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THE



ARI ANS



THE FOURTH CENTURY



JOHN HENRY CARDINAL NEWMAN

ii



Fret not thyself because of the ung xlly, neither be thou envious against
the evildoers. For they shall sooi; be out down like the grass, and be
withered even as the green herb» - if. thou thy trust in the Lord, and
be doing good ; dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed.

Psalm xxxvii. 1—3



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SEVENTH



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[JNIVEK3IT7'



LONDON



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO
AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST i6 TH STREET

fc 1 890.



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TO THE

I REV. JOHN KEBLE,

FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLECE,
PROFESSOR OF POETRY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,
FROM
HIS AFFECTIONATE FRIEND AND SERVANT

J. IL N.






ADVERTISEMENT.

The following work was written in the early part of last
year, for Messrs. Rivington's "Theological Library f but as
it seemed, on its completion, little fitted for the objects with
which that publication has been undertaken, it makes its
appearance in an independent form. Some apology is due
to the reader for the length of the introductory chapter, but
it was intended as the opening of a more extensive under-
taking. It may be added, to prevent mistake, that the
theological works cited at the foot of the page, are referred
to for the facts, rather than the opinions they contain;
though some of them, as the "'Defensio Fidei Nicenae,"
evince gifts, moral and intellectual, of so high a cast, as to
render k a privilege to be allowed to sit at the feet of their
authors, and to receive the words, which they have been, as
it were, commissioned to deliver.

[October, 1833.]



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE THIRD EDITION.

A very few words will suffice for the purpose of explain-
ing in what respects the Third Edition of this Volume
differs from those which preceded it.

Its text has been relieved of some portion of the literary
imperfections necessarily incident to a historical sketch, its
author's first work, and written against time.

Also, some additions have been made to the foot-notes.
These are enclosed in brackets, many of them being merely
references (under the abbreviation " Ath. Tr.") to his anno-
tations on those theological Treatises of Athanasius, which
he translated for the Oxford Library of the Fathers.

A few longer Notes, for the most part extracted from
other publications of his, form an Appendix.

The Table of Contents, and the Chronological Table
have both been enlarged.

No change has been made any where affecting the
opinions, sentiments, or speculations contained, in the
original edition, — though they are sometimes expressed
with a boldness or decision which now displeases him ; —
except that two sentences, which needlessly reflected on the
modern Catholic Church, have, without hurting the context,
been relegated to a place by themselves at the end of the
Appendix.

April, 187 1.



TABLE OF CONTENTS,



PART I. DOCTRINAL.



CHAPTER I.

SCHOOLS AND PARTIES IN AND ABOUT THE ANTE-NICENB
CHURCH, IN THEIR RELATION TO THE ARIAN HERESY.

PAGE

Section I. — The Church of Antioch \

1. Historical connexion of Arianism with the Anti-

ochene School : —

Paulus, Bishop of Antioch, deposed for heresy • 3

The Martyr Lucian 6

His disciples the first Arians 7

2. Judaism of Antioch : —

Revival of the fortunes of the Jews .... 10

Patronized by successive Emperors. ... 10
Their influence upon the populace and the Schools

of Syria . . . . . . .11

3. Quarto-decimans : —

Of the Proconsulate 13

Of Syria ......... 15

Of central Asia Minor 16

Betraying or encouraging a Judaistic spirit . . 18

4. Judaizers indirectly leading to Arianism : —

Mosaic rites 19

Cerinthians and Ebionites 20

Nazarenes . „ ..... 21

Corroborative facts 22



Vlil.



Table of Contents.



Section II. — The Schools of the Sophists

1. Disputative skill of Arians : —
As of Paulus of Samosata
And of the disciples of Aristotle

2. Disputation cultivated in the Christian Schools
Axioms taken from logic and mathematics
School of Artemas. ....

3. Tradition losing force : —
Contempt of predecessors . • , ;
Symbol of faith indispensable . . ♦
Unwillingness of the Church to impose it

Section III. — The Church of Alexandria •

1. Its missionary and political character: —

Its local position

Its exoteric teaching ....
Catechetical system ...»

Public preaching

Relative influence of separate Gospel truths
Example of Scripture to guide us .

2. The Disciplina Arcani, or secret teaching :-
Scripture the storehouse, not the organ of teaching,
Nor Apologists an organ, as not authoritative
The secret teaching consistent with the rudimental
Not arbitrary, but an apostolical tradition
Not derogatory to the authority of Scripture
Terminating with the rise of the Councils

3. The Allegorical method : —
National with the Egyptians .
Adopted by Greek philosophy
Natural to the human mind .
Familiar to inspired writers
Scripture uses of it .
Safeguards necessary, canons for its use
Caution of Scripture as to it .
Traditionary keys for it .
Alexandrian use of it . •

4. The Economy : —
Used by Alexandrians in Scripture difficulties



PAGB

25



64



Table of Contents.



IX.



it



Sanctioned by St. Paul .

Exemplified by the Fathers

Theory and dangerousness of

As leading - to deceit

Divine economies . .

Scripture economies •

False economies

The Dispensation of Paganism :—

Paganism in one aspect divine

As found in Genesis and Job .

And so taught by the Fathers

Corollaries from this doctrine .

As regards infidelity and apostasy

And the cultivation of pagan literature

Abuse of the doctrine

Platonism : —

Its influence on the language of theology

Pagan tradition of a Trinity .

Platonic Trinity ....

How far adopted by the School of Philo

By the Alexandrian Fathers .

Instances

Apology for them ....
For Orieen .....



Section IV. — The Eclectic Sect , .

1. Its characteristics : —

Its principls and origin . „ .

Ammonius, its founder .

Its connexion with neologism .

Its contrast with it .

Later than Origen ....

Though an excrescence of his school

2. Its uncongeniality with Arianism :—
As mystical .....
As not disputative . • •
As not Judaic • • .
As Platonistic .....



Table of Contents.



Its serviceableness to Arianism, as opposed to theo

logical mysteries
And to formal dogmas, &c.
No historical evidence of its aiding Arianism
Its success in Syria.



Section V. — Sabcllianism • • •

1. Its history : —
Its characteristic doctrine . •
In Proconsular Asia : Noetus. .
In Rome : Praxeas ....
In Africa : Sabellius . . .
In Phrygia : Montanists. • .
First form, Patripassian .
Second form, Emanative

2. Its influence on the language of Catholics :-
Of Dionysius of Alexandria .
Of Gregory of Neoca^sarea
On the use of the Homousion .
Recapitulation of the whole Chapter



in

113
114
115

116

117
117
117
118
118
121
124

125
128
129
130



CHAPTER II.



THE TEACHING OF THE ANTE-NICENE CHURCH IN ITS RELA-
TION TO THE ARIAN HERESY.

Section I. — On the principle of the formation and impo-
sition of Creeds 133

I. Knowledge of the Christian doctrine a privilege to
be sought after : —
As being not a subjective opinion, but the truth . 134
And reserved and concealed by the early Church . 135
From reverence . . . . . . . 135



Unlike the present state of religion .
Contrary temper of heresy : —
For instance, in the Gnostics . ,
And still more, in the Arians .

Examples

Defenceless state of Catholics .



137

138

139
140
141



Table of Contents.



XI.



3. Text of Scripture not a sufficient protection to the
revealed dogma : —
Implicit faith ....
Action of the intellect upon it .
The mind tranquillized thereby
Attempted comprehensions
Fail to secure the truth
And to make it a bond of fellowship
Hence the necessity of Creeds, with what limitations

Section II. — The Scripture doctrine of the Trinity
The position of the matter of evidence : —
In the Old Testament commenced .
Completed in the New ....
Inference to be made thence . . •
The word Person




Section III. — 251* Ecclesiastical doctrine of the Trinity
1. Our Lord considered as the Son of God : —
The term u Son" denotes His derivation.
And therefore His dissimilarity to all creatures
Passages from the Fathers ....
He who is born of God is God
In like manner He is " Radiance from the Sun"
Hence, on the other hand, a subordination of the

Son to the Father ....
As explained by Bull and Petavius.
Ministration of the Son and Spirit . •
Abuse of the term " Son" . .,

Leading to materiality and ditheism
Our Lord considered as the Word of God : —
The term "Word" corrects the abuse of the term
" Son," as teaching His co-eternity with God .

And His office of mediation

Passages from the Fathers .

Abuse of the term "Word"

Our Lord considered " of God" and "in God :"
Passages from the Fathers . . .
The "in God" is the "co-inherence" .



2.



H3
144
146

147
148
149
150

151

153
153
155
155

156

I5S

159
160
161
162

163
164
166
167
167



169
169
170
171
171-2
173
173



xii. Table of Contents.



Passages. .......

The "of God" is the " monarchia"

Passages . , . < . . •

Section IV. — Variations in the Ante-Nicene Theological
Statements

1. The term " Ingenerate: " —

Applied to God ; whether to be predicated of the Son
The Anomcean controversy • c

2. The " Unoriginate :"—
Whether to be predicated of the Son •
Passages from the Fathers in illustration •

3. The " Consubstantial :" —
The meaning of " substance" or " being" ,
Of " Consubstantial " . . . . ,
Early use of the term .....
Doctrine of Emanation .....
Imposed an heretical sense on the term .
The history of the term "offspring"
Rejection of the term "consubstantial" by the

Council against Paulus ....
The Alexandrians keep it ... •

4. The " voluntary generation :" —
Its relation to the doctrine of Emanation .
How it was understood in relation to our Lord

5. The "Word Internal " or " External :" —
A term of the Stoics and Platonists.

Used by the Fathers

The Word's change from Internal to External at

the creation . . . . . .

A kind of " generation" . . . . ,

Five Fathers accused of a misconception ,

Passages from them in illustration . . ,

Section V. — The Arian Heresy ,

1. Contrasted with other heterodox beliefs : —
As to its fundamental tenet ....
With that of the Five Fathers. . . -



Table of Contents.



X111



Viz. with that of the Eclectics
Of Gnosticism. .
Of Paulianism.
And of Sabellianism
Its doctrine that: —
What has an origin has a beginning
What has a beginning is a creation
What God willed to be is a creation
What is not ingenerate is a creation
What is material is a creation.
" Only -begotten " means " immediately
" Not one of the creatures " is " not
creatures"



" Before all time " is " before
All titles admit of a secondary

3. Its original documents : —
Arius to Eusebius .
Arius to Alexander .
Anus's Thalia
Eusebius to Paulinus
Alexander to Alexander .
Alexander's Encyclical .

4. Its characteristic qualities : —
Unscriptural .
Rationalistic .
Versatile. . . •
Shallow ....
Evasive .

How met at Nicsea . ,



all creation
sense



like



other



203
203
203
204

205
207
208
209
209
210

210
210
211

211

213

215
216
217
218

219
221
222
230
231
234



xiv. Table of Contents.

PART II. HISTORICAL.
CHAPTER III.

THE ECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF NIC-KA, IN THE REIGN OF

CONSTANTINE.

PAGE

Section I. — History of the Nicene Council

1. History of Arius : —

Before his heresy ....... 237

Upon it 238

2. Character and position of Constantine : —

His view of Christianity ...... 242

His disappointment at its dissensions . . « 244

His conduct towards the Donatists .... 245

His wish for religious peace ..... 246

His letter to Athanasius and Arius. . . . 247

He convokes the Nicene Council .... 249

3. Transactions of the Council : —

Disputations 251

Its selection of the test, Homoiision .... 253

Its creed 254

Dissentients . • • • • • • • 255

Brought over ........ 256

Banishment of Arius 256

Section II. — Consequences of the Nicene Council.

1. The Arians : —

Their political and party spirit .... 259

Ingratiate themselves with Constantine . • . 260

Their leaders, Eusebius of Nicomedia . . . 260

And Eusebius of Csesarea 261

Constantia, sister to Constantine .... 263

2. The Catholics : —

Successful at Nicsea 265

Yet their prospects clouded 266

Arius's restoration attempted by Constantine. • 266

At Alexandria . 267

At Constantinople ....... 268

The prayers of Bishop Alexander .... 269

Death of Arius • . 270



Table if Contents.



xv.



CHAPTER IV,



COUNCILS IN THE REIGN OF CONSTANTIUS.






Section I. — The Eusebians.

1. Character of the Eusebian leaders :—
Acacius ......

George ......

Leontius

Eudoxius ......

Valens ......

2. Their proceedings : —

Against Eustathius, &c. . . •
Thjey join the Meletians of Egypt .
Against Athanasius
Hold Councils at Caesarea and Tyre
And depose him ....

3. Their Creeds : —

Athanasius and other exiles at Rome
Roman Council ....
Eusebian Council of the Dedication
Adopts the creed of Lucian
Its second, third, and fourth creeds.
Its fifth creed, the Macrostich.
Great Council of Sardica.
Eusebians leaving it for Philippopolis
Acquits and restores Athanasius
Recantation of Valens and Ursacius



275
275
276

277
278

280
281
282
282
284

285

285
286
286
287
287
289
289
290
291



Section II. — The Semi-Arians

1. Their doctrine : —

Its subtlety and indistinctness. .
Its symbol, the Homoeusion
It considered our Lord to be a true Son
Its self-contradictions . , ,

2. Their leaders : —

Men of high character , , #
Basil of Ancyra ....
Mark of Arethusa . . , ,



297
297
298
299

299
300

301
302



xv i. Table of Contents.

PAGB

Eusebius of Samosata • . . . . . 302
On the contrary, Macedonius, the Pneumato-

machist . . .""'". . . . 303

3. Their proceedings :—-

They start out as a party after Sardica . . 303

Opposed by the Acacians . . . . 304

Acacian device of only Scripture terms . . . 305

The Acacian Homoeon 306

Section III. — The Afhariasians.
Persecutions.

1. Paulus of Constantinople : —

Banished and Martyred . . . t . .311

2. Lucius of Hadrianople : —

Martyred. 312

3. Eusebian Council of Sirmium : —

Deposes Photinus ....... 314

4. Persecution of the West.

Eusebian Council of Aries . . . . 314

The orthodox Bishops excommunicate Athanasius . 315

Fall of Vincent ....... 315

5. Eusebian Council of Milan j —

Condemns Athanasius . . . . . .310

Banishment of Dionysius 317

„ Eusebius of Vercellse . . -317

Hilary 318

6. Proceedings against Pope Liberius : —

His noble conduct 319

His banishment . . .... 319

He is tempted. ....... 321

A comprehension of parties .... 321

His fall . . . . . . . . . 322

He renounces Athanasius and signs a Eusebian

creed 322

He afterwards recovers himself .... 323

7. Proceedings against Hosius : —

Eusebian Creed offered for his acceptance . t 323

His brave conduct ....... 324

Scourged and racked 325



Table of Contents.



xvn.



Signs the creed ....♦♦
Refuses to condemn Athanasius . • •

His repentance

8. Proceedings against Athanasius : —

The Alexandrians prepare themselves for the trial

Recent sufferings

Encouraged by the Sardican Council
George of Cappadocia, the Eusebian Bishop
Irruption of Syrianus into the Church
Escape of Athanasius ....
Persecution of Egyptian Bishops and people
Manifesto of Constantius . •

Section IV. — The Anomceans,
I. Rise of the heresy : —

Aetius ........

Eunomius .*..•..

Its history : —

They join the Eusebians or Acacians against

Semi-Arians

At Csesarea ,

And Antioch ......

Semi-Arian Council at Ancyra
Appeal of the two parties to Constantius.
The Emperor's changes of mind
Preparation for an Ecumenical Council .
Acacian Council of Seleucia .
Acacian Council of Ariminum.
Triumph of Arianism throughout the world
Disgrace of Aetius . . .

Death of Constantius ....



2.



the



PAGE
326
326
326

327
327
328

329
329
331
331

332



337
339



341
341
34i

342
343
344
345
346
347
35o

35i
352



CHAPTER V.

COUNCILS AFTER THE REIGN OF CONSTANTIUS.

Section I. — The Council of Alexandria in the reign of
Julian.
I. The question of the Arianizing Bishops : —

Its difficulty .' 357

Its solution ........ 359

A



XV111.



Table of Contents.



The question of the Succession at Antioch : —




Meletius




. 36l


His confession of orthodoxy . .


• .


. 362


Lucifer's interference . . .


• •


• 363


Schism in consequence . . .


• •


• 364


The question of the hypostasis : —






The term Hypostasis or Persona .


• •


• 365


Whether three or one . . .


. .


. 366


Differences among Catholics .


8


• 367


Letter of the Council


.


• 370



Section II



2.



3-



-The Ecumenical Cotincil of Constantinople
in the reign of Theodosius.
Persecution under Valens : —

End of the Semi-Arian heresy ....

The reconciliation of its Bishops to the Church .
Revival of orthodoxy at Constantinople : —
Gregory Nazianzen. . . * .
His proceeding there ...
The Arians conform under Theodosius
His perplexities
Opposition made to him . .
He resolves to retire . .
His enthronization . . .
His disgust with all parties .
The Ecumenical Council : —
The business before it
Death of its President Meletius
Its proceedings

Resignation of Gregory . .
Its creed .....




377
378

380

36i
382
383
385
386

387
387

388
389
390
391
392



Chronological Tabus



39;



Note





Table of Contents.


xix.




APPENDIX.


PAGK


I,


The Syrian School of Theology .


• 403


2,


The early doctrine of the divine gennesis


» . 4l6


3,


The Confessions at Sirmium


■ 423


4,


The early use of usia and hypostasis .


• 432


5>


Orthodoxy of the faithful during Arianism


. 445


6,


Chronology of the Councils.


. 469


.7,


Omissions in the text of the Third Edition ,


• 474






A »



riVBRSITT;



CHAPTER I,

SCHOOLS AND PARTIES IN AND ABOUT THE ANTE-
NICENE CHURCH, CONSIDERED IN THEIR RELA-
TION TO THE ARIAN HERESY.

SECTION I.

THE CHURCH OF ANTIOCII.

IT is proposed in the following pages to trace the
outlines of the history of Arianism, between the first
and the second General Councils. These are its
natural chronological limits, whether by Arianism we
mean a heresy or a party in the Church. In the
Council held at Nicaea, in Bithynia, A.D. 325, it was
formally detected and condemned. In the subsequent
years it ran its course, through various modifications
of opinion, and with various success, till the date of
the second General Council, held A.D. 381, at Constan-
tinople, when the resources of heretical subtilty being
at length exhausted, the Arian party was ejected from
the Catholic body, and formed into a distinct sect,
exterior to it. It is during this period, while it still
maintained its hold upon the creeds and the govern-



2 The Church of Antioch. [chap. i.

ment of the Church, that it especially invites the
attention of the student in ecclesiastical history.
Afterwards, Arianism presents nothing new in its
doctrine, and is only remarkable as becoming the
animating principle of a second series of persecutions,
when the barbarians of the North, who were infected
with it, possessed themselves of the provinces of the
Roman Empire.

The line of history which is thus limited by the two
first Ecumenical Councils, will be found to pass
through a variety of others, provincial and patriarchal,
which form easy and intelligible breaks in it, and pre-
sent tK: heretical doctrine in the various stages of its
impiety. These, accordingly, shall be taken as car-
dinal points for our narrative to rest upon ;— and it
will matter little in the result, whether it be called a
history of the Councils, or of Arianism, between the
eras already marked out.

However, it is necessary to direct the reader's atten-
tion in the first place, to the state of parties and
schools, in and about the Church, at the time of its
rise, and to the sacred doctrine which it assailed, in
order to obtain a due insight into the history of the
controversy ; and the discussions which these subjects
involve, will occupy a considerable portion of the
volume. I shall address myself without delay to this
work ; and, in this chapter, propose first to observe
upon the connexion of Arianism with the Church of
Antioch, and upon the state and genius of that Church
in primitive times. This shall be the subject of the
present section : in those which follow, I shall consider
its relation towards the heathen philosophies and
heresies then prevalent ; and towards the Church of
Alexandria, to which, though with very little show of-



sect, i.] The Church of Antioch. 3

reasoning, it is often referred. The consideration of
the doctrine of the Trinity shall form the second
chapter.

I.

During the third century, the Church of Antioch
was more or less acknowledged as the metropolis of
Syria, Cilicia, Phoenicia, Comagene, Osrhoene, and
Mesopotamia, in which provinces it afterwards held
patriarchal sway 1 . It had been the original centre of
Apostolical missions among the heathen 2 ; and claimed
St. Peter himself for its first bishop, who had been
succeeded by Ignatius, Theophilus, Babylas, and others
of sacred memory in the universal Church, as cham-
pions and martyrs of the faith 3 . The secular impor-
tance of the city added to the influence which accrued
to it from the religious associations thus connected
with its name, especially when the Emperors made
Syria the seat of their government. This ancient and
celebrated Church, however, is painfully conspicuous
in the middle of the century, as affording so open a
manifestation of the spirit of Antichrist, as to fulfil
almost literally the prophecy of the Apostle in his
second Epistle to the Thessalonians 4 . Paulus, of
Samosata, who was raised to the see of Antioch not
many years after the martyrdom of Babylas, after
holding the episcopate for ten years, was deposed by
a Council of eastern bishops, held in that city A.IX
272, on the ground of his heretical notions concerning
the nature of Christ. His original calling seems to
have been that of a sophist^ ; how he obtained admit-

1 Bingham, Antiq. ix. i. 2 Acts xi., xiii., xiv.

3 Vide Tillemont, Mem. vol. i. &c. 4 Vide Euseb. vii. 30.

* Mosheim, de Reb. ante Constant, sa-c. iii. § 35.
B 2



4 The Church of Antioch. [c HAP - I -

tance into the clerical order is unknown ; his elevation,
or at least his continuance in the see, he owed to the
celebrated Zenobia 6 , to whom his literary attainments,
and his political talents, may be supposed to have
recommended him. Whatever were the personal vir-
tues of the Queen of the East, who is said to have
been a Jewess by birth or creed, it is not surprising
that she was little solicitous for the credit or influence
of the Christian Church within her dominions. The
character of Paulus is consigned to history in the
Synodal Letter of the bishops, written at the time of
his condemnation 7 ; which, being circulated through
the Church, might fairly be trusted, even though the
high names of Gregory of Neocaesarea and Firmilian
were not found in the number of his judges. He is
therein charged with a rapacity, an arrogance, a vulgar
ostentation and desire of popularity, an extraordinary
profaneness, and a profligacy, which cannot but reflect
seriously upon the Church and clergy which elected,
and so long endured him. As to his heresy, it is
difficult to determine what were his precise sentiments
concerning the Person of Christ, though they were
certainly derogatory of the doctrine of His absolute
divinity and eternal existence. Indeed, it is probable
that he had not any clear view on the solemn subject
on which he allowed himself to speculate ; nor had
any wish to make proselytes, and form a party in the

6 He was raised to the episcopate at the commencement of Odenatus's
successes against Sapor (Tillemont, Mem. vol. iv. Chronol.). In the
years which followed, he held a civil magistracy with his ecclesiastical



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