high destiny decreed
by Providence. Amid all these changing scenes
he has not been a passive and indifferent looker-
on, but a patriotic actor, his heart beating strong
and warm with affection for the land and its people.

Every worthy movement designed to pro-
mote the happiness or prosperity of his fellow-
citizens, has met with his hearty indorsement and
support. Having from the beginning to rely
solely upon his own resources, he has made a
success of life in a financial way and while that
is an end commendable in itself and that must
necessarily be accomplished as an aid to wider and
more unselfish ends, he has done far more, he has
preserved under all temptations and trials an un-
sullied integrity, an unpolluted mind and an un-
hardened heart. Now with a mind well trained in
scholastic lore, stored with the spoils of time that
literature has hoarded for those who will think and
read, and enriched and disciplined by experience
(mother of Wisdom) ; at the head of a leading
mercantile establishment of the Oleander City,
with his beloved life-companion still by his side
and surrounded by children and grandchildren,
looking back over his eventful career there must be
little, if anything, for him to regret. He is still
vigorous and actively engaged in business pursuits
and many years of active usefulness apparently
await him. A stalwart survivor of the early Tex-
ians (a band that would have graced the halcyon
days of the Roman Republic) he is honored by all
who know him and loved by a wide circle of friends
extending throughout the State.





The subject of this sketch, while not a native
Texian, may virtually be considered as such, since he
has resided on Texas soil from early infancy and
developed in the conflicts of the Texas frontier the
qualities which characterize him as a man. Mr.
Baugh is descended from sturdy Scotch stock.
His first ancestors in this country settled in Vir-
ginia, whence some of them moved to Georgia,
probably about the beginning of the present cen-
turj'. His father, David Baugh, was born in
Georgia, as was also his mother, whose maiden
name was Pensej' Collins. These two as members
of their parents' families were early immigrants to
Mississippi, met and were married in Tippoo
County, that State, in 1832, and moved from there
in 1844 to Texas. The senior Mr. Baugh first set-
tled in Kaufman County on coming to Texas, but
moved from there in the early spring of 1868, and
settled in Brown County. At that time Brown
County was on the extreme western frontier of the
State, had only a little more than a year before
been created by act of the Legislature, and was as
yet unorganized. Mr. Baugh assisted in its organ-
ization in the summer of 1858, and became one of
its first commissioners. The population was very
sparse, being confined to a few settlements along
the streams, embracing those well-remembered
pioneers, W. W. Chandler, Ichabod Adams, T. D.
Harris, W. F. Brown, Archie Roberts, Moses
Anderson, William Council Brooks, "W. Lee, H. C.
Knight, Eichard Germany, the Hannas, and
possibly a few others whose names can not
HOW be recalled. Stock-raising was the only
industry, and it was the excellent range which
the country afforded at that time that induced
most of the settlers to take up their abode
in that section. The elder Mr. Baugh was engaged
in the stock business, and never found it necessary
afterwards to move, but made his home in Brown
County till his death, which occurred in 1867, in
the sixty-fifth year of his age. His widow survived
him a number of years, dying there in 1895, aged

Levin P. Baugh, of this article, was born in
Tippoo County, Miss., October 28, 1842, was the
fifth in age of his parents' seven sons and seven
daughters, being the baby of the family at the
time of the removal to Texas. He was in his six-
teenth year when his father settled in Brown

County. He received practically no education,
and what he has accomplished is to be attributed
solely to native energy, force of character, per-
,sisteDt industry and mother wit. Growing up on
the frontier he early became familiar with all its
ways, its perils and pleasures forming his chief
pursuits. He has gone through all the border
warfare in Brown County from the first
" brushes " with the Indians to the " fence-cutting
troubles " of later years, and it would probably
be no exaggeration to say that his experiences dur-
ing the thirty years' conflict from 1858 to 1888, when
the county was finally rid of such, troubles would
make a very respectable volume of itself, if given
in detail. An instance or two, only, will be men-
tioned. About a year after the Baughs had settled
in Brown County the Indians came into the com-
munity on one of their monthly raids. The family
was aroused one night by the barking of the dogs,
and Levin, knowing from the signs that Indians
were about, hastily took down his gun and disap-
peared through the back door in an opposite direc-
tion from where the redskins seemed to be. Circling
around he came upon the scene from the rear and
picking his way cautiously got within gunshot dis-
tance of the Indians without being discovered.
He singled out one whose general form he could see
fairly well by the starlight and drawing a bead on
him fired, at the same time yelling and dodging
through the brush on the lookout for others.
None, however, showed up close enough to be shot
at, though he could hear them scampering through
the thicket. He saw the Indian he fired on fall
and, returning to the place, found his body. Seiz-
ing the redskin by the leg he dragged him to the
house and threw the body over the yard fence
where he proceeded to examine it at his leisure, and
later removed the scalp. An examination next
morning showed that there were several Indians in
the party, and young Baugh could only account for
their flight by the supposition that they thought
themselves surrounded by several whites and ran
without waiting to find out how many whites there

Again, in 1865, Mr. Baugh was cow hunting in
Comanche County, when word was received that
a family of movers had been murdered by the In-
dians in Hamilton County. A party of eleven
himself one of them, was hastily formed to go in




pursuit. The Indians were supposed to be Coman-
ches and were returning to their reservation on the
head-waters of the Brazos. Prominent geographi-
cal points by which they would direct their course
were watched and the intervening country surveyed
with field-glasses, from one elevation to another.
At last the rangers discovered the Indians some six
miles behind them. Taking the back track they
struck the trail about a mile in the rear, from which
point riding rapidly on they saw a short distance
ahead of them, emerging on to a prairie, two bucks
and a squaw, each well mounted. A considerable
ravine lay between the Indians and their pursuers
and not being able to pick their way in the charge,
all of the rangers' horses became for a minute or
two "ditched" except that of Mr. Baugh. He,
by accident, struck the ravine at a narrow place and
his horse jumped it. This threw him in advance of
his companions and his horse going at full speed
soon brought him up with the Indians. He was
armed with an Enfield rifle and a brace of pistols,
and having made the charge with his gun drawn,
be flred as soofl as he was within range, on the
old buck who was riding with the squaw and fanning
her with a fan made of cotton-wood leaves. The
ball struck the Indian at the base of the brain and
went entirely through his head. He fell instantly
from his horse and expired. Dismounting, Mr.
Baugh drew one of his pistols and opened fire on
the other buck. His first shot struck the Indian in
the shoulder, the second missed and the third took
effect in his hip. The Indian held on to his horse
which, taking fright, ran forward and carried his
rider out of range of pistol shot. Remounting,
Mr. Baugh unwound his lariat and took after the
squaw, intending to rope her, but at this juncture
the main body of the Indians, some twenty-five or
thirty, who were traveling in advance, having heard
the firing, turned about and appeared on the scene.
About the same time also the rangers came up, and for
a few seconds the indications pointed to what prom-
ised to be a lively fight ; but one of the white men
appearing on an eminence at some distance yelling,
gesticulating and waving his hat, led the Indians to
believe that there was a large body in pursuit, and
without waiting to assure themselves of the num-
ber by whom they were attacked they took to
their heels and were soon out of sight. Mr.
Baugh took possession of the accoutrements of
the Indian he had killed, which consisted of a
bow, a well tanned buck-skin arrow case, filled
with arrows, a raw-hide shield, a pair of silver
tweezers and a pocket-knife, which trophies he after-
wards gave away to a gentleman traveling through
the country, but would like very much now to have.

In 1868 Mr. Baugh married, and after that,
though a great deal on the range, he became more
cautious in his dealings with the Indians. After
the war, as is well known, the settlers along the
frontier were greatly annoyed by cattle and horse
thieves, and the people living in Brown County had
this very troublesome class to deal with for several
years. Mr. Baugh was a sufferer from their depre-
dations, and was frequently called on to run down
these lawless characters and recover property taken
by them. It is perhaps true, as claimed by old set-
tlers, that the law was not always the most effective
means to use in dealing with these characters ; at
any rate it was not in all cases called into requi-
sition, summary punishment being dealt out by the
citizens when there was a prospect of a defeat of
justice by the law's delay. Mr. Baugh, however,
always insisted on allowing the law to take its way
unless the personal security of a citizen was threat-
ened, but when this was the case he too became an
advocate of the use of those important adjuncts of
the courts, the rope and six-shooter. Being a large
landholder he was forced to take an especially
active part during the " fence-cuiting troubles."
His troubles with the fence-cutters began by their
posting the following notice in a conspicious place
on his ranch: " Mr. Baugh, take down this fence ;
if you don't we will cut it, and if we cut and a drop
of the cutter's blood is spilled, your life will pay
the penalty." He wrote underneath it: "You
cowardly cur ! This is my fence and you let it
alone." To which he signed his name. This was
equivalent to a declaration of hostilities on both
sides, and the war began. The fence was cut and
put up several times in succession till at last Mr.
Baugh caught the parties in the act. Being boys
he told their parents and offered not to prosecute,
provided the depredations ceased ; but he met with
no encouragement along this line, and he then
turned to the law. He applied to the local author-
ities but got verj' little satisfaction, and at last
adopted measures of his own, still, however, within
the law. He hired a man, a stranger in the com-
munity, to go live among the fence-cutters, furnish-
ing him with money to buy a small place and means
to live on, and instructed him to fully post himself
on all the doings of the gang and to keep him
(Baugh) advised of these. It took time to accom-
plish this, but it was done. Then when a list of the
fence-cutters had been obtained and a general raid
was being planned a company of rangers which had
been sent up from Austin by Gen. King, the Adju-
tant-General, with whom Mr. Baugh was in corre-
spondence, appeared on the scene and at an oppor-
tune time were turned loose on the fence-cutters,



■who were caught in the act of destroying long
strings of fences. A fierce fight followed and' sev-
eral of the cutters were killed or wounded, the rest
leaving the country, which finally put an end to
their depredations. The county was thus rid of
one of the worst troubles with which it had ever
been afflicted and all good citizens were heartily
glad of it. Such were afterwards permitted to enjoy
the fruits of their industry unmolested, and there
was a marked increase in the industrial growth of
the county as well as a change for the better in the
moral tone of the community.

Mr. Baugh abandoned stock-raising, after the
old style, when the country began to settle up,
and turned his attention to farming. He began
investing in land just after the war, and owns at
this time a ranch of 10,000 acres, all lying in one
body, about five miles north of Brownwood, nearly
half it valley land lying about Pecan Valley, all
of it under fence, 4,000 acres being surrounded
by a five-foot rock fence, making it the finest farm
in Brown County, and one of the finest in the State.
All of it is utilized for farming and stock-raising,
and is conducted according to modern methods.
To the task of acquiring, protecting and improving
this place, Mr. Baugh has devoted the best years
of his life, and is still following up his early labors

with the most persistent and arduous efforts. In-
cidentally, and in a general way, he has interested
himself in public matters in the community where
he resides, but has filled no oflSces, nor had other
pursuits than those mentioned. He has contrib-
uted to the upbuilding of some local enterprises,
helped to foster a spirit of industry, encouraged
the school interest, and lent his influence to every
thing of that nature calculated to benefit the coun-
try in which he lives.

On September 23, 1868, Mr. Baugh married Miss
Frances E. Moseley, a daughter of Capt. Daniel
H. Moseley, of Brownwood, Mrs. Baugh being
a native of Cherokee County, Texas, where her
father settled on first coming to the State at about
the age of eighteen. He was from Georgia, and
married in Cherokee County, Texas, residing there
some years. He was all over the frontier, traveling
as far as Arizona, but settled at Brownwood in
1862, and lived there the remainder of his life, his
death occurring in 1892. He filled the offices
of Sheriff and County Clerk of Brown County,
and both as an official and citizen was well

Mr. and Mrs. Baugh have six children living:
Arizona Isabelle, John Morgan, Mary Blain,
Frances E., Levin P., Jr., and Urolla.



E. M. Scarbrough, though still in the vigor of
mature manhood, may truthfully be called a Texas
pioneer. He comes of a pioneer stock — people who
cut their way through the cane-brakes of the South-
east and fought the savages in the early part of this
century. His father, Lemuel Scarbrough, died on his
old plantation, near White Plains, Calhoun County
Ala., in 1850, leaving a widow with the care of
twelve children — seven sons and five daughters.
E. M. was then four years old, there being one
younger boy. The mother, like the brave, strong
woman that she was, took up the affairs of her hus-
band and began the personal management of her
plantation and slaves. Her fortitude and good
sense bore her bravely and business prospered.
She saw her older children settled in life and her
younger bidding fair to enter manhood and woman-
hood as become the children of such a parentage.

But ten years of peaceful success had scarce passed
over her head when the guns that startled Fort
Sumpter called upon this widow to sacrifice her
sons to her country. Five of them went into early
Confederate regiments, leaving E. M. to care for
the home and do local military duty as occasion not
infrequently required. Even this degree of quiet
was soon broken in upon by a demand for the active
military services of this sixth son of his mother,
and in June, 1864, he was mustered as a volunteer
into the depleted ranks of the Fifty-first Alabama
Cavalry. He followed the fortunes of his regiment
through the closing scenes of the bitterest civil war
the world has ever known, remaining at his post of
duty until the final surrender. It may be remarked
here that this trait of standing by his duty is char-
acteristic of his entire career. When he knew
positively that this was a " lost cause" he turned



his face toward the old home. He did not even
wait for the formalities usually connected with such
events, but simply said to his comrades: "Boys,
come, go home with me," and rode away, in com-
pany with the Regimental Commander, Quarter-
master, other officers and sixty companions.

Of course he found the old farm a wreck and the
slaves gone, but he went to work and for two years
labored unceasingly, obeying the will and direc-
tions of his mother until he was twenty-one years
old. But in 1867 he decided to "go West," and
his home was soon made in Texas. Why should he
be called a pioneer ? Because he came to a country
devastated by war and her institutions in a worse
condition than if they had not existed.

Mr. Scarbrough's capital stock, on reaching this
State, consisted entirely of such assets as well-
planned determination, laudable ambition, well-
formed business habits and sterling integrity —
good bankable paper in those days. His first em-
ployment was as a salesman in the store of Hall &
Evans, at Bryant's Station, Milam County, and there
he remained until 1870, when the business of the
firm was transferred to Hearne, Mr. Scarbrough
remaining with the concern. Not long after this
removal he entered into a contract to supply the
H. & T. C. R. R. and International & Great
Northern R. R., which were being constructed
northward, with cross-ties and telegraph poles.
The terms of this contract were complied with
during the years 1872-3 and Mr. Scarbrough hav-
ing acquired the necessary means to enter into
business, in 1874 formed a copartnership at Rock-
dale with his former employers, and opened
business at Rockdale under the firm name of
Haskins & Co. This partnership continued until
the death of Gen. Hale in 1882. The affairs of
the old firm were then wound up and the firm of
Scarbrough & Hicks was formed. In this concern
Mr. Scarbrough was very active, as he was also in
the affairs of the town of Rockdale. He was a
moving spirit in the organization of what is now
the First National Bank of Rockdale and became
one of its directors. He was president of the
School Board and organized the free schools of
Rockdale. He entered readily and heartily into

every movement for the advancement of Rockdale's
interests. He was one of the earliest and most
active of the movers to secure the construction
of the Aransas Pass Railroad to Rockdale, and on
his own motion became one of four men to become
responsible for the required bonus of |10,000 while
the competing town of Taylor was circulating a
petition and speculating upon its influence. This
is a fair illustration of Mr. Scarbrough's business
methods. When he wants a thing he goes after it.

In 1889 Mr. Scarbrough moved with his family
to Austin, where he lived in comparative quiet for
a time, but his active mind could not allow him
such peace, and in 1890 he opened the mammoth
establishment of Scarbrough & Hicks, on Congress
avenue, which has in no way interfered with the
firm's business at Rockdale, His intention was
to have one of the largest, best stocked and
most completely appointed department stores in
the State, as it was the first in the city of
Austin. This store has a frontage of 110 feet
on Congress avenue, occupies two floors con-
nected by a passenger and freight elevator, and
demands the constant services of more than forty
people. It is not strange that such a man should
become identified with other interests ; so we find
him a director in the Austin National Bank, which
is one of the strongest institutions in the State.

Mr. Scarbrough, November 7th, 1877, was mar-
ried to Miss Ada R. Ledbetter, a daughter of Isaac
and Julia Ledbetter, who removed to Milam County
in 1853, her mother having died in 1864, after
which her home was with her sister, Mrs. Lizzie
Wilson, who gave her every possible advantage.
On the 23d of May, 1892, the happiness of the home
was broken into by death, who claimed Mrs Scar-
brough, leaving the husband to care for his five
children to whom the tender strength of his nature
has gone out in watchful love.

Mr. Scarbrough is a firm and unbending business
man, but is one of the most approachable of men,
which trait has gone far to make him popular as
well as respected. His word is his bond and through
all the ramifications of his business he will not tol-
erate the least misrepresentation or deception of any





Was born in Amelia County, Va., January 3, 1844.
His father was Henderson F. Vaughan and his
mother bore the maiden name of Mollie B. Walthall.
Mr. Vaughan was reared in Amelia and Prince
Edward counties, Va., and in the schools of the
latter received' his education. In January, 1862,
he entered the Confederate army, enlisting in Com-
pany C, Eighteenth Virginia Infantry, Pickett's
Brigade, Longstreet's Corps. He took part in all
the stirring scenes about Richmond, and was in the
engagements at Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Gaines'
Mill, and at intermediate places, and was twice
wounded — by a shell explosion (taking effect in the
spine), at Seven Pines, by a gun-shot (shattering
his right arm) at Gaines' Mill, and surrendered at
Appomattox at the general armistice.

Returning home, Mr. Vaughan found everything

devastated and in ruins. He took up his residence
with his mother and step-father, his father having
died many years beforei and his mother having re-
married, and during the year of 1865 made a crop
with horses and on provisions furnished by the
general government. Concluding that there was
nothing in store for him in his native State, he left
it for Texas in December, 1866, and settled at Old
Washington, where until 1869 he alternately clerked
in a mercantile establishment and engaged in farm-
ing. He then moved to Navasota, where he contin-
ued in the mercantile business, first as clerk, and
later on his own account, until a comparatively
recent date.

In 1873 Mr. Vaughan married Miss Imogene C.
Cabler, a daughter of Edwin S. Cabler, an old
settler of Washington County.



One of the well-known pioneers of Comal County,
came to Texas from Dusseldorf on the Rhine, in
Prussia, where he was born February 1, 1809,
settled at New Braunfels, where he followed farm-
ing for about six years, and then moved to Bexar
County, where he established a farm on the Gibolo
and engaged in stock-raising until his death. He
brought his wife and five children with him to this
country, viz.: William, Agnes, Theo. W., Joseph,
and Frederick W.

Frederick, living four miles northwest of Ken-
dalia, born February 3, 1849, was an infant of five
weeks when his parents left Germany for America.
He grew up on his father's farm in Bexar
County and married in 1873 Miss Albertina Leisti-

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Gerfers have two chil-
dren: Charles and Jennie. Mr. Gerfers has a
ranch of about 4,000 acres of farming and grazing






Was born in Nassua, Germany, October 22, 1831,
and in 1854 came to New Braunfels, Texas, where
he remained for two years and learned the black-
smith's trade. He worked in various towns in Texas
until 1868 and then opened a shop on his own
account at Boerue, and there followed his trade
until about the year 1875, when he bought 117
acres of land near town and engaged in farming.
To this property he has since added until he now

owns 25,000 acres. He spent the years 1862-3
working in the Confederate States Arsenal at San
Antonio and later went to Mexico and returned to
Boerne in 1865. Mr. Theis married Miss Minnie
Kass, at Boerne, in 1862. They have nine children.
Mr. Theis was a member of Col. Sansom's Texas
Rangers in 1858-9 and was in several Indian fights

Online LibraryJohn Henry BrownIndian wars and pioneers of Texas → online text (page 83 of 135)