John Henry Newman.

Letters and correspondence of John Henry Newman during his life in the English church, with a brief autobiography ; (Volume 2) online

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address opened the door too much ; it was, mdeed, far more
lax than we sent it to London. Indeed, so much altered that
we may safely say it was not ours. All allusion to the iniquity
of extra-ecclesiastical interference was cut out ; and our
words ' the restoration and completion ' of the Church system
were changed into ' renew\al and correction.' However, to my
mind, the verif fact of addressing the Archbishop is enough,
and it has answered its purpose. Certainly its tendency
hitherto has been eminently conservative. Report says that the
meeting at Lambeth was most gratifying. The Archbishop
was almost affected, and everybody was very happy. They
say there has not been such a day for the Church for years.
If we can but organise, we shall do wonders.

You have seen, I suppose, the lay declaration. I know
nothing about it. They seem getting on very well. ... I
still think there ought to be letters in the ' British,' or some-
where, on the genius of the Catholic polity, the relation of the
Church, as such, to the world and the civil power, the various
aspects which it has been seen under at different times, the
methods of reconciling contending claims, &c. &c. Do you
know Warbur ton's ' Alliance ' ? All should be connected with
our present prospects, to show the importance of such con-
siderations. For myself, I have all along said I would do
nothing to disturb existing relations : but it is hard if we ma}'
not prepare for contingencies ; and doubtless in proportion as
the relations are altered by the civil power, it is the duty of
the Church to demand corresponding alterations in its favour.
It is a remarkable fact (which a friend tells me) that, of the
concessions mutually made on Warburton's theory of Church
and State, the State has resumed all hers, yet retained all the

Februari/ 9.

The electors [of the moral professorship] are the Yice-
Chancellor and Proctors, the Dean of Cli. Ch., and the Presi-
dents of ;^[agdalen and St. John's. I am not known personally
to any, except, slighth*, to the President of St. John's, but I think
I have a fair chance — first, because no one else is standmg;

1834 Lcttcj's and Correspondence 27

next, because the estate which feeds the professorship is bank-
rupt, and the otii.ce is a sinecure of trouble. I have very httle
earnestness for the office except the name is a good thing.
I have quite enough to do without mastering Hobbes and

Poor Duke ! Every one must feel for him ; we owe him
so much, and there is something so great about him ; but it
is strange how vexed every one is at the election. Ch. Ch.,
because it has been outwitted ; Merton, ko.., because the
winning party is the Tory, ka. Numbers say now, '
that it had been the Archbishop ! ' and some ask why Keble
and I did not bring him forward — which we did as far as in
us lay.

Eev. E. 13. PusEY, D.D., TO PiEV. J. H. Newman.

Spriiifi 1834.

I had thought of calling on j-ou to-day, but on the whole
judged it more prudent not. To-morrow morning we propose
leaving Oxford for the Isle of Wight, to return, I trust, b}-
God's blessing, to mj' duties at the beginning of next term.

I wished much to talk with you about many things — specially
about the Sacrament of Baptism. Men need to be taught
that it is a Sacrament, and that a Sacrament is not merely
an outward badge of a Christian man's profession ; and all
union, I think, must be hollow which does not involve agree-
ment, on principles at least, as to the Sacraments. Great
good also would be done by showing the true doctrine of
Baptism in its warmth and life, whereas the Low Church
think it essentially cold. Could not this be done, avoiding
technical terms ? I know nothing, or little, as to the reception
such a tract would meet with, but you have to decide whether
holding back is Christian prudence or compromise. [N.B. —
Pusey had not yet cordially joined the Tract Movement. The
above is a gentle protest againt the first tracts. He Juvi
written, I think, the one on Fasting already. — J. H. N.]

Can j-ou tell me whether the poor are invited to sign the
lay petition, or those onh' who have some sort of pi'operty ?
I am writing into the country al)Out it.

28 John Henry Neivman 1834

J. W. BowDEN, Esq., to Rev. J. H. Newman.

MdrcJi 12, 1834.

I came np alone to town, and visited in the course of the
day Turrill's shop. I was surprised to find that nothing had
appeared since January ; but the appearance yesterday of a
copy of your sermons (for which let me express my best
thanks) affords a plausible solution of the mj'stery. Now
that that labour is off your hands, the warning trumpet will
begin, I suppose, to breathe again, and with no uncertain sound.

. . . Did you read in the last ' Edinburgh ' the article
* A Rhymed Plea for Tolerance.' It contains the most open
and unblushing avowal of the * Liberal ' creed which the
reviewers have yet, I think, hazarded. Nothing, I believe,
will open the eyes of the bulk of their adherents. It is
astonishing how few people can perceive or trace a (jrafhial
change, either in their own opinions or in those of the world
around them.

Rev. J. H. Newman to J. "W. Bowden, Esq.

March 14, 1834.

I am floored as to the j)rofessorship. I heard of no other
candidate till the day before, i.e. this day week, when the
Principal of St. Mary Hall (Hampden) was named, and has

The tracts have been delayed from several causes, chiefly
from the necessity of reprints, and, smce our object is to
scatter information, the same, if there is a demand, do as
well as new tracts. And now that they are known, there is
not that violent hurry about publishing on. We have, indeed,
the 2^^'osprct of a regular sale. If we publish new ones, it
would, of course, be an experiment, whereas we are sure of
these selling — that is, we know they are called for. ... I
am coming to town the second week in April to attend the
Christian Knowledge Society meeting on Tuesday, April 8.
Rose, too, will be in town, and there are several other persons
I wish to talk to.

]a34 Letters and Correspondence 29

The Duke has begun his campaign by advising us
strenuously to resist the London University granting degrees
in arts and divinity, and there is to be a convocation next
week about it. Indeed, it docs seem a Httle too bad that the
Dissenters are to tcOcc our titles. Why should they call them-
selves M.A., except to seem like us ? Why not call themselves
Licentiates, Sec. ? And what is to hinder the T3isho])s being
bullied into putting up with a London M.A. '? Certainly
they would soon.

We are preparing an agitation against some of the details
of the Marriage Bill ; but I trust the Dissenters will settle
this for us without our trouble.

J. W. BowDEN, Esq., to Rev. J. H. Newman.

March 19, 1834.

I am glad to hear so good an account of the sale of the
tracts. If the}' are in demand I am all for striking while
the iron is hot. Another reason against delay is the speed
with which events march on us. The Dissenters seem likely
to carry all before them ; and for the efforts of all true
Chm'chmen moments are j^recious. There seems a sort of
delusion over people's minds on every subject connected with
* Christian Libert}".' They do not seem to comprehend the
simplest arguments, the most common dictates of justice on
the point.

At this time Mr. Keble was engaged upon his ' Ode on the
Duke of Wellington's Installation,' for which Dr. Crotch was
composing the music. Mr. Newman had written on this
point : ' I hope Crotch will do your Ode justice.' Later on,
hearing of some difficulties on the part of the composer, he
writes to Mr. Keble :

I like your Ode uncommonly. I would not budge one
step for Dr. Crotch. His letter most amus ng, and your
counter-suggestions are amusing, too. ... I would go so far

30 John Henry N'c7^nnan 1834

for Dr. C. as to offer him your friijutc, which certainly does
better for music than the long ode.

In a following letter he in(|uires, ' How do you and Crotch
get on ? ' Mr. Keble answers, ' Crotch has swallowed the
frigate whole.'

At this time the proposed Marriage Bill was exciting much
attention. Sir E. Inglis and Mr. Gladstone were consulted
by the Church party. Mr. Newman had put (March 3) the
following questions to Mr. Keble :

1. Can clergymen lawfully give out in church a mere
secular matter — the marriage of Dissenters ?

2. Can a religious M.P. vote for a measure which allows
of marriage by any, and 'therefore, if so be, merel}' civil rites ?

3. Supposing the Bill to pass, might we not get some
iinid pro quo — that is, that no clergyman need marry any but
Churchmen — an important principle.

Eev. J. H. Newman to Eev. J. Keble.

Ma nil 18, 1834.

Harrison and I have concocted the foregoing petition
[against the Marriage Bill]. It is likely the Dissenters them-
selves will do our business for us by their clamouring against
the Bill. I propose to get a show of signatures ; I do not care
much how many or how few. I will not alter anything in order
to gain signatures.

Eev. J. H. Newman to Eev. J. Keble.

MarcJi 21, 1834.

You will think me changeable ; I am going to leave out
parts of my petition in order to get more subscriptions. Eead
Harrison's letter. Eose's objects, I think, are in the main
just, and Harrison (not apt to be led awa}*) agrees with him.
However, I will not without joiiv leave. I want you to con-
sider the lawfulness of the j^rincijdc of my alterations.

What do I gain by this ? It is a further step in bringing

1834 Letters and Corre^poudeuce 31

together and organising (drilling) men who think alike, which
has been one's object all along. Besides, a petition Avith
Eose's name to it will make us heard. And, after all, the act
of rcaisthyj on cojisciriicr is what we want to force on men's
minds, and, if it is really <l(i)tc, no matter whether the words
of the petition are a little stronger or weaker.

As to the House of Commons, let us give them the chance
of treating our protest well. Has an}' Bishop in the Upper
House ever manfully protested ? "We must bear the burden
of our rulers.

On sending the petition on the Marringe Act ^Ir. Newman
turns to another subject — the Eucharist.

PvEV. J. H. Newman to Bev. J. Keble.

Grill: Ma fell 34, 1 834.

I enclose the petitions and the iirst part of Bishop Cosin.
My view of the latter matter is this : It is useless to attempt
to draw men to contemplate duly the expressions, Arc, of our
Services on the subject of the Eucharist till they have exercised
their minds on the subject. The strongest words fall as dead
to those who air used to them. Some insight into the dith-
culties and controversy of the subject is necessary in the case
of those who have long explained the doctrine away. Many
men have no notion of any meaning of ' mystical ' but that
oi jiiinnitirc. [Does not Mill somewhere say that 'mystical'
means ' supernatural ' ?] They have no notion of a nut I
Presence. I think Cosin will be useful in opening their minds,
and preparing them for your tract. They will, as if against
* Transubstantiation,' often say, ' Who doubts this '? ' * What
repetiti(m is this '? ' yet all the while will gain something, e.<i. I
cannot conceive they will think my expressions in the ' AVeek-
day Lecture' atranjie, whatever they may think of their
lU'udence, after reading Cosin.

Next, I should like a tract against Hoadley, giving and
refuting his view, showing how it had intiueiiced the ' Com-
panion to the Altar,' itc. ; and then at length I should Wkv

32 John Ilcnry Newman 1834

yours to come. I say all this to explain my publishing
Cosin first, and hope I have not overdone my view.

On March 1 1 , 1 834, Mr. Newman's first volume of sermons
came out — published by Messrs. Kivingtons.

The following letter to Mr. Rose is from a draft preserved
by Mr. Newman, the original of his letter not having been re-
turned to him. Mr. Eose seems to have expressed annoyance
at the question of the Association :

Eev. J. H. Newman to Eev. H. J. Eose.

March 30, 1834.

As to the matter of the Association, Keble, Froude and
myself were always against it. There is as much association
now as ever there was in otir plan, and it is increasing. I
mean that I am entering into correspondence with strangers
in different places on Church matters. We never contem-
plated more than an Association based upon common views, i.e.
just as much as exists between you and me at this moment.
So we began ; but Palmer went to Hook, and Hook, Palmer
and some others formed the Association you speak of, and
Palmer came back and talked me over. (Here I use your
words : * I was blind like others for a little while, in the strongest
feelings of regard and admiration for those who formed it,' &c.)
So I suspended the tracts, sorely against my will, and joined
in bringing out that prospectus for an Association which I
never liked, and never gave in to till Ogilvie gave his assent and
corrected it,^ [This lasted six weeks.] Froude and Keble
being most indignant. At the end of that time, directhi your
letter came to me, I abjured the Association and went on with
the tracts. As to the address to the Archbishop, I no more
considered it the work of a formal Association than I do now
this marriage petition I have sent to you. If you think it
worth while to ask Palmer, he will confirm all this. But it
is not, and the only reason I say so much about it is from

' See lettei' to Bowden, November 13, 1S33.

]8:34 Letters and Correspondence -^-i^

anxiety not to seem to have taken a course wliic-h you dis-

Really I am deeply pained at your annoyance. As to
what you think I meant by ' sudden conservatism,' it really
never entered into my imagination. Indeed I cannot master
what you think I meant. Whatever I meant certainly was
nothing which I should not be quite willing any one should
say of me any day.

PiEV. Jonx Keble to PiEv. J. H. Xewmax.

Ai>nl 1, icS34.

... I wish you a better office ; ' and that you will have
in appeasing poor Eose, who (in my private opinion) ought
not to waste himself on that ^lagazine any longer. It is
(juite plain that he in some measure forgets from month to
month what he wrote the number before ; and no wonder.
But it proves he has too much to do. It never van bt; neces-
sary for the Church that men should do grave things in a
hurry — can it ? And yet he does the thing so very well, 'tis
a thousand pities he should give it up. Why can't he take
a partner? . . . When shall we give up expecting one another
to be consistent '?

Eev. J. H. Newman to Piev. P. F. Wilson.

Ov'u'l C'olli'ur : April 3, 1834.

. . . What do you mean by thinking me violent, and talk-
ing of my stern orthodoxy ? Do you not recollect, when you
began to read Aristotle with me, your declaring we did differ
certainly, and your finding, when we opened to each other,
that we quite agreed ? Nor that other time when wo were
cantering on Bullington, and you declared a sermon of mine
about the King and kingly power, which you had not heard.
iHHHt be a peg beyond you, and I on the other hand said and
showed that I did not wish to go one jot further than lilack-
stone, and you at length acquitted me ? And now again you
are already beginning to find, in spite of what yon say, that

' Than the >foial Philosophy rroftssDrship.

34 J okii Ilciiry Newman 1804

I am espocially moderate in Church matters ; that, if there
is one merit 1 have, it is extreme moderation. Your last letter
half admits this. Do not you believe any stray speeches
ignorantly circulated by unphilosophical mouths to be mine ;
and tell your friend who said that if I had been a born lloman
Catholic I should have died one, that he would have died a
Dissenter had he been born one, and then we have merely
to battle it, which is best to be, a Dissenter or a Eoman

In giving the following letter to Mr. Keble on ]\Ir. Eose's
state of feeling, it must be remembered that Mr. Eose had on
his hands an amount of work and responsibility that would try
the most vigorous constitution, and that his health was rapidly
failing. Such a state of health was no doubt enough to ac-
count for any irritability that we are to gather his letters
had betrayed, and which Mr. Newman treats tenderly in
the following letter :

Eev. J. ri. Newjian to Eev. J. Keble.

Oriel: April 3, 1834.

I cannot recollect whether Eose has committed himself to
ovu- view as regards the Irish Sees. Indeed I never thought
he had a riciv. I never have reckoned him as in his opinions
one of ourselves, so to say. I have thought him a man of high
and ardent mind, keen lively perceptions, and ready eloquence,
but deficient in the power of taking an accurate and firm view
of any subject which was clouded by political interests and
the influences of friends and superiors. Our view, whether
right or wrong, he has not seemed to me to grasp, or to be
likely to grasp. Doubtless if he was a good deal with Froude
or you, he would ex animo take your side ; then, when he got
to London he would shift. I perfectly coincide in what you
say about his inconsistency or forgetfulness ; only I have
ever taken it for granted . . . and now he seems utterly un-
conscious that he wrote to us /or an answer to the Bishop of
Ferns. Besides, till I reminded him, he quite forgot that lie

18.14 Lcttci's and Correspondence


was the person who recommended the address to the Arch-
hishop. I cannot help thinking? he (unawares) excogitates
his explanation of past facts as he writes.

I wrote him as kind a letter as ever I could, and did not
say anything by way of vindication, thinking it best to wait.
However I am not sure he is not sick of the Magazine, and
finds the Chaplaincy in the way of it. If so, he would be likely
to magnify any little vexation ... so that I do not look at
his frettings as against «.s so much as against his occupation.
Your name has not been even hinted at. I cannot tell whether
ho thinks of you or not. There are many Jjesides you, and
they on the spot [which you are not], whom he might name
to himself — Williams, Copeland, Pusej', Christie, ko,. . .

As to consistency, what you say is quite true, lleally I
should say that consistency is one of the properties of an in-
spired teacher, and none but him.

Eev. J. H. Newman to Eev. E. F. Wilson.

March 31, 1834.

Excuse this strange paper ; I am writing from the Tower
in the midst of an audit.

. . . The Church is certainly in a wretched state ; but
not a gloomy one to those who regard every symptom of dis-
solution as a ground of hope. Not that I would do anj'thing
towards the undoing, or will fail Ijoth tooth and nail (so be
it) to resist every change and degradation to which it is sub-
jected. But, after all, I see a system bcltind the existing one,
a system hideed which will take time and suffering to bring
us to adopt, but still a firm foundation. Those who live by
the breath of State patronage, who think the clergy must be
gentlemen, and the Church must rest on the great, not the
multitude, of course are desponding. AVoe to the profane
liands who rob us of privilege or possession ! but they can do
us no harm. In the meantime, sliould (by any strange acci-
dent) the course of events fall back into its old channel, /
will not be a disturber of the Church, though it is dinicult to
see how this return can be. . .

36 J ^^^^^ Henry Xcicnian 18^4

TIkv. J. II. Xi:\vMA\ TO 1!k\. J. Ki:j;le.

April 9.

I have altogetlicr succeeded with Piose, He will insert my
anti-Ferns letter if he can find it ; and I am to re-write it if
it is not forthcoming. He seemed to me jealous that you
had done so little for him lately ; said you wrote him one or
two Church articles last year, that he was pressed for subjects,
&c. I think a kind friendly letter from you (not alluding to
this matter at all, but encouraging him) would be very accept-
able. How would you find occasion ? Could you from Sedg-
wick's most extravagant attack on him '? I send you the
* Standard' that j^oumay see it. By all means write him some
paper, on any Church subject not touching on Erastian topics,
I.e. if your conscience will let you.

liivington has taken the tracts. Turrill is, I suppose,
honest, but he is stupid and puzzle-headed. When he will
settle with us I cannot form a conjecture.

My friend Bowden is so desirous of meeting you ; he would
come down any day he heard you were likely to be here.

PiEV. Pi. H. Feoude to PiEv. J. H. Xew:\ian.

Ainil S, 1S34.

Joaniiibus Kehle et Xeicman. Fratres iipiavissimi, iit qiihl
fecistis nohis sic ! as St. Thomas says to the Bishop of Poictiers.^
. . . The Bishoj) [of Barbadoes] is a thorough Z, and I can
make no impression on him, though I think I have frightened
him. If he had not been as kind to me as one man can be
to another, I should be terribl}' provoked with him some-

I don't admire the * Voice from North America,' whose-ever
it is. Also I think Rose is turning a Z again. What business
has he to put Whewell in the ' British Magazine,' and to talk
so much of Church rates ? You may like to know of my
health ; I really think I am getting well. I left England in
the impression that I was fiLvwOdhios. Since I have con-

' Epht. S. Thorn. Ep. cxliv.

]f^U Letters and Correspondence 37

r-eivcd hopes I have become much more careful. I should
not wonder, if I stayed here, if I get quite rid of my cough.

The ]3ishop's library is a great piece of luck. I don't
tliink I am wasting my time here, independent of my health.
L don't ask how any one is, for I shall certainlj' be gone before
1 can have an answer ; and when I shall go to Yankland I
do not know.

PiEv. -T. Kedlk to PiEv. J, H. Newman.

Aim} 1834.

As to Froudc, I know of course no more than the letters
have told us both ; and the first was so flattering that I was
<Iisappointed at the other ; yet on consideration I see no
additional reason for alarm. It seems much as it used to be,
and we cannot be wrong in hoping the best. Anj' one who
remembers him three or four j-ears ago must acknowledge
that to have hira now is mucli more than we could have been
sure about. 1 wish him strong enough (please God) to take
duty and wait on some flock. I think he would get more
-calm and less iioiiii;/ in his notions, or rather in his way of
putting them, which makes people who do not know him think
him not a practical man.

"Wliat a iri^r, old letter ! "Well, good-l)ye.

Kev. 11. AY. .Jklf to Hev. J. H. Xhw:max.

Ju'iliii : ApvU 1S34.

I have not yet seen all your cheap translations of the
I'athers [' Records of the Church ' or ' Tracts for the Times 'J,
hut Pusey has promised to send them. "What an incalculabk'
good, as an instrument in the hand of Providence, this ad-
dress to the Archbishop has been !

PiEv. J. IT. Newman to J. "W. Bowden, Esq.

Oriel : April 2 1, 1S34.

, . . "We have another iron in the fire. Indeed I think
T'he more the better. I am not quite sure all persons will


8 John J f envy Neiunian 1834

approve of tlic ohjcct. It is to petition the King against the
desecration of Westminster Abbey by the music-meeting.
Many men feel very strongly about it here ; and it will be a
point of agreement between your Saurinians [Evangelicals]
and the High Church, which we want much, opposing them
as we do in Lincoln's Inn Fields [Christian Knowledge Society].
I suppose we shall have a public meeting, but in all these
cases one has a great many failures ; so I shall not be sur-
prised if it comes to nothing.

P.S. It is as clear as day that the Yice-Chancellor is
bound by oath to administer the statutes ; though the Legisla-
ture makes tests illegal at matriculation, he has sworn to
impose them till Convocation rescinds the statute. [At this
time the Vice-Chancellor imposed the Thirty-nine Articles,
and the observance of the statutes, by oath, on every mider-
graduate on matriculation. — J. H. N.] Qu. : How will you
induce to do so a body consisting of irresponsible individuals,
numbers of them coming up from the country to vote, and
then returning, voting too by ballot ? The Legislature could
only take away our charter if we were obstinate, and it would
virtually be taken away by yielding ; for the admission of
Dissenters would be a repeal, not of one, but of all our

The feeling in Oxford against the admission of Dissenters
is shown in the following letter to his friend Mr. Bowden.
After details of the universal stir the letter goes on :

Mau 2, 1834.

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