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August, 1868.

" She came to Texas during the struggle for in-
dependence, and was intimately acquainted with



Gen. Sam Houston, Rusk and other noted men of
the day.

"Forty-one years ago, she, with her husband,
settled at Wiess' Bluff, where she lived until re-
moved by ' relentless death.'

"She was the mother of six children, five of
whom still live ; the eldest died some years ago.

" She was a woman of extraordinary endow-
ments, possessing all the rare excellencies that
combine to make the true wife, the devoted mother
and a successful keeper of home and the affairs of
home.

" She was fully equal to the emergencies of life.

" As a mother she was the embodiment of kind-
ness, guiding her children by the law of love ; their
success in life is attributable to the care and culture
imparted at home.

" As a wife it was her chief joy to make her
husband happy — to this end she lent her energies
without stint, and her success was wonderful.

" As a friend she was true, devoted and obliging.

" She was truly benevolent to the poor and
needy — never turning them away empty-handed.

" Her great heart was touched when suffering
befell her kind, often giving to those that were
better able to help themselves.

" She was reared a Presbyterian, but never united
with the Church, not being situated so that she
could do so.

" She was a woman of prayer and loved her Bible.

" I met her twenty-eight years ago and our ac-
quaintance matured into mutual and abiding friend-
ship ; having speht many days and hours under her
hospitable roof.

" Last December I saw her for the last time on
earth — worn and emaciated by age and disease.

" She feared not the approach of death.

" At her request I read for and prayed with her,
and conversed with her in regard to the approach-
ing end ; she had no fears, but trusted in the atoning
blood.

" We are informed by her sons that her end was
peace.

" We are to hear no more the hearty welcome to
her home, nor note the many acts of kindness per-
formed to make the weary itinerant comfortable
and happy. But we will remember her through all
the days of our pilgrimage.

"We extend to her children our heartfelt sym-
pathy and invoke the blessings of heaven upon each
one of them.

" May they also be ready."




MRS. SIMON WIESS



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



477



EMIL KARGER,



COMFORT,



Was born January 1, 1851, in the kingdom of
Prussia, Germany, and came to this country with
his parents, who settled at Comfort and pursued
farming, to which calling he was reared. His
father, John Karger, is mentioned elsewhere in this
book, in the notice of Charles Karger. Mr. Karger
was married May 14th, 1876, to Miss Sarah Wille,
a daughter of Herman Wille, of Comfort, at which
place she was born January 16, 1859. Mr. Wille
died in 1877 at forty-one years of age. Mr.
and Mrs. Karger have seven children, viz. :



Hermann, Louise, Lena, Edward, Gustav, Mary
and Amelia.

Mr. Karger is a thorough business man, a suc-
cessful farmer, and is esteemed throughout his com-
munity for his excellent traits of character. He is
trustee of his school district, one of the three sur-
viving charter members of the Comfort Liedertafel,
the vocal musical organization of that town, and has
been for many years its leader.

He owns a well improved farm of 260 acres at
Comfort.



FRANZ SCHAEFER,



ANHALT,



A wealthy farmer and esteemed citizen of Comal
County, came to Texas with his parents in 1845,
when about eight years of age. His mother died
the year of their arrival in New Braunfels. His
father, Franz Schaefer, Sr. , was a cooper by trade,
but followed various occupations in New Braunfels,
Fredericksburg, Llano, and San Antonio, doing
contract work for the government at the latter
place. Mr. Franz Schaefer, Sr., never married
again after his wife's death, remaining true to her
memory until the time of his death, which occurred
in November, 1868, in San Antonio. He bought
160 acres of land near Anhalt before the war



between the States, and from time to time added
thereto until he now owned about 3,000 acres.
Franz Schaefer was the only child born to his
parents. He learned stone-cutting at Cincinnati,
Ohio, and worked at his trade in Texas until the
war broke out, and then enlisted in the Confed-
erate army, in which he served in Capt. Kemp-
mann's Company until the close of hostilities.
Since the war he has been engaged in farming on
the family estate at Anhalt. Mr. Schaefer mar-
ried in May, 1867, Miss Matilda Kaubert, daughter
of Lawrence Kaubert, of San Antonio. His farm is
highly improved, and consists of about 2,100 acres.



WILLIAM J. MOORE,



MYERS,



A large planter of Burleson County, Texas, was
born in Perry County, Ala., in August, 1845.
Son of Alfred and Martha (Hanna) Moore who
were natives of Spartanburg District, S. C,
and early immigrants to Alabama, where they



lived many years, the father dying there in 1854,
and the mother in 1863. One uncle of the subject
of this sketch, Thomas Moore, commanded a regi-
ment of troops at Charleston, S. C, in the
War of 1812 and another, A. B. Moore, was twice



478



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



Governor of Alabama. His people, however,
were but little in public life, being mostly plant-
ers.

William J. was reared in Perrj' County, Ala. ;
there he enlisted in the Confederate army at the
age of sixteen, at the opening of the late war, join-
ing a company of cadets which became a part of the
Seventh Alabama Cavalry, with which he served
throughout the period of hostilities. During six-
teen or eighteen months of his service he was under
the celebrated cavalry commander. Gen. Forrest, and
took part in most of the operations in which Forrest
was concerned, in Western Kentucky, Middle Ten-
nessee, 'Northern Alabama and Mississippi. He took
part in the battles at Columbia, Spring Hill, Frank-
lin, Nashville, Paris Landing, Johnstown, Pittsburg
Landing and many minor engagements. Served as
a private and was never captured or wounded.
Laid down his arms at Gainesville, Ala., at the close
of hostilities.

In March, 1866, Mr. Moore came to Texas and



settled in Brazos County, where he leased the Allen
farm, which he cultivated for two years. The un-
settled condition of affairs led him to sell
out at the end of that time and return
to Alabama, where he remained ;for four
years, when he came again to Texas, settling
this time in Burleson County. For twelve or four-
teen years he was engaged, alternately, in farming
and merchandising, when, in 1885, he purchased a
large body of Brazos bottom-land and embarked
extensively in cotton planting, which he has followed
steadily and successfully since. He owns 2,100
acres, 1,500 acres of which are in cultivation. He
raises from 600 to 700 bales of cotton annually,
besides considerable corn and other farm products;
is one of the largest planters in Burleson County
and has made every dollar he has within the past
fifteen years.

Has never married and has but few relatives, his
only sister, Mrs. James Garrity, of Corsicana, hav-
ing died in February, 1893, childless.



ROSWELL SKINNER,



LAWIPASSA COUNTY.



The action of the Texas Veterans' Association
making priority of residence and the performance
of some sort of civil or military service coaditions
of membership in their order, has given rise to an
opinion, more or less general, that only those who
meet these conditions are entitled to be called
pioneers and to share in the honors generally ac-
corded those so designated. But this is erroneous.
The conditions imposed by the association are per-
fectly proper so far as the objects of the association
are concerned, but, viewing the matter in a broader
light, there is a historical propriety in making the
terra "Pioneers" sufficiently comprehensive to
include those who arrived in the country during the
eight or ten years following annexation, many of
whom performed no public service of a civil or
military character, but were, nevertheless, impor-
tant factors in the settlement and development of
the communities where they located. The fact is
there were hundreds of men living in the older
States who took great interest in the struggle of the
colonists, lending material aid in numberless in-
stances, who intended all along to finally make their
homes in Texas, but who, for various reasons, did



not take up their abode here uniil the struggles
with Mexico, and, in a measure, those with the In-
dians, were substantially over. These were the
real builders of the commonwealth ; men of indus-
trious habits, possessing a thorough knowledge of
the arts of civilization, believers in the supremacy
of the law, and the maintenance of order and good
government ; lovers of their homes and advocates
of all the influences tending to elevate, improve and
adorn society.

Of this number is the subject of this sketch.
Eoswell Skinner was born in Nelson County, Va.,
February 1st, 1807. His father was Bird Skinner'
and his mother bore the maiden name of Nancy
Austin, both of whom were Virginians by birth.
The father died in his native State, after which the
widowed mother moved with her family to Ken-
tucky about 1814 or 1815, and settled in what
was then Washington, now Marion County. In
that county the boyhood and youth of the
subject of this article was passed. He grew
up on the farm, where he had but meager
educational advantages (none to speak of) but
received good moral training, and reached man-



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



479



bood well prepared for the discharge of its
duties. Soon after attaining his majority, he
married a neighbor girl, Theodosia Dever, who
had been born in Virginia and taken to Ken-
tucky by her parents, John and Winnie Dever,
while she was still young. Settling on a small farm
in Marion County, Mr. Skinner devoted the next
twenty years of his life to making a home for himself
and those dependent upon him, and succeeded in
paying for and putting under cultivation a farm of
over 200 acres, but the steady advance of land
values in that State made the task of providing for
his children, seven in number, as he wished them
provided for, a very difficult one, and as the easiest
solution of the problem, he decided to move to
Texas, where land was cheaper, and conditions, in
general, more favorable. With his family, consist-
ing of his wife and five children, two daughters
having married, one of whom was deceased and the
other gone to make her home in Indiana, he left
Louisville the 2.'ith -of November, 1849, taking the
river route to New Orleans. From New Orleans he
went by sail vessel to Galveston, crossed the bay at
that point and reached the town of Liberty, his des-
tination, the 15th of December following. He had
friends residing at Liberty and partly through their
influence, anfl partly because he liked that section,
he settled there, buying a tract of land and open-
ing a farm four miles from the county seat. Mr.
Skinner was a resident of Liberty County for forty-
six years, only recently leaving there to make his
home in Lampasas County. During his long resi-
dence in old Liberty, he was honorably connected
with the county's history as an industrious, law-
abiding citizen, but was very little in public life.
He always felt that the deficiency of his education
disqualified him for holding public office and there-
fore persistently refused to allow his name to be
used in that connection, but was once induced to
accept the office of Treasurer of, Liberty County,
which he held for two years, resigning it at the end
of that time. His chief pursuits were those of
agriculture in which he met with a fair degree of
success. He was exempt, by reason of age, from
military duty during the late war, but furnished
three sons to the Confederate service and gave the
cause his active sympathy and support at home.
Mr. Skinner was a Whig in former years, having
cast his first vote for President for William
Henry Harrison in the famous " log cabin and hard
cider" campaign of 1840. He has been a member
of the Methodist Church for over sixty years and
has actively interested himself in all kinds of Church
work. His habits have been unexceptionable and
he is, perhaps, to day one of the best preserved men



of his age in the State. He will be ninety his next
birthday, yet his mind is clear and not only is his
memory good, but his reasoning is sound, and his
conversation, in general, spirited and entertaining,
full of interesting reminiscences and apposite allu-
sions, and, until he was injured by a fall from his
horse some ten or twelve years ago, he could get
around as well as men of half his age. Asked to
what he attributed his longevity and well-preserved
condition, he said, first to the sound constitution
which he inherited, and second to correct habits of
life. He never indulged in the ruinous pastimes of
youth and therefore reached and has enjoyed man-
hood in health.

He was never intoxicated but once, that being
when he was a boy, and, though he used tobacco
for nearly thirty years, he quit it when he found it
was injuring his health. In all the relations of life
he has endeavored to live along the lines of fair-
ness, sobriety and moral rectitude, seeking to do
what was right from a sense of justice and taking
every act and every motive before the tribunal of
conscience. He has not been one to cavil or com-
plain, but has accepted the good things of life with
gratitude and has borne its ills with resignation.
Petty bickerings and small quarrels he has known
nothing of, having always been self-respecting and
respected by others. The domestic virtues pre-
ponderate in him and his home circle before it was
broken up by death, and the marriage of his
children was charming and pleasant.

Mr. Skinner lost his wife in March, 1861, her
death occurring at the old homestead in Liberty
County. Of his three sons and four daughter, but
three are living, though all. became grown and were
married. The eldest, a daughter, Eliza Jane, was
married to Buford Brown and died many years ago
in Indiana. The eldest son, James D. Skinner, is
a prominent citizen of Galveston. The next, a
daughter, Cynthia Ann, was married to Anthony
Drane and died in Marion County, Ky., a short time
after her marriage. William P. Skinner, the
second son, died at Liberty, Texas, in 1864, from
disease contracted in the Confederate army. Julia
Ann was married to Aguilla J. Beard and died at
Liberty, Texas, in 1895. John F. Skinner, the
youngest son, is a citizen of Lampasas, and Sarah
A., the youngest daughter, is the wife of Wilson R.
Swinney and resides in Lampasas County. Mr.
Skinner has a large number of grandchildren and
great-grandchildren, his youngest son being nearly
sixty years old. It is estimated that his descend-
ants number between eighty and one hundred. All,
so far as they have assumed the duties of life, are
filling respectable places in society.



480



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



John F. Skinner, youngest son of Roswell and
Theodosia Skinner, was born In Marion County, Ky.,
February 16th, 1839; enlisted for six months in
Capt. James Wrigley's Company, Confederate
Slates service, in 1861 ; served the term of his en-
listment on Galveston Island, and then entered
Waul's Legion for three years or during the war;
served in that command until the fall of Vicksburg,
when he was paroled, returned to Texas, and
served again on Galveston Island and coast country
until the close of hostilities. After the war he en-
gaged in the mercantile business at Liberty, Texas,



which he followed at that place until 1883, when h©
moved to Lampasas, where he had previously be-
come interested in the stock business, and which
has since been his home. He is president of the
First National Bank of Lampasas and has ranching
interests in Lampasas County. November 7ih,
1871, at Liberty, Texas, Mr. Skinner married Miss
Nannie Hardin, a native of that place and a daugh-
ter of Frank Hardin. The issue of this union has
been five children: Helen, now Mrs. J. F. White,
John F., Jr., Christie O'Brien, Wickliffe and
Ruth.



B. E. HURLBUT,

BROWNWOOD.



B. E. Hurlbut, son of Eli D. and Emma E.
riurlbut, was born in Courtland County, N. Y.,
August 22, 1868, and was reared at Windsor,
Henry County, Miss., where his parents settled in
1864. He began his mercantile career in the hard-
ware house of Huey & Philip, of Dallas, Texas,
entering the employ of the firm at the age of
eighteen. Though the youngest employee of the
firm he soon developed a capacity for business and
earnest work that brought him continued and rapid
promotion, and won for him the position of con-
fidential clerk and buyer before he was twenty-one
years old. His health becoming impaired from
overwork, he resigned his position with Huey &
High to accept one with F. W. Carruthers of Cor-
sicana, at the same time receiving a substantial
increase in salary. In 1884 he formed a partner-
ship with Frank J. Semple under the firm name of
Hubert & Semple, and opened a hardware business
at Lampasas. The firm carried on a large and
profitable trade at that place as long as it continued
the western terminus of the Gulf, Colorado &
Santa Fe Railway. In 1888, after the road
extended Wcit, the business was moved to Brown-
wood where it has since continued, the partnership
terminating in 1894, at which time the present name,
the Hurlbut Hardware Company, was adopted.
Mr. Semple was never actively connected with the
management of the business, but received good
returns — four dollars for one — on the amount he
had invested in it. Mr. Hurlbut has, since the
reorganization, owned ninety per cent of the busi-
ness, and has at all times had full control of it.



This, as indicated by the name, was originally con-
fined to hardware but has grown to embrace
all kinds of merchandise except groceries, and
has two factories, one for making saddles and
harness, and the other for tin and sheet metal
goods. The Hurlbut Hardware Company occu-
pies commodious quarters in the center of busi-
ness at Brownwood, owning a two-story stone
block fronting a hundred feet on one of the main
thoroughfares and extending a hundred and twenty
feet to the rear, being divided into compartments,
each of which is especially fitted up for some
branch of business. A stock ranging from $85,-
000 to $90,000 is carried and an annual business of
$225,000 is done. The employees number from
twenty to twenty-seven, three traveling salesmen
being included in the list, and a territory embrac-
ing twenty-six counties is drawn on for trade. Mr.
Hurlbut gives this business his strict personal at-
tention, and while a liberal supporter of all public
enterprises and interested in everything affecting
the public good, he has never taken part in politics
nor suffered himself to be drawn'^^^into any schemes
of a speculative nature. He was the first president
of the Brownwood Board of Trade and has served
as trustee of the city schools. His establishment
has of itself helped to strengthen the commercial
credit of Brownwood in a marked degree besides
adding greatly to the taxable wealth of Brown
County.

Mr. Hurlbut has attained noteworthy success and
the secret of it lies near the surface. It is to be
found in his natural aptitude for business,^ in the




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.EoKlQJIHLffiaiT.




J. S. CROSS.



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



481



excellent business training which he enjoyed and
the adherence to practical methods in the conduct
of his business. His treatment of his employees as
friends and associates is especially worthy of men-
tion, since in this way he has helped to lay the
foundation of independent careers, and by selling
to them at different times a small interest in his
business has enlisted their best efforts in building
it up. He worked for others nearly eight years
himself during which tim6 in recognition of his
services he received each year an increase in wages
without asking it, of which fact he is prouder than



anything he has accomplished since he has been
engaged in business for himself.

On September 23, 3884, Mr. Hurlbut married
Miss Licia H. Brown, daughter of James S. and
Martha Brown, and a native of Owen County, Ky.,
Mr. and Mrs. Hurlbut having first met at Lampasas
where she was vibiting friends and relatives. The
issue of this union has been three sons and two
daughters. Mr. Hurlbut's parents reside in Brown-
wood and he has a sister, Mrs. W. W. Glover,
living in Sedalia, Mo., who, with those just men-
tioned, constitute all of his immediate relatives.



WILLIAM G. HUNT,

COLUMBUS.



Capt. William Gr. Hunt was born in Lunengburg
County, Va., September 5th, 1813, and came to
Texas in 1831. In those early pioneer days Indians
were often troublesome and he had numerous and
exciting brushes with the savages. Capt. Hunt
fought through the War of Texas Independence
from its inception to its close. He was a member
of the Spartan band that fired the first shots of the
revolution at Gonzales, the Texian Lexington, and
was one of the brave men who stepped forward at
San Antonio, when the immortal Ben Milam strode
to the center of the camp, waved liis hat, gave a



ringing huzza and shouted: " Who will follow old
Ben Milam into San Antonio? " and took part in the
assault and capture of that place.

Capt. Hunt served in Company C, Thirteenth
Texas Infantry, during the war between the States,
and rose to the rank of Captain in the Confederate
service. He is a prosperous farmer and now in his
old age is enjoying that ease which is the reward
of a well-spent life, in his comfortable home in the
town of Columbus. Such old heroes are the glory
and boast of Texas.



JOHN S. CROSS,

BROWNSVILLE.



There are few persons now living whose names
are more familiar and who have been more closely
identified with the history and development of
Southwest Texas than the subject of this memoir,
and nearly half a century has passed since he
linked his name with the history and destinies of
the Lone Star Slate. Mr. Cross was born in South
Carolina, August 16th, 1816.

His father, John Cross, was also a native of the
" Old Palmetto State " and was there reared. He
was by occupation a successful planter and was an

31



astute man of business. He married Miss Mar-
garet Joiner and they reared a family of seven
children. John S. Cross, the subject of this sketch,
was the third born of this family. He received
such education as the meager facilities of his State
and county afforded in those early days, grew up
on his father's plantation and finally went to Mis-
sissippi, where he took a position as overseer on a
large cotton plantation.

He remained in Mississippi until the year 1848,
and then came to Texas by way of New Orleans,.



482



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS.



landing at Galveston, which was then an unpreten-
tious little seaport town. He remained at Gal-
veston but a short time and, being restless and
anxious to accomplish something, started north on
a prospecting tour, and soon located about twenty
miles north of Galveston, in Brazoria County,
where he remained for about two years and then
sold his interests and, in about 1850, moved to
Brownsville.

The thrilling experiences of this old-time veteran,
with the redman and the marauding Mexican who
at once, and for years preyed upon and " ran off "
his stock, besides committing numerous other
depredations, would make most interesting reading.
It is safe to say that Mr. Cross has seen and ex-
perienced as much of the stern reality of border
life, as any other living Texian. He continued his
stock operations on the lower Rio Grande until
about the year 1859, when the unsettled condition
of affairs along the Mexican border, and finally the
breaking out of the great war between the States,
rendered the business so hazardous that he with-
drew from it and located with his family at
Matamoros, Mexico, and engaged in merchandising
on a modest scale. This was in the year 1862.
While the war was" in progress in the United States,
Matamoros was lively and business was good. Mr.
Cross therefore made money rapidly, and by his
straightforward business methods extended his
trade until his establishment became one of the



leading mercantile houses in the city. In 1880 Mr.
Cross admitted to partnership his eldest son,
Middleton H. Cross, forming the well-known firm
of J. S. & M. H. Cross, doubtless the strongest



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