John Henry Newman.

Letters and correspondence of John Henry Newman during his life in the English church, with a brief autobiography ; (Volume 2) online

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simplest form the end or object which I feel), and that I
suppose is enough.

My object, then, in writing them was this — to provide
beforehand against prospective evils. There is a jnobtihilitff
of the whole subject of Church authority, power, claims, i^-c. Otc,
being opened. I am persuaded that the half-solutions, which
have hitherto really been enough, will not do in time to come.
Men will ]irobe deep, and, unless we manage to cut under
their objections, they will take root and l)ear bad fruit. So I

iS6 fohn Jlcnry Ncumaii 1800

wjiiit lo InrcstMll oltjections and tlu-ii- answers. There appears
io l»o \hii\ in tlio Church of liomc as it is at present which seems
utterly lo ])i-echule our return to lier. Our tracts, at this
very time in tlic press, are aimin-,' to l)ring out this in a series.

Again, there is a possibihty of a general crash, and then it
will be as well we should have some notion what our Church's
<'apabilities are. Hitherto she has been supported by the
State ; but if it fails her, what is she to do ? This is the very
problem laid down in our Tract No. i. The advertisement to
Vol. I. aims at the same ; and Tract 20. I ^Yish to encourage
Churchmen to look boldly at the possibilit}^ of the Church's
being made to dwell in the affections of the people at large.
At present it is too much a Church for the aristocracy and
for the poor — mainly throurjh the aristocracy — with few attrac-
tions for the middle classes.

Now, should these dangers not come, or, again, should these
objections not be made, the whole of what I have said — i.e. in
print — -will, I conceive, look like a dream, and be a dream, and will
do no harm. I cannot believe, /('// the evils are practically felt
by being present, that mni one will take up and use what I
have thrown out [i.e. in 'Home Thoughts,' &c.] Men will
call it a theory, and I wish them to do so. But they may
.suggest something — -if either evil comes — of answer against the
Eoman controversialist, of hope against the successful leveller.
And, let me add, however chimerical they may be for our
relief, in case of the latter evil, yet if somethinfj of the sort is
not drawn out against the Eomanist, surely he will ^mzzle us.
[I conceive I suggest an answer, I feel to myself I do so, to his
strong points [erased in rough copy]].

As to alterations of the Liturgy [in ' Home Thoughts ' I ad-
vocate unconnected and indejoendeut additions and alterations],
I think our business is to frighten the Evangelicals. In that
tract to which 3'ou refer [N.B. June 25, 1862. — Tract 3. I
suppose in his postscript Rose had said that \ny desire for
King Edward's First Book, &c. was inconsistent with the con-
servative tone of the first tracts.] I expressly state that we all
have our own crotchets, and urge this as a reason for being
contented with things as they are. The only way of stoi^piug

l^:!() Letters and Correspoudeuce 187

their desire to alter the Baptismal Service is to talk of King
Edward's First Book. I think we may be of essential use to
men high in the Church in this way. Already surely we have
done good ; there has been less wanton talk of alteration than
there was, and those who desire it feel they must act
covertly. I cannot doubt the Evangelicals are afraid and
annoyed at ?/.9 ; they have to defend themselves, instead of
attacking others according to their wont.

As regards our Rulers, those who know me, alone will tell
how far \\\^ words, sincere though they be, are true ; but I
ih\n]; 1 could submit without a word to any ndvice or correc-
tion from them which did not involve a suppression, on my
part, of the Articles of the Creed in their primitive sense. If
at this moment a competent authority told me to exclude all
other subjects from the tracts \\.c. except the Articles of the
Creed], I would obey. I wish the Evangelicals would say as
much. The great principle I should ever maintain is, ' to re-
main satisfied ' with what we have and are, and to contend
for it ; but, if once we arc dislodged from our existing posi-
tion, to try to get a better.

As to ' excitements,' it is a very large subject : but I do not
think the utter repression of these is the Gospel way of deal-
ing with them. The lloman Church stops the safety-valve of
excitement of Eeason ; we, that of the excitement of Feeling.
In consequence Bomanists turn infidels, and Anglicans turn

I will l)ut beg you in conclusion to correct, if necessary,
some sentences of the note which I scribbled otf to you the
ilay before yesterday. "When I said I thought you were almost
too bold for an editor, I only meant generally to convey to you
my assurance that you need n(!ver hesitate to send me back
any paper of mine or to oljject against it. 1 was not imply-
ing you were too bold in admitting the * Home Thoughts.'

[N.B. June 25, 1862. — The last sentence is obscure: it
means, I believe, this : Bose was very sensitive. I once called
liini ' Conservative' or said he was becoming Conservative, in
the year, perhaps, 1834 or 1835, and therel>y hurt him much.
Mo here, 1 nuist have said to him something like ' Never fear

iSS lo/in Ifcnry Neiuvian 1836

phickiiig nu', for you arc almost too IjoIcI for an editor — mcan-
iiifj;, I shall never take it ill, for I am the last man to accuse
you of want of boldness,' and then the fear seized me lest
he should say to himself, ' Here's a pretty fellow. He takes
advantage of my kindness, makes me put in things which no
prudent editor would receive, from the influence he has
with me — and then laughs at me for letting him go such
lengths under my editorial sanction.' — J. H. N.]
[I have preserved the rough copy. — J. H. N.]

The interest in Keble is such that the Editor ventures
to give a further letter on his manner and turn of conversa-
tion :

PiEV. Pi. F. Wilson to PiEv. J. H. Newman.

Hursley : April 15, 1836.

Kehlc is indeed what you described him. He is so uncom-
monly kind and considerate, that one is sometimes almost
discomposed by it. I wish I may be half as suitable to him as
he is to me. It is a fortunate thing for me that Keble has
been disposed to receive me with all sorts of favourable pre-
judices ; for otherwise I should fear lest he should misunder-
stand me. There seems to me a very important difference
between us for two persons continually working together.
He is (so to say) all conclusions ; I am afraid I am, for the
most part, premisses. I do not suppose this is a very
intelligible mode of expressing oneself ; and ver}' likely my
amplification will not much mend it.

I mean that things come from him almost straight to
practical conclusions. He does not make much of a discus-
sion : does not enter into much detail as to views, explanations,
possible motives, opinions of others ; but goes direct to work
for himself and comes to some result. Or, again, his argu-
ments, reasonings, for his own views, are, as it were, squeezed
and compressed into the smallest possible space —jerked out,
— hinted at — implied ; and then comes a big conclusion, at
which others {e.g. such as I) would tuck up their skirts, and
look carefully below to see whether St. Paul's was underneath

1880 Letters and Corj-espondeiice 189

them to prop up the weight, or rather woukl try to heap a
Pehon upon Ossa of argumentation before they would venture
to top up with such a comprehensive or starthng enunciation.
Or, again, he does not give you half a conclusion because the
other half may nearly choke you, but quietly administers the
whole dose, trusting that, though at first it may be heavy on
the stomach, the natural strength of your digestion will carry
it off, and convert the mass into wholesome nourishment for
the animal frame.

"What a shame to troul^le you with all this ! But you have
a wa}' of making your friends feel you are interested about
them, so that I do not feel much concerned for telling you all
this in such a way about my well-being. If I have croaked
to 3'ou [/.<?. at other times], may I not tr}' a more cheerful
strain now ?

I have been reading the Bampton Lectures again [/.c
Hampden's. He had known Hampden, I think, at Hackney]
in order to steel myself for any kind of violence that may be
proper. Eeally they are too bad. I should have supposed
that you ' and Pusey had exhausted the objectionable passages,
))ut really one has little trouble in making a list of one's own.

Samuel F. AVoop, Esq., to 1{ev. J. H. Newman.

Tempi' : April i S}6.

Bowden, Dodsworth, and myself have had some conversa-
tion this morning at the Christian Knowledge Society, the re-
sult of which is this letter. The occasion of so many clergy
being gathered together at Oxford as will be on Thursday
seems very opportune for obtaining their signatures to any
Memorial respecting the new Church Bill, and should not be
lost. Now if you approve of that respecting the Bishopric of
Sodor and Man which J)<)dsw()rth has sent you, it might be
signed now.

It really would be most lamentable that such a see should
be suppressed. He tells me that the discii^line of it is most
primitive, the Bishop sitting in open court with his Presbyters,

' In the Elucidations.

I go loliii Ilcnry A^czvman l ■-;;•;

adjudging, cxcoiiiiiuinieatiii^s k^t. Tlion, asain, tlu; Dir^lio])
having' no seat in the House of Lords is a valualjlc piecc-
dent: and altogetlu^r, wlien our crying evil is the fewness of
the ]3ishops, and the wide interval which separates them from
the other orders, it will he wretched if, for a saving of 2,ooo/-
per annum, such a thins should he committed and not a
voice protest against it. Well, then, what we would suggest is
that to-morrow (when, as we hope, your Hampden husiness
will be for the present suspended [/.c. over for the present ])y
means of a decision]) you and Pusey should consider the
Memorial and make any alterations in it you think fit ; and
then get it engrossed and ready for signature by the time the
men come in. Let it be observed that this case differs
entirely from that of Bristol and Bangor, in that it is a total
.siij)2)ression — not what they profess to be a better economical
distribution of existing dioceses.

Bowden and Dr. Chapman are coming down to-morrow
inside, and Eyder, Rogers, and myself outside, the ' Defiance.' I
fear that our majority will be much less than last month [i.r.
March 22]. Many lawyers are going down from here now
who were absent then.

Eev. W. Dodswoeth to Rev. J. H. Newman,

I believe that your correspondent's statements respecting
the See of Sodor and Man are substantially correct.

It is said to be the most ancient in the United Kingdom,
being founded about a.d. 450 by St. Patrick, who appointed
St. Germanus the first Bishop. By an Act passed in Henry
Vn.'s reign, it was incorporated with the Church of England,
being annexed to the Province of York ; these particulars are
given in Sacheverell's account of the Isle of Man, and also in
Sir James Ware.

It is sad to speak of the conduct of the present clergy.
With the exception of the Archdeacon, who is here usuig his
best efforts to save the Bishopric, they have all consented to
the suppression of the See, on condition that they obtain a
share of the spoils ; this is indeed miserable.

1836 Jui/crs and Correspondence 191

I learn from good authority that, on the wretched state of
the diocese being represented to the Commissioners [June 15,
1862. — These Commissioners were appointed by Sir Pi. Peel,
during his short administration in 1S34-35. The Commission
is the basis of my pamphlet on SulTragan Bishops. — J. H. N.],
as an argument for retaining the Bishop, one of them (a
Bishop) observed, ' If it is so bad iilik a Bisliop, Ave may as
well try whether it will not be better without one.' Is this
the spirit in which our Church is to be reformed '?

It is said that the intention of suppressing tlie see has
arisen from some irregularities of the present Bislioj) in the
matter of ordination.

E. "Williams, Esq., ]^I.P., to Pev. J. II.'.

I send you a letter from Ward [son of the Bislioi:) of Sodor
and Man], together with a memorial which the Bisho]> of Sodor
and Man has addressed to the Church Commissioners. The
latter I cannot help looking upon as a very valuable document,
both in reference to the suliject itself, and also as a protest
against the tyrannical character of the Commission. I fear
the question will be introduced into the House of Commons
on Thursday next. I hope Sir Pobert Inglis will take up the
question with zeal.

Eev. T. it. Xkwmax to Hkv. J, Kehli:.

Orirl: Aiud I S, 1836.

I rejoice about the i)amptoii,and think your subject a very
grand and good one. I hope you \\\\\ not forget your i^romise
of a volume of sermons. I put it on this simple ground.
We arc raisiin/ a doiuiud for a certain article, and tee initst /nr-
nislt a siip])li/. Men are curious after Apostolic principles, and
we must not let the season slip. The seizing opportunities is
the beginning, middle, and end of success; or rather Uo put
it higher) it is the way in which we co-operate with th«' provi-
'lential course of things. Vie expect, too, y<mr letters on
Sacramentals ; also will you be ready to talk with Pusey about
vour version of the Psalms ?

icj2 John Ilciiry Nci^nuaii 183G

Wv.s. J. ]I. Newman to J. B. Mozll:!, E.sq.

Orid: April i8, 1836.

. , . Pusoy expected to find you in his house even
on his return — so you see he is making no stranger of you.
I shall tell him you come on Thursday. As to a room, if I
were you, I should continue to make my hedroom my study.
It is what I always do when I can, with the hest effect. How-
ever, since there is but yourself, it seems, for Morris is not
coming, you can have the dining-room if you please.

Tell Tom, his namesake Keble wishes him to superintend the
architecture of his new church, and is in a hurry, and was
annoyed to hear he was out of Oxford. . .

Vale, valetc, Jacohe cum Thoma.

Ever yours affectionately;

John H. Newman.

Dr. Pusej-'s tract on Baptism had been recently published,
tind was exciting much attention when Mr. Newman wrote the
following letter :

Eev. J. H. Newman to Miss M. Pi. Giberne.

April 19, 1836.

If you knew my friend, Dr. Pusey, as well as I do ; nay, as
well as those generally who come tolerably near him, you
would say, I am sure, that never was a man in this world on
whom one should feel more tempted to bestow a name which
"belongs only to God's servants departed, the name of a saint.
Never a man who happened unconsciously to show, what
many more (so be it !) have within them, entire and
absolute surrender of himself, in thought, word and deed, to
God's will. And this being so, I shall battle for him when
his treatise is attacked, and by whomsoever. I do not say
that he \\^?, finished his subject ; rather he has opened a large
circle of subjects, which, I trust, he will be strengthened to
accomplish. Only, I say, as far as he has gone, he is intelli-
gible and not alarming.

1830 Letters (Did Corrcspoiuiaicc 193

To the same inquirer Mr. Newman wi-itcs t^hortly after :

I am not aware that I ever * determined ' not to refer
to the Prayer Book in defence of Dr. Pusey's treatise ;
at the same time I cannot allow that the Prayer Book is or
ever was intended to he a repository of the perfect Gospel. It
is a part of the original Catliolic Services, and as such is the
voice of all Saints in all times ; hut it is a matter of history
that its present form was decided hy a numher of accidents.
At the Pievolution we ran the rhh of the Athanasian Creed
heing omitted, or the Collects changed, itc. Now had that
risk hecome a fact, still we trust the Prayer Book would have
been a guide, as far as it went ; but it would not have been a
guide in all things, because it would have been silent about
some. So, again, it was an accident that we have not King
Edward's First Book ; that Book retained the rite of Exorcism
in Baptism. Now it would be very hard for a reader to turn
round upon Pusey when he expresses reverence for the rite,
and sa3% ' Where is it in the Prayer Book '? ' when but for
Bucer — a foreigner — it would have been there.

Pusey's doctrine — that is, that of the Fathers — is this :
That in Baptism there is a i)hnar]f rcini.^sioii of all that is
passed. That none such occurs again in this life, none such till
the Day of Judgment. But it does not thence follow that there
is no kind of Ahsoli(tion besides promised us. There is ; and
of it the Collect for Ash Wednesday, Sec, speak. It is this :
we are admitted, as a transgressing child might be, not to the
same absolute election, but from time to time, according as we
pray, repent, and are absolved, to a lower state in our Father's
favour. We are admitted to Church ordinances. Church pri-
vileges, and the state of giace which is in the Church, a place of
rest, refreshment, respite, oi prcHcnt help ; without more, how-
ever, than the siispeiisiini of our sins over our heads. Now
think of this, and see whether both Prayer Book and Pusey
do not teach this concordantly.

From the loss of his friend Froude, Mr. Newman's tlioughts
were abruptly called to another loss— a private one, which told

VOL. II. o

194 h^^^^ Henry New^natt 18.36

deeply upon liim. In transcrilnng his Mother's last letter,
in which she recalls his Father's delight at his election to
Oriel, and touches gently on his present turn of tliought
and action, which made him an influence in his generation,
Mr. Newman added the two following sentences :

* On April 28, 1836, my sister Jemima was married to John

* On the following May 17 my Mother died.''


Iffiey: May iS, 1836.

You will he distressed at the news I have to tell ; the
most overpowering event it is to me — my dear Mother's death.
I did not know of her danger till the day before yesterday.
She died yesterday.

It is indeed a most bitter affliction, but I feel it must be
for good. . . . Pray give me your prayers.

Some words may be said here of this strange clash of
events, a marriage and a funeral. Mrs. Newman had entered
with a very warm and thoughtful interest into her daughter's
engagement and marriage ; her letters on the subject are
as wise as they are full of feeling. She was a woman content
to live as it were in the retirement of her thoughts. She
had an influence, though not a conspicuous one, on all
about her. The trials of life had given a weight to her
judgment, and her remarkable composure and serenity of
temper and manner had its peculiar power. Under this gentle
manner was a strong will which could not be moved when her
sense of duty dictated self-sacrifice. The interest and excite-
ment of the occasion had told upon Mrs. Newman and tried her
frail health, but she kept up and made light of her indisposi-
tion until the wedding day was over. The present writer

1836 Letters and Correspondence 195

remained beyond the other guests to be with Harriett, the
sister left alone. It was then that Mrs. Newman broke down ;
but the physician who visited her did not treat the case as a
very grave one, and promised amendment. As quiet was re-
commended, Mr. Newman, in Oxford, was not immediately
informed that anything serious was the matter, and when his
sister wrote anxiously, her letter missed him through the
stupidity of a servant. So that when he did come to Rose
Bank he was shocked to find his IMother in an almost sinking
state. Immediately he brought another opinion, but it was
only to learn that his Mother's state was hopeless. The
brother and sister were together with her to the end. This
account is necessary to explain Mr. Newman's words to
Mr. Bowden.

The day on which that letter was written, and which had
to be passed in all the sad pressure of business incident to
such occasions, Mr. Newman's one comfort was, as he said, that
*■ such a day can come but once in a life.'

In the Rev. J. B. Mozley's Letters there is a notice of this
event and of its effect on Mr. Newman. * Up to the time of
the funeral Newman was dreadfully dejected, his whole coun-
tenance perfectly clouded with grief, and only at intervals
breaking out into anything like cheerful conversation. But
whether it is that the funeral service and the rite altogether
has thrown a consolatory colouring on the sad event, or that
he does not think it right to go on grieving now that all is
over, certain it is that he seems much more like himself now
than he has been for the week past.

* Dr. and Mrs. Pusey, Copeland, Rogers, and others
attended the funeral. Mrs. Newman was buried in a vault
within the rails of the chancel of St. Mary's.' '

' Mr. F. VV. Newman, who at that time was living at a distance from
Oxford, was prevented attending his Mother's funeral by the very serious illness
of his wife.

196 /ohu Ilcury Nciuuiaii 183G

If any one present at the funeral has read this letter, it
will have recalled to him Mr. Newman still kneeling at the
altar when all was over, lost in prayer and memory, till nt
length Mr. Isaac Williams, who had officiated, touched his
shoulder to recall him to the necessity of joining the mourning
train in the return to the desolate home.'

The following letter after the death of his Mother was
written when Hose Bank was deserted, his sister Harriett
being now at Derby with Mrs. John Mozley.

Rev. J. II. Xewman to his Sister Harriett.

June 21, 1836.

I went up on ^^londay to Rose Bank when the house was
all but empty. . . James Carter (Mrs. Newman's servant) has
begun to mope. He misses his place.

I fear you remained here so long on my account. You
have nothing to be uneasy at as far as I am concerned. Thank
God, my spirits have not sunk, nor will the}', I trust. I have
been full of work, and that keeps me generally free from de-
jection. If it ever comes, it is never of long continuance, and
is even not unwelcome. I am speaking of dejection from
solitude. I never feel so near Heaven as then. Years ago,
from 1822 to 1826 [In the spring of 1826, Froude was
elected Fellow of Oriel], I used to be very much by myself, and

' A remembrance of this date is found in a packet of letters returned to the

To Miss M. A. D.

When we came back from the funeral the sun was in the houpe again ; of
course it did not bring back the change ; but as if Mr. ^'ewiiian thouj^ht that grief
had reigned long enough, he seemed by a sort of rcsohite effort to throw it from
liim, and resume his usual manner. He remained as a member of the family
party for a few days, and joined in long walks which were taken. It was then
that I first saw Shotover and Bagley Wood. I remember one day Mr. Xewman
giving tho account of his illness in Sicily, and the effect of the scenery upon
liim on his recovery. Such descriptions are not to be described over again.
They harmonised then with the scene before us ; and recent suffering had the
effect which by right belongs to it, of giving to nature, both present and in
memory, such glow and brightness as if it were a foretaste of Hea^ en.

1-836 Lcllers and Correspondence igj

ill anxieties of various kinds which were very harassing. I
then, on the whole, had no friend near me, no one to whom 1
opened my mind fully or who could sympathise with me. I am
but returning at worst to that state. Indeed, ever since that time
I have learnt to throw myself on myself. Therefore, please
God, I trust I shall get on very well, and, after all, this life is
very short, and it is a better thing to be pursuing what seems
God's will than to be looking after one's own comfort. I am
learning more than hitherto to live in the presence of the
dead — this is a gain which strange faces cannot take awav.

Eev. J. H. Newman to Mrs, John Mozley.

Jiiitf 26, 1836.

I am full of work as usual and trust it may tell. One
never can say beforehand how long one's time is, or how long
one shall be honoured with the opportunity of being useful.
AVhile, then, my health lasts I wish to employ myself . . . For
what I know, I may in a year or two be cast aside as a broken
tool having done my part. Not that I expect this, but God's
ways are so wonderful.

. . . Now I have not explained why I have said all this :
for this reason, that you might not think me lonely. I am not
moi'e lonely than I have Le^n a long while. God intends me
to be lonely ; He has so framed my mind that I am in a great
measure beyond the sympathies of other people and thrown
upon Himself . . . God, 1 trust, will support me in following
whither He leads.

Online LibraryJohn Henry NewmanLetters and correspondence of John Henry Newman during his life in the English church, with a brief autobiography ; (Volume 2) → online text (page 16 of 47)