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purpose. Again, Constantius may liimself liave been
ignorant of the circumstances of the synod. Let it be
remembered that he wrote sixty years after it was
held ; and though, as a youth, contemporary with the
latter years of German, yet he was probably quite a
child when the mission of German and Lupus took
place. ^ Councils were very numerous at that time,
and especially in Gaul, where one every year was
gathered, as any person may see by referring to Gui-
zot's France, in wliicli a list of those only, that are re-
corded, is to be found. It is not then to be wondered,
if the Acta of this one should have escaped his ob-
servation, supposing them even to have existed at that
time, and not to have been lost in the desolation which
the barbarians, for the space of ten years, spread over
the country, after German's death. ^ On the whole,
Constantius has ti-ansmitted next to nothing concerning
the fact, which he just mentions ; for where it was held,
and what Bishops attended, and at what time it took

' Vid. Sidon. Epist.

•-■ Compare his own words in the Prologue. " Tanta enim
jam temporuni fluxere curricula, ut obscurata per silentium vix
colligatur a^nitio." Compare also what Dubos says, torn. i.
387. " Si le PrC'tre Constantius avait pnvii la perte dcs livres
qu'on avait de son temps, Sf qu'on n' a plus aujourd'hui il aurait
cti plus exact dans sa tiarration. — Mais cet auteur qui comptait
sur ces livres a ivitc les details qui s'y trouvaient Sf nous soinines
ainsi rcduits u conjecturer."

•■' See Hericus Prol. ad Miracula Germ. Gamier, in his
Marius Mcrcator, hints that these acts do still exist, but they
have not been forthcoming, and he does not say where they are
supposed to be. xxi. Synod.


place, he lias not told us, any more than by what
authority it was called together.

What sanction have we then for asserting, that Pope
Celestine appointed German his Legate to Britain, (as
Baronius expresses it) with the understanding of the
Gallican Bishops assembled at Troyes ? We have seen
it is that of St. Prosper Aquitanus. In the Chronicon
Integrum of that author, published by Roncallius in
1787, and in Bouquet's Eecueil des Historiens, torn. i.
p. 630, we find the following passage, placed under the
year when Florentius and Dionysius were consuls, that
is in 429.

" Agricola Pelagianus, Severiani Episcopi filius, ec-
clesias Britannice dogmatis sui insinuatione corrupit
sed ad actionem (or actione^) Palladii Diaconi Papa
Cielestinus Germanum Antisiodorensem Episcopum
vice sua mittit, ut (or et) deturbatis ha^reticis Britannos
ad Catholicam fidem dirigat (or dirigit.)"

" Agricola the Pelagian, the son of Severianus the
Bishop, corrupted the Churches of Britain, by insinua-
ting his doctrines ; but by the advice of Palladius the
Deacon, Pope Celestine sent German, Bishoj) of Aus-
erre, as his representative, in order that, after defeating
the heretics, he might restore the Britons to the Cath-
olic Faith."

This chronicle, say the editors referred to, is now
considered the authentic production of Prosper by all
the learned. But it has been objected, that it differs
from another published by Pithoeus in the sixteenth
century, which does not contain the passage just
quoted. Now in truth, the tAvo works are altogether
diiferent compositions ; and though they may each be

^ Bouquet.


brought as witnesses to Aviiat they each state, yet the
silence of one cannot invalidate the testimony of the
other. The Pithoean edition reckons the years by the
Emperors, the other by the Consuls ;^ the former is
very much the sliorter of the two, and the style of
both is different ; nay, there is a passage in the
Pithoean Ed. relating to the Predestinarians,^ which,
as Stillingfleot himself confesses, could not have been
written by Prosper Aquitanus.

There is then no reason why the Pithoean Chronicle
of Prosper, on the ground of mere silence, should in-
terfere with the passage given above, as the genuine
words of Prosper Aquitanus, which few contest at
present.' With regard to their respective notices of
St. German, they are widely diftereut. The Pithoean
Edit, has : —

" Germanus Episcopus Antissiodori virtutibus et vit*
districtione clarescit." " German, the Bishop of Aux-
erre, flourishes, endued with great gifts, and eminent
for strictness of life." This sentence is manifestly
very different from the former, and it matters little
whether it is by the same author or a different one.

liut there is another work of Prospei*, which, though
less explicit, is yet as satisfactory as can be desired,
without being liable to the same objections of authen-
ticity. We there find the following woi'ds : —

" Venerabilis memorite Pontifex Caelestinus,'* nee

' Sec Recueil, Bouquet, 635.

-■ At lt'a^t in the Editions of Labb. and Mang, though Ron-
callius corrects it with the note (alia manu.)

■■' Conf. apud Roncallium, Chronic. Prosp. ex iVIS. Augus-
tano, p. 691, et Chronic. Vatican, p. 715, ad marg — Tille-
mont. Art. St. Prosper.

•* Prosper contra Collat. in fine, apud Alford. 419. ct in torn.
X. Appendix August. Opera liened.


vero segniore cura, ab hoc eodem morbo (i. e. Pela-
gianismd) Britannias liberavit : quando quosdam inimi-
cos gratise solum suse originis occupantes, etiam ab illo
secreto excludit Oceani : et ordiuato Scotis Episcopo,
dum Romanam insulam studet servare CathoUcam,
fecit etiam barbaram Christiauam."

"Pope Celestine of revered memory, with no less
diligence and care, delivered Britain from the same
disease ; for he banished from those remote and sea-girt
provinces certain adversaries of Divine Grace, who were
taking possession of the soil whence they had origi-
nated ; and having ordained a Bishop for the Scots,
{Palladius) while he endeavoured to preserve that part
of the island Avhich was Roman, in the Catholic faith,
{i. e. through St. German) he also made that part
which was barbarian. Christian {by means of Palla-

Prosper here assigns to Pope Celestine the office of
removing Pelagianism from Britain. Now there are
only two occasions on record when that heresy, after
disturbing the country, was extirpated by foreign as-
sistance, namely, when German came over for the first
and second times. And it is agreed on all sides that
the second time was long after Celestine's death. ^ It
remains, therefore, that when German came to Britain
the first time, then Celestine might rightly be said to de-
liver this island from the heresy ; that is, German acted
as his representative or Legate.^ It is not intended that
these titles signified precisely what they did in subse-
([uent ages, nor that they excluded the idea of the

' Celestine died 432. German was in Britain the second

time in 446 or 447 Boll, et Usher.

- Vice sufl.


autliority of the Galilean synod being conjoined to
that of Celestine. This fact Is elsewhere proved.
However the two passages of Prosper, talcen together,
establish one another so clearly, that they seem to
place the matter beyond qnestion.

The chronological difficulties to which Collier al-
ludes, are certainly more easily resolvable, by assigning
the first mission to 429, instead of 446. Spelman and
others, who have adhered to Bede's uncertain chrono-
logy, have involved their dates in the same confusion
as that writer. And had Collier rather followed Usher
than Stilliugfleet, (who, it must be confessed, causes
perplexities by attempting to overthrow what after all
he admits,) he would have seen that Usher calls it a
plain anachronism to postpone the journey of German
and Lupus to 446.^

The date here recognized has been adopted by the
majority of the learned ; the authors of I'Art de veri-
fier les Dates, Bouquet, Tillemont, Usher, Fleury,
Carte, Lingard, Guizot, &c.^ K Celestine had any
part in the matter, it must have been before 432, since
he died in that year. And the writer of the life of St.
Lupus is so far from authorizing a date subsequent to
this Pope's death, that he is one of those by whose tes-
timony the chronology of Prosper is established. For,
as Usher observes,^ St. Lupus is said to have been
joined with St. German two years after he had been
made Bishop of Troyes, which event had taken place a
year after he entered the INIonastery of Lerins. Now
the latest period to which the arrival of St. Lupus at

• Conf. lioll. Com. Prsev. § vi.
Carte, in a note, expresses a doubt, p. 182, v, i.
■■' P. 325, Ed. 4to.


Lerins can be assigned is 426, and consequently, the
mission to Britain, which was three years after, must
have been, at the farthest, in 429, and in this inference
he is supported by Garnier and the Bollandists. ^

It appears then that StiUingfleet, who urges the mis-
understanding of the Galilean Bishops with the See of
Rome, is tacitly begging the question. The Deposition
of Chehdonius, in which St. German took part, and
which is supposed to have u-ritated against him the
Pope, occurred in 444. And if tliis misunderstanding
arose from the Semi-Pelagianism of some GalUcan
Bishops, it is not necessary, in the first place, that it
should have infected all, including St. German ; — in the
second, in 429 Semi-Pelagianism had but just appeared
in Gaul, and was, as yet, scairely recognized or con-
victed ; — in the third place, though Aries, to which St.
Hilary belonged, might be obnoxious to Rome, (a mere
conjecture) yet there is no reason why a Council at
Troyes, in Champagne, must share in the displeasure ; —
fourthly, the names of none of the assembled Bishops
are given, except those of German and Lupus, and why
those, who ai'e not so much as named, must be guilty at
Rome, is stiU to be shown ; — lastly, it is going too
much out of the way, to imply that St. German was
Semi-Pelagian, because St. German was friend of St.
Lupus, and St. Lupus was brother of Yincentius Lu-i-
neusis, and Yincentius Lirinensis was supposed to be
infected with some errors of the kind. The answer to
this is, that brothers do not always hold the same
opinions, and friends do not necessarily agree with
friends' brothers ; and Yincentius, who is supposed
without satisfactory foundation to have written in fa-

- Diss. 2. ch. 22 Comm. in Vitam Lupi.

136 THE couxcn. of troyes.

vour of the Semi-Pelagians, is allowed, even by his
accusers, to have written only in 430, that is, after the
Council of Troyes ; while other authors deny that he
ever composed the heretical work imputed to him.
Nay, Ceillier, a high authority, thinks it is altogether
very doubtful whether Vincentius Lirinensis was bro-
ther of St. Lupus, and he notices the silence of Genna-
dius, a writer near to the times in question. ^ And if
it be urged that St. Lupus was commissioned to go to
Britain, as well as St. German, which brings the last
objection a step nearer, it is replied that St. Lupus
also was appointed by the Galilean Bishops, and there
is no authority for supposing the Pope to have nomi-
nated him, whereas there is in the case of St. German.
K, then, the Galilean Bishops and St. Lupus were all
Semi-Pelagians, it is not surprising, forsooth, that the
Delegate should have resembled the Commissioners.
But let us not imagine, unnecessarily, schism in Chris-
tian Bishops, heresy in Saints.

The I'ecent editor of the very ancient Life of St.
Lupus seems to have shown satisfactorily that Troyes
was the place where the Council was held.^

From this last source, then, we learn, as well as may
be, the place of the Council ; from Prosper, the inter-
vention of the Pope Celestine and the date ; and from
Constantius, the enquiry and decision of the Synod. ^

It need only be added, that circumstantial evidence
is in favour of the general view here taken. It was

' Vid. Ceillier, torn. xiii. p. 583 ; et Tillemont. Art. Vin-
cent Petavius says the Commonitorium was written in 434

Doct. Temp. vol. ii. ad Annum.

- Boll. Tom. vii. Julii.
^ Comp. Usher, Index. Chron. p. 1097.


by the advice of St. Germali, that St. Patrick, the
Apostle of Ireland, went to Rome to get his commis-
sion, according to Hericus of Auxerre, whom Usher,
who well knew St. Patrick's history, approves. ^ His
words are as follows : " Patrick, the special Apostle of
Ireland, during eighteen years^ {autlwrs differ about
the time) remained under his tuition, and received
great knowledge in the Scriptures from his instructions.
Whereupon the Bishop, (German) seeing how great a
divine Patrick had become, how excellent in his con-
duct, and sound in his opinions, and wishing a labourer
so vigorous might not remain idle in the Lord's vine-
yard, sent him, together with his presbyter, Segetius,
to St. Celestine, Bishop of Rome, that Segetius might
bear witness to the merits of Patrick before the Apos-
tolical See. Approved by the judgment of the Pope,
supported by his authority and strengthened with his
blessing, Patrick went to the regions of Hibernia, as
the Apostle of that nation."^

Again, there is no doubt that St. Palladius, the
Apostle of the Scots, was sent by Celestine. Both
Prosper and Bede agree in this.

There is a probability that the title of " Apostolici
Sacerdotes," which Constantius gives to German and
Lupus, might denote that they were authorized by the
one Apostolical See of the West. But the context
seems scarcely to warrant this conjecture of Alford,
and the frequent use of the word in contemporaiy
writers, in the sense of Holy, and as we should say,
Primitive, makes the other sense, which is indeed also
found, the less probable in this instance.

1 Usher, p. llOO. = De Mir. Lib. i. ch. xxi.

3 So Jocelin. Vid. Alford, an. 431. Stillingfleet 211.

i;38 ST. gkkjiaa's riiiST yi.-5iT to duitalx.

But a better argument is deduced from the circum-
stances of 8t. German's journey to Ai-les after his mis-
sion, to which there will soon be occasion more fully to
ad\ert again. Auxiliaris was then Prefect, and he
was no longer Prefect in 444 ; consequently, German
must have been in Britain before 446. Again, if 8t.
Eucher had been Bishop of Lyons when German
passed thi'ough that town, in going to Ai-les, Constan-
tius would have mentioned it, for vSt. Eucher was one
of the most eminent men of his time, and Constantius
was Priest in that very town. But »St. Eucher was
Bishop in 444, for he then joined Hilary and German
in deposing Chelidonius, Bishop of Besancon. There-
fore, Avhen German passed by, it was befoi-e 444.
Therefore, he was in Britain before 446. But of this
more hereafter.


St. Germcm'sjirst visit to Britain.

St. Lupus, who was chosen to be the colleague of St.
German, was one of the most eminent men of his time.
His Life, which is still existing, and is almost as an-
cient as the Saint himself, informs us that he was bom at
Toul, in Loi-raine, of a noble family, A. D. 383. ^ His
father was called Epirichius, who died early, and left
the care of Lupus to his brother Listicius, which latter
bestowed great pains on his education. "When he grew
up he married Pimeniola, the sister of St. Hilary of

* Bolland. xxix. Jul. — Vid. Ceillier, torn. xv. 40.

ST. GERJIAn's FLRST visit to BRITAIN. 139

Ai'les. After they had been married seven years, by
mutual consent they parted from each other, and Lupus
retu'ed to the Monastery of Lerins, in the south of
France, where Honoratus was tlien Abbot. There he
lived a year, after which, as he was returning to
Macon to give away all his fortune to the poor, he was
suddenly carried off to Troyes in Champagne, and with
miiversal approbation instituted Bishop of that place.
His learning, his ardour, his eloquence, his holiness,
ranked him among the most distinguished Bishops of
Gaul. He was an intimate friend of St. Sidonius Apol-
linaris, with whom some fragments of his correspond-
ence remain. He is there called by Sidonius a Father
of Fathers, a Bishop of Bishops, a second St. James, ^
in allusion to a similar expi'ession of St. Clement con-
cerning St. James the Less. He had been only two
years at Troyes, when the synod which was held there
nominated him Apostle to Britain in conjunction with
St. German. The date of his birth will show that he
was junior to German by at least five years. He was
at this time forty-six years of age ; German was in his
fifty-first year. This dictinction of age may account
for the somewhat subordinate capacity in wliich he is
represented with regard to German in the following
account of their joint mission.

The two Apostles, for such they are always called by
contemporary writers, lost no time in doing the work
which was committed to them. They directed their
course towards Paris, through Sens and Melun, which,
as we all know, is the straight road to England, and
stopped at Metrodorum, now called Nantei're, about
two leagues from the present capital of France. The

1 Lib. vi. Ep. i. Et Notas.

140 ST. German's fiust visit to uhitain.

inhabitants of the place came out to receive them on
their arrival, and obtain their blessing. AVhile German
was talking to the people, he perceived in the midst of
them a little girl about six years old,^ who appeared to
him to have the railiance of an angel on her counte-
nance. He desired that she might be brought nearer
to him. He then embraced the child, and asked who
she was. Genevieve he was told was her name ; her
father was Severus and her mother Gerontia. The
parents, who seem to have been persons of conside-
ration, were then called to answer the enquiries of
German. When they arrived, endued with a prophet-
ical spirit, he congratulated them on having such a
daughter, pronouncing her to be a chosen vessel of
God, and one who would hereafter become a bright
example to all.

He then requested Genevieve (who was no other than
the illustrious patron Saint of Paris) to open her mind
to him, and confess whether she intended to adopt the
holy life of a Virgin, and become one of the Spouses of
Christ. She declared that such was her desire, and
that she had cherished it for some time, and entreated
him to add his sanction and benediction. Having ex-
horted her to persevere in her purpose, he led her with
him to the Chui'ch of Nanterre, accompanied by all the
people. The Divine Service then began. The two
offices of nones and vespers were united, during which
a long series of psalms were sung, and protracted
prayers offered up.^ All the while Geniian continued
to hold his hand upon the head of the girl. The office
ended, and they retired for refreshment.

' 423, A. D., is assigned as the year of her birth.
-' Nonam et Duodecimam celebrant. Vit. Genov. Jan. iii.


The following day German enquired of Genevieve
whether she was mindful of her late profession. ^ Upon
which, as if full of the Divine Spirit, she expressed her
determination to act up to it, and desired he would
always remember her in his prayers. While they were
conversing, German beheld on the ground a copper
coin with the impression of the cross upon it. The
interposition of God was deemed manifest. Accord-
ingly taking up the coin, he presented it to Genevieve,
and charged her to hang it to her neck, and always
carry it about with her in remembrance of him. Other
ornaments, such as the world offers, gold and precious
stones, she was enjoined to renounce. "Let them, he
said, who live for this life have these ; do thou, who
art become the S^jouse of Chi-ist, desire spiritual adorn-
ing." He then took leave of her, recommended her to
the special attention of her parents, and resumed Ms
journey with Lupus. Li remembrance of this present
of German to Genevieve, there long remained among
the Canons of St. Genevieve at Pai-is, the custom of
distributing annually on her festival a piece of bread
blessed, with an image of the coin impressed upon it.
We may remark moreover how early the practice pre-
vailed among Christians of carrying at their necks
some token of the mysteries of their religion ; and also,
that the profession of a religious life was a formal act,
not merely an internal resolution of the soul.

The two Bishops soon arrived at the sea-shore.
The winter months had now set in. But regardless
of the weather, they embarked, says Constantius, upon
the ocean with Christ for their leader. ^ The ship at

1 This seems decided proof that the child was very young.
- Vid. Vita St. Lupi. " Temporibus hybernis mari se com-

142 ST. ger^ian's first \asiT to britaix,

fii'st was carried out from the harbour of Gaul by soft
gale.^, till it reached the middle of the Channel, and
lost all sight of the land. Shortly after, the power of
demons seemed to be roused over the wide expanse.
Filled, as it were, with Avicked and malicious envy
towards the holy men who undertook to restore a
nation to the paths of salvation, they immediately be-
gan to excite the storms, and cover the sky with thick
clouds, which spread gloom and darkness over the
horizon. The sails were unable to resist the fury of
the winds, and the vessel began to yield to the weight
of the waves. The sailors at last relinquished their
post, and the ship was left to the sole aid of prayer.
Wliile these things were passing, the chief person in
the expedition, wearied with previous fatigues, had
fallen asleep. He was stiU in this state, when the
tempest broke tlirough aU obstacles, and the ship began
to sink. Then Lupus and the whole crew rushed in
great alarm to their venerable brother and awoke him,
hoping to oppose effectually his strength to the ele-
ments. In the midst of the danger, German remained
perfectly calm, and calling upon the name of Christ,
rebuked the raging of the sea. At the same time
taking oil, he sprinkled some over the waves, in the
name of the Blessed Trinity.^ Immediately they be-
gan to subside. Afterwards German, with the same
composm*e, addi'cssed words of encouragement to Lupus
and his fellow-travellers. They then prayed aU to-
gether. In the mean time, the last efforts of the evil

' Alford, in this connexion, observes with Baronius, that this
sprinkling of oil does not relate to the sacramental ordinance
mentioned by St. James, but is to be referred to the example
proposed in St. Mark.


spirits were subdued, and tranquillity was restored to
the sea and to the air. The winds changed their
direction, and cai'ried the vessel safely towards the
British shore.

We are not told precisely where German landed in
Britain ; but, as Whitaker says, the harbour of Rhu-
tupia?, or Eichborough, between the mouth of the
Thames and Dover, was the great entrance from Gaul
to this island. It was there St. Augustine subse-
quently landed, and the Eomau troops generally were
disembarked at this spot, as the Antonine Itinerary
testifies. When German and Lupixs set foot on shore,
they were received by a multitude of people, who had
come from all sides to greet them. It appears the evil
spirits, by means of the projihetic exclamations of some
possessed persons, had given notice of theu' approach.

The fame of the two Apostolical envoys soon spread
all over the country. Their preaching and signs at-
tracted crowds to the Churches they visited. On their
jom-ney, also, they were accompanied by a large con-
course of people. And such was the zeal everywhere
displayed, that they Avere forced to stop and address
the multitudes in the fields and highways. On all
these occasions, they endeavoured to eradicate the
seeds of Pelagianism from the hearts of theii* hearers.
Nor did the event disappoint their expectations. Their
boldness and conscious strength, their learning, ortho-
dox teaching and sanctity, carried the feelings of all
with them ; insomuch that the authors of the Pelagian
leaven were obliged to remain hid, and mourn in
silence the defection of their disciples. At last, they
gathered their forces and resolved to encounter the two
Bishops. Like the Arian faction at Constantinople,
they trusted the display of worldly importance would

144 ST. German's first AasiT to Britain.

prevail over the unassisted appeals of truth. They
came to the Conference with a s])lendi(l train. Riches
and glittering garments distinguished their party ; a
body of complaisant followers was ready to support
their assertions. The Synod (for such appears to have
been the nature of the assembly where the two parties
met) was attended by great numbers. Many Bishops

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