John Henry Newman.

Letters and correspondence of John Henry Newman during his life in the English church, with a brief autobiography ; (Volume 2) online

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the Nicene Fathers having the brand of apostasy on their
foreheads. It is curious to find that the lawj-ers and laity do
not take to Mr. Taylor, but the clergy do. For why ? because
the doctrine of celibacy touches the latter. Put aside Mr.
Taylor's gross misrepresentation : this is the real hitch at

Mr. Todd's sermons on Antichrist have at last appeared,
and seem to be both bold and seasonable.

Not Mr. Taj'lor, but Dr. "Wiseman, seems taking the

' Author of Ancient Christianity, Spiritual Despotism.

]t<M Letters and Corrcspondcucc 295

Lawyers : so I hear. Iiuloed liis last article comparing us to
the Donatists has taken in quarters where I should not have
expected it would excite an interest. Indeed he has fixed on
our weak point, as Kehle's Sermon, !Mamiing's ' Paile of Faith,"
and my Lectures lix on his.

Pusey is at Brighton, pretty well. At present he is very
much Lent on establishing an order of Sisters of !Mercy (I
despair somehow, hut T aJtraij^i croak), and is collecting infor-

PiEV. J. II. NkWMAX to Y. PiOGKKS, Es(J.

Oi'kJ Collcf/c : Januarif 8, 1840.

One kind word from you will make me forget anything,
but really you frightened and de^n-essed me much.

I have had a visit to-day from Mr. Spencer, the Pi.C. priest,
under the following circumstances. Palmer (of Magdalen) —
6 irdvv irpo^evos — asked me to dine with him. On second
thoughts I considered that this would not be right in the case
of one in loco apoataUf, who had done despite to our orders, &c.
So I wrote to say I could have no faiitiliar and aocidl intercourse
with one so circumstanced. Palmer was annoyed. Poor fellow !
he has put himself in a false position. People irill assume ho
is one of us, and come to him for introductions to us ; and he
does not know even a number of us, and does not know the
feelings. Sec, of those he docs know. So he has been hard pressed
to entertain the said Mr. S. Ward saw Palmei- of Worcester
unsuspiciously pacing down to dine with him yesterday, wliic-h,
considering the said Palmer always talks of ]\rr. S])encor, OCc, as
' those fellows,' was anuising. Well, to return. Palmer called
to expostulate with me, and proposed divers plans, such as my
coming in the evening, Sec. I said I did not like to put myself
out of the way — that if R.C.'s and A.C.'s met together, it
should 1)1' in sackcloth, ratlier than at a pleasant party, ci:e.
Then he asked if I should object to Mr. Spencer's calling on
me. I said that 1 had no right to ask such a thing from Mr.
S. — that it was pompous in me, ite. So it was arranged then ;
and to-day he ealled with Palmer, and sat an hour. He is
a gentlemanlikr, mild, pleasing man, but sadly smooth. 1

296 I o!nt I Iciiry Xcuiiian is-io

womler Avliethcr it is ilii,ir liiil;it of internal discipline, the ne-
cessity of confession, iVc, which makes them so. He did not
come to controvert — his sole point was to get English people to
pray for the R.C's. He said he had been instrumental in
setting on foot the practice in France towards England, that
it was spreading in Germany, and that wo should be soon
agreed if we really loved one anotlier : that such prayers
would change the face of things. He called on Routh, and had
a similar talk with him. Yesterday he dined in Hall at Mag-
dalen, at a venison feast, in company with Calcott and Thomp-
son of Lincoln, Lancaster, &c. At least, so I believe. Wood
is to take him to Littlemore to-morrow. Oakeley and he
l)reakfast at Palmer's with him to-morrow morning.

PiEV. J. H. Newman to J. W. Bowdex, Esq.

Oriel Colic (J e : Jannaiji 10.

To day the penny postage comes in, which all condemn,
l)ut every one likes,

January 17. — . . . Hampden preached a regular 'Evangeli-
cal' sermon last term, which is pubhshed, and which a corre-
spondent of the ' Record ' has been puffing. The said ' Record '
has been puffing Whately, too, for his clear appreciation of the
great Protestant principle of Private Judgment ; and is most
hitter (that's the only word) against Keble, and me, and the
new volumes of Eroude. They are past amier ; they say we
are far worse than the unspiritual High Church of the last
century, as sinning more against light — i.e. there was no
' Record ' then. . .

When the Conservatives come in, the first act of the Whigs
is to be to move for a Commission to examine the state of the
Universities, and the Conservatives are not to resist it. I
dread about our Statutes : in so many Colleges there are
abuses. Ward of Trinity has been attempting to publish the
]\Iagdalen Statutes, and the College has got an injunction
against him. However, at length they have seen the policy
of letting him have his way.

Things are progressing steadily ; but. bri-ikers ahead !

1.S4U Lctlcrs. a::d Con'cspondcncc 297

The danger of a lapse into Romanism, I think, gets greater
daily. I expect to hear of victims. Again, I fear I see more
clearly that we are working up to a schism in our Church ;
that is, a split bet^Yeen Peculiars and Apostolicals ; the only
hope is that the Peculiars may he converted or broken up. If
a Convocation were now to meet, I think there would be a

Mr. Close & Co. of Cheltenham clamoured so much about
H. Jeffreys' appointment to the Training School at Gloucester
that he was obliged, tliough appointed by the Bishop, to with-
draw. Well, I hear to-day that at last they have got a young
Fellow of Lincoln, of the name of Atkinson, who is one of
our translators.

In like manner they refused Copeland here, and have got
in xn'xw ys\\^ci (fix ahuntlanii cuntda on their part) had been a
semi-Bulteelite, but who, it turns out, is now rapidly coming
on to Apostolical opinions.

To return to Lincoln : after rejecting James Mozley for a
Fellowship two years since for his opinions, the}' have been
taken by Pattison, this last term, an inmate of the Ccenobitium.
He happened to stand very suddenly, and they had no time to
inquire. They now stare in amazement at their feat.

Eev. J. H. NiiWMAN TO Mrs. J. Mozlkv.

Oriel: Jdiiituri/ 14, 1840.

. . . "What have I to tell you '? I ought to answer your
letter, and will some time or otlur.

How the years go ! Who would have thought that 1 840
would ever come ! It used to look a fabulous date ; like some
of the idle prophecies of the end of the world, as in this year
or that.

The Conservatives are certaiidy coming in, the Bishop of
Exeter says, for six years ; and then will be a Padieal Ministry ;
and he bids the Conservatives do all they ean in the six or
seven years of plenty.

St. Nicholas was Bishop of Myra — very little is known
about him. He is considered the patron of children, and I

29S J o/in Jlcnry Nci^niiau 1S40

suppose is associated with St. Mary as emblem of inno-
cence. Littlemorc Cliapcl is dedicated to St. Mary and St.

I am exc(;ediiigly pleased at your liking my article.' It
is one that has given me much anxiety. I have no fear
of the Movement j^rufiressing at this moment, but great ap-
prehensions of lapses to Eomanism. It is written in answer
to the article of Dr. Wiseman, which (I acknowledge) is
striking. . .

The last ' Edinburgh ' has convinced me that the penny
postage is not only pleasant, but right, prudent, and neces-

P.S. — Love to Aunt.

Eev. J. H. Newman to J. W. 13owj)ex, Esq.

Oriel College : Fehruarn 21.

I have got into a desponding way about the state of things,
and I don't know W'hy quite. Eight principles are progressing
doubtless, but it seems as if they were working up to a collision
with Puritanism which may split the Church. I fear the
Bishops are not so favourable ; but one fancies. What I said
in my last was that the Bishop of London wavered about us
which was good ; but 1 have lately heard that the Bishop of
Eipon [Longley] was about to show some distrust in rols Trepl
Hook. I am not quite sure that Hook himself is not getting
frightened [with us ?]. Here the authorities are getting more
and more cold and averse, I fear ; though it may be a fancy
in me to say so. . . .

Bloxam has given up Littlemore, and Copeland is to
be my curate. In the interval — that is, during Lent — -I
am going up to lodge there, to see how things are going

. . . Pusey is at present very eager about setting up
Sisters of Mercy. I feel sure that such institutions are the

' ' Catholicity of the EngHsh Church/ Bi-itlsJi Critic, January 1S40.

].'^40 Letters and Correspoudeuee 299

onl}' means of saving some of our l)est members from turning-
Pioman Catholics ; and vet I despair of such societies beini;
made externally. They must be the expansion of an inward
principle. All one can do is to offer the opportunity. I am
scej)tical, too, whether they can be set up without a quasi -
vow. . .

My ' Church of the Fathers ' is now linished. It is the
prettiest l)ook I have done ; which is not wonderful, l)ein^
hardly more than the words and works of the Fathers. I have
no notion how it will take, as I have been obliged to give out
tlic Fathers' views about celibacy and miraculous power.

The Duke of "Wellington is said to be certainly breaking.
. . . "What a wonderful thing it is, and what a strange reproach
to the nation, that, for the last ten years, the Duke should have
done nothing. Considering his great influence with European
Powers, it is like infatuation that the country should not have
availed itself of what will never come again. It was part of
our purchase by twenty years of bloodshed, and now it is
thrown away. Dukes of "Wellington arc not to be had for the

I am told that Mr. Spencer expressed himself quite puzzled
why I would not dine with him. So I wrote him a letter
about a fortnight since, which he has not answered, perhaps
from fear of getting into controvers^y. 1 merely said it was>
useless for them to attempt amicaljle intercourse l)etwcen
themselves and us, while cuta were contrary — while they allied
themselves to Dissenters and Infidels, and Mere plotting our
ruin. The voice was Jacob's voice, but the hands were the
hands of Esau ; that he did not come as an individual Eoman
Catholic, but as a priest on a religious purpose, ko..

PiKv. J. H. Xkwmax to Mils. .1. Mozlev.

I'chriiari/ 25, I S40.

I have got very sluggish about writing, for various reasons :
first, I am so busy ; next, my hand is so tired ; and, thirdly, 1
am somehow desponding about the state of things, and this
disinclines me to exert myself.

300 J ^''^'" Ilciiry NciJiuan 1840

Everything is miserable. I exjiect a great attack upon the
Bible — indeed, I have long expected it. At the present moment
indications of what is coming gather. Those wretched
Socialists on the one hand, then Carlyle on the other — a man
of ih-st-rate abilit}', I suppose, and quite fascinating as a
writer. His book on the ' French Revolution ' is most taking
(to me). I had hoped he might have come round right, for it
was easy to see he was not a believer ; but they sa}- he has
settled the wrong way. His view is that Christianity has
good in it, or is good a.s f(ir as it f/ocs, which, when applied to
Scripture, is, of course, a picking and choosing of its contents.
Then, again, you have Arnold's school, such as it is (I do hope
he will be frightened back), giving up the insi^iration of the
Old Testament, or of all Scripture (I do not say Arnold him-
self does). Then you have Milman, clenching his ' History of
the Jews ' by a ' History of Christianity ' which they say is
worse ; and just in the same line. Then you have all your
political economists, who cannot accept (it is impossible) the
Scripture rules about almsgiving, renunciation of wealth,
self-denial, cVc, and then your geologists, giving up parts of
the Old Testament. All these and many more spirits seem
imiting and forming into something shocking.

But this is not all. I begin to have serious ai^prehensions
lest anj^ religious body is strong enough to withstand the
league of evil but the Roman Church. At the end of the
first millenary it withstood the fury of Satan, and now the
end of the second is drawing on.

Certainly the way that good principles have shot up is
wonderful ; but I am not clear that they are not tending to
Eome — not from any necessity in the principles themselves,
but from the much greater proximity between Eome and us
than between infidelity and us, and that in a time of trouble
we naturally look about for allies. I cannot say enough of the
wonderful way in which the waters are rising here, and one
should be very thankful. All this is a miserable prose, and
regular talk worth nothing, and soon to be falsified by the

I am going up to Littlemore till Easter. "While there I

1840 Letters and Correspondence 301

may have more time to write to Harriett and you. Tell
her so.

The followin^f letter t(j his sister, who knew all the parish-
ioners and parish concerns of Littlemorc, shows Mr. Newman
in an unfamiliar field, obeying one precept, in m hich with him
nature always assisted grace, ' Whatsoever thy hand findeth
to do, do it with thy might,'

PiEV. J. H. Xkwman to Mrs. J. Mozlkv.

Littlemorc: Murdt 12, 1840.
. . . lam up here, amongst other reasons, owing to Bloxam's
being suddenly called home by his father's alarming state of
health. I am not at all sorry for the opportunity. It has
cost me a great effort. My Oxford duty is divided among
seven persons, and two presses are stopped, and a third post-
poned. I have a number of protestations from friends for

I have no papers with me nor any hint to guide me as to
this place. I have to make my way as I can. My school
perplexes me, at least the girls' school ; for Mrs. W. is perfectly
incapable. Do suggest to me how I am to discharge her with-
out discharging him, I have been reforming, or at least
lecturing against uncombed hair and dirty faces and hands :
but I find I am not deep in the philosophy of school -girl

I have just caught a most unpleasant cold, which has
clean taken away my voice, and, if matters continue in this
present state, what I sliall do I know not. This evening my
reading the service was not audible to the little children close to
me — my throat is choked uji. With me this kind of thing
rarely lasts above a day, l)ut 1 liave never liad so determined
a cold since Eogers went up lor his degree, and I crammed
him, he l)lind and T dumb. Mrs. ]3arnes comforts me bv
telling me tliat, if I take some precious mess (which now
stands on my fender, till I'go to bed) for ihrrr nights, I cannot
tell the deal of good it will do me. ]\reanwliile Simday comes

302 I oliii llcnry A'cicniaii l!^4()

oil apace. I am catochisin;;- the children in church on Sundays,'
and prepare them for it through the week ; here, again, is a
<listinct catastrophe.

I have morning ])vayers daily as well as afternoon.

Eev. J. JL. XiowMAN TO F. Rogers, Esq.

Little UK) rr : March 21, 1840.

I wish you Avould ask Hope when he comes whether the
following course and its reasons can be made intelligible to
ordinary minds, or whether it will seem an anomaly. I have
no misgivings about it myself, but that does not prove that
others may not stumble at it.

Considering that I have little or nothing to do at Oxford
parochially, and a great deal at Littlemore, I naturally feel a
desire to reside at Littlemore rather than in Oxford. Na}', I
will say that po- sc it is a duty to do so. But then comes the
•[uestion whether I ought to be a non-resident Fellow.

I argue thus : — the College has made me their Yicar of the
parish : in attending to it I am merely doing that very thing
which they have told me to do. Nay, they make me Yicar o-s-
Fellow, for, did I give up my Fellowship, I should be bound to
give up my vicarage. If I cannot attend to St. Mary's and
be a Fellow, there is no other way in which I can attend to it.
St. Mary's never can be served except by Fellows ; either there
must be non-residence (so to call it) of a Fellow, or non-
attendance of a Yicar.

Littlemore has never been regarded in any other light than
an integral part of St. Mary's. When the chapel was built, the
College refused to let it be anything but a Chapel of Ease on
St. Mary's ; it refused to take the patronage, or in any way to
recognise Littlemore as detached from the Oxford portion.

The question then comes to this : is it a breach of the
Statutes in the College to annex the living to a Fellowship '?

' Dr. Mozley in a home letter -vsTites : — ' Newman's catechising has been a
^reat attraction this Lent, and men have gone out of Oxford every Sunday to
hear it. I heard him last Sunday, and thought it very striking, done with
.such spii-it, and the cliildrcn so uji to it, answering with the greatest alacrity.'

]840 Lcilcrs and Corrcspondcucc 303

But, next, sup[)o.siiig 1 took thcologk-al pupils at Littlemore,
might not niv house be looked upon as a sort of Hall
depending on Oriel, as St. Mary Hall was :* and if this were
commonly done, would it not much strengthen the Colleges
instead of weakening them ? Are these not precedents '?

And, further, supposing a feeling arose in favour of monastic,
establishments, and my house at Littlemore was obliged to
follow the fashion, and conform to a rule of discipline, would
it not be desiraltle that such institutions should How from the
Colleges of our two Universities, and be under their influence ?

I do not wish this mentioned by Hope to any one else. I
may ask one or two persons besides.

Ekv. .r. H. Xew.aiax to Mrs. J. Mozlev.

LittlcDiorr : April i. 1840.

I am getting on here ; the children are improving in their
singing. I have had the audacity to lead them and teach
them some new tunes. Also I have rummaged out a violin
and strung it, and on Mondays and Thursdays have begun to
lead them witli it, a party of between twenty and thirty great
and little in the schoolroom. I am catechising them in church,
too, and have got them so far that they take an interest hi it.
I have only one girl as much as ten, an.d not two more than
eight or nine, except some Sunday scholai's. I have effected
a great reform (for the time) in the girls' hands and faces.
Lectured with unblushing effrontery on the necessity of their
Iceeping their work clean, and set them to knit stockings.

Also I have drawn up a sort of Liturgy for School
Prayers, varying with the seasons, on a hint 1 gained from
some printed prayers, &c., done by some ladies in Sussex.

I think I shall be a good deal here in future.

PiKv. J. TT. Nhwmax to Mks. J. ^Fo/lkv.

Litth'tiiiirr : .[}>til 1 S. 1 840.
I have just ended the Lent Past, and Ploxam lias come
up and taken tea with me. Then we went to cburch, and

304 /(>//// Ilcjiry Ncivmau isjo

witli nuK-h care aiTanged the altar cloth. ... It looks
l)eautil'u]. As to IMrs. Barnes, she dreamed of it from aston-
ishment at its elaborateness ; and Eliza B. and several others,
who arc workwomen, look at it with amazement. . . . Indeed
we are all so happy that we are afraid of being too happy.
We have got some roses, wall-flowers, and sweet-briar, and
the Chapel smells as if to remind one of the Holy Sepulchre.
Really I have everything my own way, and I quite dread
some reverse, because I am so favoured.

PiEv. J. H. Newman to Eev. Thomas Mozley.

OrivX College: May 20, 1840.

. . . We have bought nine acres, and want to build a
/u,ov/). Give me some hint about building. My notion is to
build a hit, and then stop, but to build it on a plan, which
will admit of being added to. Were I a draughtsman I would
hit off something good ; as it is, take the folio U'ing (with a
plan) :

The library admits of increase along one side, and is to be
lighted with upper windows only, the room being (say) 16 to
18 feet high.

The cells to be added as required, being (say) 9 or 10 feet

The oratory or chapel a matter altogether for future

I want a cell to contain three rooms : i, a sitting-room
12 by 9 (say) ; 2, a bed-room 6 by 6 ? ; and 3, a cold-bath
room 6 by 3 '?

Again, June i o, 1 840 :

I have got another idea since I saw you, which, for what I
know, you will annihilate on the ground of expense. It is to
have the cells kj^oh a cloister, as at Magdalen, and a library
too. Will you give me your thoughts about this ?

I meant to have asked before whether I could not get rid
of chimneys and fireplaces by pipes of hot water, or would
this be a great expense "? The saving of chimneys, grates, c^-c.

]840 Lcllcrs and Correspondence 305

would be great. I woultl liavi' ;i lirei)lacc only in the Idtc-lion
and refectory.

I think of planting in the autumn two acres with larch
and fir, with more tender trees (yet suited to the soil) between,
such as hornl)eam, elm, &c. Can you give me any hints
here ?

And now, farewell. Wood and "Williams have l)een here
for the "Whitsun holidays, and we have had a pleasant time.
I had a breakfast party last week with a Presb^'terian clergy-
man, a Trinity College Dublin man, a French ecclesiastico-
politician, a friend of Lamennais, and (Harriett will know
who) Mr. Ostrahan. Yesterday two Ashantee Princes came
with an introduction from my uncle Charles ; but this is
gossip I should reserve for Harriett.

Ei:v. J. H. Xi:w^rAX to ^Irs. -T. ^Iozley.

JsccNsioii Daij, Mill/ 28, 1840.

"What a beautiful spring this has been after the last four
bad years ! We have bought nine or ten acres of ground at
Littlemore, the field between the Chapel and Barnes's, and,
so be it, in due time shall ereet a UKJuastie house upon it.
This may lead ultimately to my rt'signing my Fellowship;
but these are visions as yet. The painted glass is up, and
most beautiful it is. TIk^ children are improving in their
singing; we hope soon to be able t() chant the whole service
with them.

j\Iy lil)rary is in most appU-pie order. I suppose I shall
soon make it over to tlie ])arties who hold the nine acres.
The tracts are most flourishing.

The following is the first of a series of letters ad-
dressed to a lady who introduced herself to Mr. Newman
under the sigiiatuic Z. Y. X., but subscMpiently to be known
;is Miss H. '['\\v\ illustrate his courtesy and readiiu'ss to
help any one in real ditficulty, his willingness to take trouble,
putting all his learning in some instances at the service of a
homewhat tiresome (piestioner, his good sense and temporate-


3o6 /olin Ilciiry Xcionian J 8 40

ncss as a i-cli;;ioii« adviser, and liis patience when sometimes
sorely tried l)y wilfulness and self-assertion.

One] ('iiJIrijf : Man -9, 1840.
Mr. Newman ]h"^s to submit to Z. Y. X. the following
reflections on the letter and papers wliich lie has received, the
latter of Avhich he now returns.

I have read with painful interest the account contained in
the letter, and am very thankful that one who was in such
2)eril has been at length brought right.

It is impossible iiot to feel great sympathy in the writer's
narrative, and to entertain a sanguine hope that she will be
kept right, and that her only further change will be a growth
of the good things which have been begun in her.

And, of course, it is a most welcome thing to be told that
anything oneself has written has been made at all instru-
mental in impressing religious convictions on the mind of
another, particularly one constituted as hers.

It is, however, only three years since she has begun to
think rightly, and not many months since she has known and
received the doctrines advocated in the ' Tracts for the Times.'

This being considered, I think it is premature in her to
publish, when she has so lately held opinions which she now
unfeignedly laments, and from which she can hardly yet
have thoroughly cleansed herself. I hope she will not think
me harsh if I say that, however the Church needs such aid
as she proposes to give, and well as she is qualified to give it,
I think it would be best for her not to publish anything at
present, but to employ herself in her own edification.

Let her turn her activity and energy upon herself ; let
her consider how much must be done by every one of us to
enter life, how much is open to ever}' one to do, both to the
glory of God, and towards personal improvement : how high
and wonderful a thing Christian Sanctity is, and what capa-
bilities the regenerate soul has for improvement.

The talents which she possesses admit under God's grace
of indefinite improvement and confirmation, and may be

].^40 Letters and Coi'rcspoudcucc 307

blessed by Him for scciirin,!;" to her a pliic(> among tbc

Might it not be advisable for her to give herself to the

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