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singing Psalms. On the seventh day, says Constantius,
the 31st of July, the happy and blessed soul of German
was carried up to heaven. ^ He had been Bishop thirty
years and twenty-five days.

His inheritance was then divided. The chief claim-
ants were the Emperor and the Empress, his mother,
and the Bishops. His relics were esteemed worth all
other riches, and each one endeavoured out of the
little the Saint had to leave, to obtain something.
Placidia got the little box which enclosed the relics of
the Apostles and Martyrs which German wore at his
breast, and with which he had performed miracles. St.
Peter Chrysologus took for liimself the monk's hood,^
with the hau- cloth which touched his skin.^ The other
Bishops, in order to obtain some small legacy, were
content to tear the garments which remained ; one took
the over-coat,"^ another the belt ; two divided the tunic,
two others the coarse cloth ^ on which he lay.

The magnificence of the funeral procession displayed
the zeal of the court and city. All came forward to
contribute. Acholius, the Eunuch of the royal cham-
ber, whose pupil had been healed by German, presented
costly spices to embalm his body. The Empress Pla-
cidia, covered it Avith a rich dress, with the Eagle and
the imperial arms designed upon it, in which silk, a very
precious material at that time, was combined with fine

' See ult. § Const. Bodl. M.S. and Bolland. Robert. Mo-
nach. Chron. Ed. 1609, Trecis.

- Cuculla. ^ Cum interiori cilicio.

^ Pallium, not the pall apparently, as he was not Metropoli-
tan. 5 Sagulum vid. supra, p. 54. Not.


embroidery ;i and had it placed in a coffin of cypress
wood ; both which were long after preserved at Aux-
erre, and seen by Hericus. The Emperor paid the ex-
penses of the Translation to Gaul, and conferred a mu-
nificent largess upon the clerical and lay attendants of
the departed Saint. The ceremonies in use for the
translation of a corpse, Avere then performed by the
Bishops who had been with him in his last hours. At
the head of these was the Archbishop of Ravenna, St.
Peter Chrysologus. The Church has subjects of glory
and exultation which seem singular to the world.
Among them is the honour of burying Saints and at-
tending their last hours. " To St. Peter, says the
Breviary, the honour was granted of burying two Saints
who died at Ravenna, Barbatian the Presbyter, and
German Bishop of Auxerre, whose bodies he embalmed
with costly ointments." After the preparations were
concluded, messengers Avere sent before the funeral pro-
cession to prejiare the due solemnities wherever he
should pass.^

The procession then set off. Its splendour and pomp
were almost unequalled. A vast concourse of people
followed. It arrived at Placentia by night. The coffin
was deposited in the Cathedral, and a vigil instituted,
during which religious offices were performed. Then
a woman, an inhabitant of Placentia, who had a palsy,
and had lost the use of her limbs, requested the per-
mission to lie under the coffin ; and in tliis position she
remained till the return of day. Early the coffin was
taken up, and the woman rose. She had recovered the
soundness of her body, and to the amazement of all,

■ Constant ius et Hericus de Miraculis. Bosch. Comm.
- This phrase of Const, is thus explained bv Hericus de Mir.


walked on witli the rest of the people who followed the
funeral march.

St. German, when he before passed through Vercelli,
had given a promise to the Bishop of that town, proba-
bly St. Albinus, that he would on his return from Ra-
venna dedicate a new Church. When, therefore, says
Hericus, the Bishop heaixl of his death, he proceeded
to consecrate it himself. According to custom, he gave
orders that the candles should be lighted. But it was
in vain ; the candles could not be lighted, the servants
tried repeatedly without effect. This lasted for several
days, and the Bishop was finally forced to desist. In
the meantime, news arrived that the procession was
approaching. St. Albinus went out to meet it, and
brought the coffin into the new Chm'ch. Scarcely had it
entered, when the whole Church in an instant lighted
up. The Bishop perceived the signal for the dedica-
tion was now given, and he performed it. The name
of this Church we are told is at present St. Eusebius.

And now the procession moved on again. The na-
tives of Gaul having heard of German's decease, flocked
to meet the body of him, whom they considered a
patron Saint of their land. ^ At the passage of the Alps,
a large multitude Avere ready to escort him into Gaul.^
Each one pressed foi'ward to have the honour of bearing
the coffin ; and thus it was borne along by successive
carriers ; while the rest filled the air with hymns and
exclamations of thanksgiving. The way was covered
with memorials which attested the progress of the body.
The ardour of the people facilitated the passage of the
Alps.^ ^ Some were busied in levelling the roads, others
filled the precipices, and restored the decayed bridges.

' Const. § 76. - Hericus, 31, 32. => Const.


Many brought offerings of money to defray the ex-
penses. A great number of lights shone in the proces-
sion both by day and by night, challenging even the
rays of the sun with their brightness.^ Among those
who came to meet the corpse, was one Saturnus, a
presbyter and disciple of German. He was noted for
his sanctity, and lived in terms of great intimacy with
his master. By his order he had remained at Auxerre,
while German repaired to Ravenna. On the day in
which the latter died, an angel is said to have revealed
his decease to Saturnus. Upon which he imparted the
sad intelligence to the inhabitants of Auxerre, who ac-
companied in great numbers to the foot of the Alps.
An ancient inscription on marble, preserved at Auxerre
in the time of Hericus, bore witness to this fact.

But perhaps the most touching circumstance of the
procession Avas the following. It will have been re-
marked that the corpse advanced but slowly, as it was
borne on men's shoulders, and consequently, a multitude
of ardent persons were enabled to accompany from every
town the escort for some distance. But the names of five
females have been preserved, who followed on foot the
body, the whole way from Ravenna. They were all
vii-gins, and some, if not all, sisters. They were
called, St. Magnentia, St. Palladia, St. Camilla, St.
Maxima, St. Porcaria.'' The three first died, one after
the other, before they reached the tei'in of their pil-
grimage. A solemn burial was ])crformed for them,
at the high-road side, and Churches soon after were
erected over their remains, and dedicated to them,
where many miracles were performed. The two others
endured the fatigue, and arrived at Auxerre, to see

' Constantius. " Hericus do Mir. § 33.


the body of German interred. St. Maxima, one of
these, was subsequently buried near the Church at
Auxerre, where German lay. The remains of St.
Porcaria, the other, were deposited nine miles from the
town, and wex'e famous for the miraculous cures which
there took place. Till very late, we learn there was
an ancient tomb existing,^ in which the body of St.
Magnentia, one of those who died on the road, had
been laid, and upon which there was the representation
of this holy virgin, dying in a bed surrounded by other
virgins. And a monument which existed in 1567, in the
monastery of St. German, according to the official state-
ment of the then Bishop of Auxerre, bore this inscription,
" Here lies the body of the Lady St. Maxima, Virgin, who
accompanied the body of St. German from Ravenna
to this monastery, together with St. Palladia, St. Mag-
nentia, St. Camilla, and St. Porcaria." From Avhich,
it appears these holy virgins Avere persons of rank.

At last the body arrived at Auxerre. Fifty-three
days, says Hericus,^ had elapsed since German died at
Ravenna. On the 22nd of September, the procession
entered the Church of St. Stephen, accompanied by
the whole population of the town. Here was the
episcopal throne. During ten successive days, the
corpse there lay exposed ; religious offices were con-
tinued all the while. Wlien all the rites preparatory
to inhuming were completed, the cotlin vvas committed
to the sepulchre, on the 1st of October, 448, A. d., in
the presence of a multitude of strangers, as well as
inhabitants of Auxerre, among whom, says Hericus,
there were many Bishops and Priests from distant
provinces ; — perhaps St. Lupus, St. Hilary, St. Seve-

' Bosch. Not. apud Bolland. = § 34, § 37.


rus, St. Anian, St. Euclier — the friends of the departed
Saint. The place of the burial was not the Church of
St. Stephen, where the Exposition had taken place,
but an oratory or chapel, in one of those estates whidi
he had given up to the Church when he parted with
his patrimony and other possessions. This chapel was
dedicated to St. Maurice, and German had appointed
the Presbyter Satui'nus, the same who came out to
meet the procession, to perform the ecclesiastical du-
ties in it. This place, says Coustantius, ever showed,
by the miracles which were henceforth manifested
there, that German in glory was still alive with his

The 1st of October, the day of his Deposition, seems
to have been, in primitive times, the principal Festival
of the Saint, ^ especially in Gaul and Britain. The
31st of July*^ was next, if not quite equal, in the
honour with which it was observed, and, in process of
time, it has come to supersede the former, except at
Auxerre, where these two Festivals, with four others
in the course of the year, are still kept with great

His Canonization.

The liistory of St. German alive, is thus resimied in
four verses of Bede's Ephemeris, or Calendar : — '

' Mai'tyrol. AntissioJ. 17ol. - See Bede Martyrol. & Cdlend.
^ Calend. Octob.


Germanusque simul doctrina insignis et actu.
Turn propriam munit meritis Antissiodorum,
Qui Oceano fidei refugas et dogma nefandum
Reppulit, et signis te picta Britannia texit.

For deeds and doctrine German far renowned,

Auxerre, his native city, raised on high,

The Ocean crossed, to prohe the faith unsound ;

Then stemming proud Pelagius' impious lie,

Anon the verdant plains of Britain fair.

He covered o'er with signs and wonders rare.

The history of St. German dead, that is, of the
eiFects which were owing to his presence in the spirit,
among the flock he had tended alive, would embrace a
period of at least twelve centuries. Among the early
testimonies which redound to his honour, that of the
great Apostle of the Franks, St. Remy, must not be
omitted. ^ About a century after, it is said, from the great
veneration which he had for German of Auxerre, he
erected a Church in tribute to him, where he destined
his own remains to be deposited ; and it became famous
for the miracles there performed.

But still more honourable to our Saint, whose rank
in the sacred Calendar is that of Confessor and Bishop,
(Pontilicis) is the very ancient office called the Mass
of St. German, which Cardinal Bona has published
from an old manuscript, and which used to be cele-
brated, not long after German's death, annually, on his
Festival in Gaul. The uniformity of the Canon had,
as yet, not been everywhere enforced, and Churches
seem to have had the privilege of either adopting uses of
then- own, or of inserting sections and prayers into the

' Martyr. Antiss. sub nom. liemigii.



most received fonn of Mass.^ The foUowino- docu-
ment seems to be a specimen of the latter : — 2



Dearly beloved brethren, let
us celebrate with ready devo-
tion this august and sacred
day, imploring humbly the
mercy of our Lord, that we
who cannot indeed equal the
deeds, may be enabled, at least,
to follow the footsteps and imi-
tate the Faith of the blessed
Bishop and Confessor German,
whose example we admire.


We give Thee thanks, Al-
mighty God, for the wonderful
gifts {virtutibus) of the blessed
German, Thy Bishop, which
Thou, Almighty Father, didst
justly grant unto him, because
he loved Thee, in his Apos-
tolical profession, more than
all things. He cast away riches
from him, that by poverty of
spirit he might ascend into the
kingdom of heaven. He ob-
served meekness, that he might
through the spirit inherit the
earth in the flesh. He was
pleased to mourn in this world
that he might enjoy heavenly


Venerabilem diem atque
sublimem, Fratres Carissimi,
prompta devotione celebremus,
misericordiam Domini nostri
suppliciter exorantes, ut Bea-
tissimi Gerraani Antisiitis et
Confessoris sui, cujus exem-
pla miramur, etsi aequari fac-
tis ejus non possumus, saltem
vestigia sequi, et fidem nobis
contingat imitari.


Gratias tibi agimus Omni-
potens Deus pro virtutibus
Beatissimi Germaoi Antistitis
tui, quas ei Pater omnipotens
non immerito tribuisti, quia te
Apostolica confessione rebus
omnibus plus amavit ; discussit
a se divitias, ut paupertate
spiritus ccElorum regna con-
scenderet : mansuetudinem te-
nuit, ut terram sui corporis
spiritualiter possideret. Neque
delectatus est in sseculo, ut
coelestem consolationem ex
muneris tui largitate percip-
eret : justitiam esurivit atque
sitivit, ut tuis saturarctur clo-

Card. Bona. De Rebus Lit. 9.3. Ed. 4to.
= The Titles are part of the document.



consolation, from the abun-
dance of Thy bounty. He hun-
gered and thirsted after right-
eousness, that he might be
filled with Thy word ; he was
ever merciful (or he ever gave
alms to the poor ehemosynam.
jugiter fecit) that he might con-
tinually obtain Thy mercy, not
only for himself, but for others
also. Purity of heart he culti-
vated, that he might see Thee.
He preserved the Faith, that he
might be united with Thy chil-
dren in brotherly communion.
By whose intercession we pray.

{^Here two lines are erased.')

quiis : eleemosynam jugiter
fecit, ut indesinenter non tan-
tum sibi, sed et caeteris pieta-
tis tua? misericordiam obti-
neret : puritatem cordis ha-
buit, ut te videret : fidem ser-
vavit, ut filiis tuis fraterna
se participatione conjungeret.
Per cujus interventum pre-

{Desunt hie duce lineoe ahrasce.)

After the Names.

Having heard the names of
those who make their obla-
tions, let us implore the long-
suffering clemency of God, that
these oblations of his people,
which we offer up in honour of
the Blessed Bishop and Con-
fessor German {something

here wanting) Let us celebrate
this solemn and high day, with
the unshaken liberty of that
Faith which he defended with
constant purpose, in order that

the strength of his patience

(^Here also two lines are erased.)

Post Nomina.

Auditis nominibus offeren-
tium, indeficientem divinam
clementiam deprecemur, ut has
oblationes plebis, quas in ho-
norem Beatissimi Germani
Antistitis et Confessoris of-

ferimus (deest aliquid) Sig-

natum diem hodiernse solem-
nitatis celebremus cum in-
concussa fidei libertate, quam
ille constanti mente defen-
dit, ut robur patientiae ejus

(Desunt hie etiam duce linece

Let us also pray for the spi- Oremus etiam et pro spiriti-

rits of those that are dear to bus carorum nostrorum, quo-

us, the number and names of rum idem Omnipotens Deus et

whom the same Almighty God numerum novit et nomina, ut



knoweth, that he maybe mind-
ful of all, and remit the sins
of all. Through Jesus Christ
our Lord.

omnium memoriam faciat, om-
nium peccata dimittat. Per
Dominum nostrum Jesum

Collect at the Salutation
OF Peace, Pax Vobiscum.'

God, for whose sacred name.
Thy blessed Bishop, German,
desired to endure persecution
for righteousness's sake, inso-
much, that, though he did
not suffer martyrdom, he yet
reached forward to it by faith,
and feared not to subject him-
self to the hatred and slander-
ings of men, so as he might
obtain an abundant reward in
heaven, and attain unto those
great blessings of the Gospel ;
we pray Thee, by his inter-
cession, to grant that peace to
Thy Church henceforth for
ever, which he loved on earth,
according to Thy command.
Through our Lord.

Preface to the Canon of


It is meet and right ; it is
very meet and right that we
should give thanks unto Thee,
and sing praises to Thy Fa-


Deus, pro cujus sacro nom-
ine Beatus Germanus Antistes
tuus desideravit persecutionem
pati propter justitiam, ut etsi
martyrium non perferret, fide
tamen pertenderet: nectimeret
odiis hominum et maledicti-
onibus subjacere, dummodo
mercedem copiosum conseque-
retur in ccelo, et ad illas bea-
tudines Evangelicas perve-
niret ; te per hujus interven-
tum precamur, ut pacem quam
te jubente dilexit in saeculo,
perpetualiter Ecclesiae possi-
dendam tribuas in futuro. Per
Dominum nostrum.


Dignum et justum est : vere
sequum et justum est nos tibi
gratias agere, et pietati tuse in
honorem summi sacerdotis tui

• See Ducange ad Voc. Osculum. See also Bingham, xiii. 8. 13.

2 Contestatio, idem sonat quod Contestada ; ita enim appellari Prceja~
tionem, seu Orationem quae Canoni proemittitur, qua disponitur Sacerdos et
populus ad tremendorum mysteriorum confeclionem, quod, ut est in Co-
dice Thuano " Contestetur Sacerdos fidam ac veram professionem populi, id
est gratias referre Deo dignum esse."

Canon Missx, Oratio, quae in Missa ante Consecrationem, et in ipsa conse-
cratione divinae hostiae recitatur 4 sacerdote, quae ideo Canon vocatur, "quia
in ea est legitiraa et regularis sacramentorum Confeclio."



therly kindness (pietati tuce)
in honour of Thy glorious
Priest German, both Bishop and
Confessor, and that we should
offer up our petitions, and re-
count his great gifts, which
Thou, O Lord, Father Al-
mighty, justly didst grant unto
him, because in his Apostolical
profession he loved Thee more
than all things, &c. ( The words
are repeated from the first Col-
lect, then is added.) He loved
Thee, O Lord, with all his
heart, and with all his mind,
and with all his soul, and he
loved his neighbour as himself ;
that, as the whole law and the
prophets hang upon these two
precepts, he might attain unto
those blessings of the Gospel
which we have recounted. And
whereas Thou, O Lord Jesus
Christ, hast said unto thy Apos-
tles, to go all over the world,
and preach the Gospel to every
creature, and work miracles,
these things Thy devoted ser-
vant Bishop German' ...follow-
ing their footsteps, through all
Gaul, at Rome (Ravenna ?), in
Italy, and in Britain ; and being
afflicted in the body for thirty
years. ..continually preached in
Thy name extirpated heresies,
brought round the people to a
full and perfect faith, cast out

German! Episcopi et Confess-
oris laudes canere, vota per-
solvere, ejusque enarrare vir-
tutes, quas ei Domine Pater
Omnipotens non immerito tri-
buisti, quia te Apostolica con-
fessione rebus omnibus plus
amavit, &c. (^Repetit ea quae
habentur supra in prima Col-
lecta, turn subdit.) Dilexit te
Domine ex toto corde, et ex
tota mente, et ex tota anima
sua, et proximum suum tam-
quam seipsum ; ut secundum
quod in his duobus mandatis
universa lex et Prophetae pen-
debant, ad eas quas dixi-
mus evangelicas beatitudines
perveniret. Et quia tu Dom-
ine Jesu Christi Apostolis
tuis dixeras, ut euntes per
universum mundum universae
creaturse evangelium predi-
carent, et virtutes efficerent,
liBec tuus devotissimus Ger-

manus Episcopus eorum

vestigia subsecutus per to-
tas Gallias, Romae, in Ita-
lia, in Britannia annis tri-

ginta corpore afflictus ju-

giter in tuo nomine praedi-
cavit, hsereses abstulit, ad-
duxit populum ad plenam et
integram fidem, ejecit dae-
mones, mortuos suscitavit,
aegris reddidit pristinam san-
itatem, implevitque omnia sig-

1 Supply "hath accomplished," the MS. being here erased.



devils, raised the dead, restored
to the sick their former health,
and having obtained this great
power, performed every other
sign. He began and advanced.
He fought and conquered.
He fulfilled his course, and
passed by the darkness of
death, to join the company
of martyrs, having brought
fprth fruit an hundred-fold, and
having, after this life ended,
gone to dwell in the kingdom
of heaven. In this belief, O
God, the Father Almighty, we
beseech Thee humbly , that being
commended to Thy Fatherly
kindness by his patronage and
intercessions in Thy presence,
we may obtain in all things Thy
mercy, praising Thee, and say-
ing, in the words of Angelic
praise, Holy, holy, holy.

na, virtutes utique adeptus.
Sic ccepiti ut cresceret. Sic
pugnavit ut vinceret. Sic con-
summavit, ut mortis tenebras
prseteriret, Martyriis se con-
jungeret stola, cum centesi-
mum fructum perceperit, et
vita hac peracta regnum in-
habitarit leternum. Quod cre-
dentes Deus Pater Omnipo-
tens supplices exoramus, ut
in ejus apud te patrociniis
et intercessionibus pietati tuae
commendati nos in omnibus
tuiim misericordiam conse-
quamur, Angelica te exulta-
tione laudantes et dicentes.
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus.

Collect after the Sanctos. Collectio post Sanctus.

Blessed truly be He that
Cometh in the name of the
Lord, Blessed be God, the king
of Israel ; peace on earth, and
glory in the highest. Through
our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy
Son, who the day before He

Benedictus plane qui vcnit
in nomine Domini, benedictus
Deus, Rex Israel, pax in terra,
gloria in excelsis. Per Dom-
inum nostrum Jesum Christum
filium tuum, qui pridie quara

After the Consecration.

Let Thy holy Word descend,
we beseech Thee, Almighty
God, upon these our oblations :

Post Secreta.

Descendat, precamur Om-
nipotens Deus, super ha;c
quae tibi offerimus, Verbum



Let the Spirit of Thy inestima-
ble glory descend : Let the gift
of Thy ancient long-suffering
descend, ' that our oblation may
become an acceptable and spiri-
tual sacrifice of a sweet-smelling
savour. May Thy mighty right
hand also defend Thy servants,
through the blood of Christ.

tuum sanctum : descendat in-
aestimabilis glorise tuse Spiri-
tus : descendat antiquae in-
dulgentiae tuae donum, ut fiat
oblatio nostra hostia spiri-
talis in odorem suavitatis ac-
cepta. Etiam nos famulos
tuos per sanguinem Christi
tua manus dextera invicta

Before the Lord's Prayer. Ante Orationem Dominicam.

Agnosce Domine verba quae
praecepisti, ignosce praesump-

Acknowledge, O Lord, the
words which Thou hast taught,
pardon that presumption which
Thou hast commanded : It is
ignorance not to know our de-
serts, it is contumacy not to
keep the command, whereby we

tioni quam imperasti : igno-
rantia est non nosse meritum,
contumacia est non servare
mandatum, quo dicere jube-
mur, Pater noster, &c.

are enjoined to say. Our Father, &c.

After the Prayer.

Deliver us from all evil, O
God, the Author of all good
things, from all temptation, from
all offence, from all work of
darkness, and establish us in all
good, and give peace in our
days, O Author of peace and
charity. Through our Lord.
( The Blessing of the people is

Post Orationem.

Libera nos a mails omni-
bus, auctor bonorum Deus,
ab omni tentatione, ab omni
scandalo, ab omni opere tene-
brarum, et constitue nos in
omni bono, et da pacem in
diebus nostris, auctor pacis et
charitatis. Per Dominum nos-

(^Benedictio populi deest.)

Collect after the Collectio post

Eucharist. Eucharistiam,

We have taken from the sa- Sumpsimus ex sacris altari-

cred altar the body and blood of bus Christi Domini ac Dei

I Bona takes occasion here to observe, that this invocation after the Conse-
cration, contains nothing inconsistent with the Faith.



Christ, our Lord and our God...
believing in the unity of the
Blessed Trinity. We pray that
always full of faith we may hun-
ger and thirst after righteous-
ness, and being strengthened by
the grace of the meat of salva-
tion, we may so do His work,
that the sacrament which we
have received may not be our
condemnation, but our remedy.
Through our Lord.

nostri corpus et sanguinem...
credentes unitatem beatae

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