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THE VIA MEDIA

OP

THE ANGLICAN OHDROH.
VOL. 11.



/



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CARDINAL NEWMAN'S WORKS.



PAROCHIAL and PLAIN SERMONS. 8 voli. OaUnet Bdition.
5s. each. Popalar Bditioo. 8 rola. 3s. 6d. eaoh«

SELECTION, from the " Parochial and Plain Sennons.** fit.

FIFTEEN SERMONS PREACHED before tht UNIVERSTTY of
OXFORD, between A.D. 1826 and 1843. te.

SERMONS BEARING on SUBJECTS of the DAT. 6s.

DISCOURSES ADDRESSED to MIXED CONGREOATIONa 6«.

SERMONS PREACHED on VARIOUS OCCASIONS 66.

LECTURES on the DOCTRINE of JUSTIFICATION. 5s.

An ESSAY on the DEVELOPMENT of CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE,
Cabinet Bdition, fo. Cheap Bdition, 8s. 6d.

The IDEA of a UNIVERSITY DEFINED and ILLUSTRATED. 7a.

An ESSAY in AID of a GRAMMAR of ASSENT. Cabinet Edition,
7b. 6d. Cheap Bdition, Ss. 6d.

The VIA MEDU of the ANGLICAN CHURCH. 2 Tola. 60. each.

CERTAIN DIFFICULTIES FELT by ANGLICANS in CATHOLIC
TEACHlUa CONSIDEEED. (2 rolfc) VoL L, 7s. 6d. VoL U., H. 6d.

PRESENT POSITION of CATHOLICS in ENGLAND. Ts. 6d.

APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA. Cabinet Edition, 60. Cheap Edition,
8s. 6d.

ESSAYS on BIBLICAL and on ECCLESIASTICAL MIRACLES.
Cabinet Bdition, 6s. Cheap Bdition, Ss. 6d.

DISCUSSIONS and ARGUMENTS on VARIOUS SUBJECTS.
Cabinet Bdition, 8s. Cheap Edition, 88. 8d.

ESSAYS CRITICAL and HISTORICAL. Cabinet Edition. 2 vols.
12b. Cheap Edition. 2to18. 7s.

HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 3 vols. 60. each.

The ARTANS of the FOURTH CENTURY. Cabinet Edition, 60.

Cheap Bdition, 88. 6d.

SELECT TREATISES of ST. ATHANASIUS in CONTROVERSY

with the ARIANS. Freely Translated. 2 vote. Ite.

THEOLOGICAL TRACTS. Crown 870. 8s.

VERSES on VARIOUS OCCASIONS. Cabinet Edition, 6s. Cheap

Edition, 88. 8d. '^

LOSS and GAIN : The Story of a Conrert. 60.
CALLISTA. Cabinet Edition, 68. Cheap Edition, Ss. 6d.
The DREAM of GERONTIUS. 6d. sewed ; Is. doth.



London: LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.



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THE VIA MEDIA

OF

THE ANGLICAN CHUEOH.

ILLUSTRATED IN LECTURES, LETTERS,
AND TRACTS

WRITTEN BETWEEN 1830 AND 1841.

BT

JOHN HENRY CARDINAL NEWMAN.

IN TWO VOLUMES,
WITH A PREFACE AND NOTES.

VOL. II.



LONDON

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16«» STREET

1891
All rigkU metxed*



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4 Mr '96



VOL. n.

OCCASIONAL
LETTERS AND TRACTS.



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CONTENTS.

rial

L— Snoacsnovs in behalf or THsOairBCH Missionabt

SOCIBTT, 1830. ....... 1

IL— Vii Media, 183 i 19

1X1.— BxsTOBATioK OF 8uF] siOAH Bjshops. 18S5 . • 49

IV. — Ojr THS MODK OF OoHDUCTI^a THB COHIBOYSBSy

WITH RoMB, 1836 (bbivo vo. 71 OF Tbacts fob

THX TiMXS) .93

Y. — LlTTBB TO ▲ MaOAZIKB IV BBHALF OF Db. PuSBT'S

Tbacts oh Holt Baptism, 1837 . .143
YL — ^Lbttbb to thb Maboabbt Pbofbssob of Diyikitt
OH Mb. B. H. Fboudb's Riatbmbhts ok thb
Holt Euchabist, 1838 195

yiI.^BBMA.BKS OK CbBTAIK PaSSAOBS IK THB ThIBTT-

KiKB Abticlbs, 1841 259

VIII. — DOOUMBIITABT MaTTBB COHSBQITENT UPOH THB FOBB-

GOIKO BBMA.BKS Off THB ThiBTT-HINB AbTICLBS . 357

IX. — ^Lbttbb to Db. Jblf ik Explahatiov of thb
Bbmjjiks, 1841 ... ...

JL — ^Lbtibb to thb Bishop of Oxfobd ok the same

•vbjbct; 1841 ...,..••

XL— Bbtbaotatiov ov Abti-Oatholio Statemekts,

813-1845



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T



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suaaBSTioNs

BE8FBCIVDLI.X OFPBBBD TO

INDIVIDUAL RESIDENT CLERGYME^
OF THE UNIVERSITY,

IK BIHiXF OV

THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SGCIET



A MASTER OK AKTS.



1830.



(Not published, hut sent to a certain numher qf resident



VOL. n. B

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NOTICE.

I WROTE the following Letter and circulated it in the
University in February, 1830, at a time when I was one
of the secretaries of the Oxford Branch of the Church
Missionary Society. At that time I was on the whole
Protestant in doctrine, with a growing disposition to-
wards 'what is called the High Church. I had for many
years greatly esteemed the Church Missionary Society,
but thought it ought to be under the Bishops. I had
made inquiries with a view to the possibility of my
becoming one of its missionaries. |

My object then in this Letter was at once to enlarge
the circle of subscribers to the Society, and to direct and
strengthen the influence of the University and thereby
of the Anglican hierarchy, upon it. And with this view
I urged that the Society itself, by its rules, did actually
pledge itself to welcome that influence which I thought
so necessary for it, and I considered it a great mistake
in the mass of the clergy not to accept a position so
frankly offered to them.

B 2

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4 SUGGESTIONS IN BBHAT«F OF

My Letter^ however^ gave great offence to the leading
members of its Oxford Branch, to which I belonged ; and
at the next Annual Meeting, consisting mainly of junior
members of the University, Dr. Symons of Wadham in
the chair, they unanimously voted another, I forget
who^ into the office I held.

I did not leave the Association till, I think, four years
afterwards, having in the meantime preached and had a
collection in St. Mary's Church for it. On that occasion
I recollect mentioning the " good man/' (as I called him
with great sincerity,) Dr. Wilson of Queen's, afterwards
Canon of Winchester, a Calvinist by reputation, who
introduced the Society to Oxford.

July, 1883. — This incident has been the occasion of
much misrepresentation, and to prevent permanent mis-
takes I am obliged to add as follows : —

Four years ago, on Mr. L., a friend of mine, saying of
me in a periodical of name, that there were various false
stories in circulation about the part I played towards
certain evangelical bodies (for instance at the time when
I was secretary to the Bible Society, an office which I
never held), a correspondent of the editor wrote to him
to say that what Mr. L. treated '^ as an amusing myth,"
was an affair in which he (the writer) '^ was a personal



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THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 5

actor;" that "if I denied that I was ever a secretary to
the Bible Society^ the denial must have been barely that
I was secretary in the year 1826/* whereas he (the writer)
spoke of 1829 and 1830; that "when'' the secretary
" presented his Report *' I " moved 254 amendments '' to
it ; that '' the number of emendations '' (he repeated) " was
254/' though ''Mr. L. made it 250;" that ''they were
designed to transform the evangelical style of the Report
into one which was "perhaps better;'* that "meanwhile
I had written ** and circulated " a most hostile tract " or
letter ; and that, at the Annual Meeting that followed^ it
was carried imanimously "that the Bev. J. H. Newman
should be no longer secretary."

The two main points in this uncalled-for and unfounded
contradiction to Mr. L.'s statement which I think it
necessary to deny, are first, that the occurrence which my
assailant writes about took place in the Bible Society,
whereas it took place in the Church Missionary Society, as
the pamphlet which follows sufficiently shows ; and next,
that I moved 254 amendments to the secretary's Annual
Report.

1» As to the first charge, it does but involve a question
of memory, and is important only so far as it bears upon
the general trustworthiness whether of Mr. L.'s account,
or of the one contradictory to it. Now I deny that

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6 SUGGRSTTONS IN BEHALF OF

I ever was secretary to any Bible Society. I was indeed
a member of the Oxford Branch, and spoke at two
Annual Meetings, but I know I never was secretary to it,
and never spoke or wrote against it. All that I recollect
of ray two speeches is, that Dr. Shuttleworth, after-
wards Bishop of Chichester, said of one of them that it
was the only good one delivered at the meeting. This
my own denial would be enough, but in addition to it. it
is pleasant to me to be able to say that Mr. L.'s opponent
himself, on second thoughts had the candour in a sub-
sequent letter to withdraw what he had so strongly
asserted in his first. He writes, " If Cardinal Newman
means that the Letter or Tract to which I referred was
directed to the question, not of the Bible Society, but of
the Church Missionary Society, lam sure that his memory
is likely to be better than mine ; he scores a line under the
words which I have printed in italics. He proceeds, '* In
fact I never had a copy of the Tract ; I only read it at
the time."

2. Secondly, as to the question of ^^ amendments moved "
by me, which he says ran to the number of 264, his
using elsewhere the word '^ emendations " instead of what
he calls " amendments,^' seems to explain the difficulty
of the wonderful number to which they ran. Not one
*^ amendment *' did I '^ move," as far as I remember or



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THE CHURCH MISSTONARY SOCIETY. 7

beKeve ; but it is very likely, from what he says, that at
a preliminary meeting the intended Annual Report was
read to the Committee, of whom I was one ; and, though
I recollect nothing about it now, perhaps or probably I
objected to the conventional Evangelical phraseology in
which it was drawn up, and the friends of its author on
counting up my proposed " emendations '* of style, found
254 words affected by my criticism. I am sure there
was no moving, voting, and dividing upon them. If this
explanation will not hold, I can give no other ; anyhow,
in the received meaning of the word, the notion of 254
amendments is absurd.

I am glad that in my lifetime so wholesale a charge
has been made and refuted.

P.S. — ^The following letter to me from Mr. [Archdeacon]
R. L Wilberforce under the early date of Oct. 2, 1828,
^vill illustrate my pamphlet. It shows that my criticism
on the Church Missionary Society was that of others
also, in the years during which I made it, and that I
was doing nothing unreasonable or unfair in attempting
to make the Society's obedience to Episcopal authority a
fact as well as a profession. Mr. Woodruff, I believe, was
one of the chief officials of the Society in 1828.

Oct. 2, 1828.— I have just seen Woodrnff here, who tells me
that the only objection to such a rule as [Provost] Hawkins



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8 SUGGESIIONS, E1C.

seemed to desiderate in the Church Missionary Society was, that
it wonld seem to imply that snch a principle was not what they
had acted on hitherto. But they had always acted upon the
general rule of conforming to the laws of the Church, and have
therefore conceived that their missionaries would, of course, be
under Episcopal authority. Is there any law of the kind you
mention in the Propagation Society P — E. I. W.

What Dr. Hawkins and I, not to say Mr. E. I. Wilber-
force, felt in 1 828 and 1830, Mr. Hope Scott independently
of us felt in 1837. This appears from a passage in the
(unpublished) memoir of him, on which the Editor observes,
^^ It is remarkable that, in the year 1830 Mr. Newman, as
the Secretary of the Oxford Association of the Church
Missionary Society, had already printed and circulated a-
pamphlet in the University, in behalf of this very subor-
dination which Mr. Hope in 1837 advocated,^' vol. i.
p. 120.



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SUGGESTIONS



IN BEHALF OP



THE OHUECII MISSIONARY SOCIETY.



Rev. Sin,

Persons whose names carry weight with
them ought not to consider the application of a stranger
an intrusion. You are a sharer in that aggregate of
influence which determines the movements of our Oxford
community. I address you as such ; and, unless i ask an
audience of unreasonable length, find my apology in the
very circumstance which induces me to seek it.

I am to speak a few words in behalf of the Church
Missionary Society, which I would fain see generally
countenanced by the clergy ; yet so far am I from being
blind to the existing defects of that institution, praise-
worthy as are its aim and exertions, that it is a keen
sense of them that has led me to the step I am now
taking.

Perhaps the faults exhibited in its proceedings are felt
by those who have closely examined them even more
strongly than by yourself. I do not defend the circum-
stances of its origination, which must be ascribed in-



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10 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

deed to motives worthy of all respect, but at Ihe same
time evinced little regard for the duty of Church order
and canonical obedience. Nor has it yet cleared itself,
except in part, from the dishonour of its first irregulari-
ties; which, though not seated in its constitution, still
are mischievous attendants on its actual operations. And
because I think they are great, yet accidental evils; —
evils especially as regards the interests of that Church to
which the Society is attached, distracting her present and
still more endangering her future peace; and yet re-
movable at the word of our ecclesiastical rulers, without
any compromise of principle on their part: on these
accounts it is that I anxiously and earnestly call upon
those who have the power promptly and with one accord
to put an end to them.

The facts of the case are these. A society for mis-
sionary purposes, supported mainly by members of the
Church of England, professing her doctrines and dis-
cipline, and making use of her name, has extended its
operations into every diocese of the kingdom ; and (as far
as its object is concerned) has laid out anew the Church's
territory, dividing it into districts of its own appointing.
It has moreover remodelled our ecclesiastical system, the
functions of which are brought under the supreme direc-
tion of a committee of management in London ; with
which all its members are in immediate or ultimate cor-
respondence, and which at various times has sent out
its representatives through the country, preachers and
(indirectly) lay-advocates, to detail its proceedings in
large assemblies, and collect contributions for its great
Dbject.

Moreover, its practice of addressing itself to the multi-
tude in public meetings, — ^besides offending against the
peculiar sobriety of our Church's character, — has a direct
tendency to disarrange her parochial system ; to give a

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THE CHURCH MISSION AUY SOCIETY. 11

prominence to preaching over other religious ordinances,
which neither her formularies nor the annals of her
history sanction ; and to make the people, not the Bishop,
the basis and moving principle of her constitution.

And further, by sending out missionaries for the propa-
gation of the Gospel, this Society has taken on itself a
function which, not less than that of ordination, is to be
considered the prerogative of the supreme rulers of the
Christian Church.

To finish the summary of the evils existing in the pro-
ceedings of this Society, the doctrines held by some of its
most active directors, though not acknowledged perhaps by
the individuals themselves to be Calvinistic, still are more
or less such practically, whatever dispute may be raised
about the exact meaning of words and phrases.

The sum expended by the Society in the course of the
last year exceeded 55fi00l, It has two hundred and
twenty- two Associations— It numbers, in all, nine Bishops
among its members ; and, as far as it is possible to form an
estimate from the subscription list attached to the Report,
above fourteen hundred clergy.

That a society thus availing itself of the name of our
Church, yet actually conducted on principles so widely
different from those which her doctrine and discipline
imply, and advocated moreover with such zeal, and as
yet with such singular success, is doing secret injury to
her highest domestic objects — the pure, sober, and ade-
quate religious training of her people, — can hardly be
doubted.

On the probable increase of the mischief, some light is
thrown by the circumstance, that, while there is a visible
resemblance in actual administration between the system
of this and other missionary societies of recent origin, there
appears on the other hand an inclination in some persons
who are favourable to these latter institutions to detach

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12 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

it still further from the Church, and to connect it in a
more formal way with their own bodies : * — an object
which, it is presumed, cannot be attained without the
Church's losing many respectable members, lay, and even
clerical, who support the Society ; nor even prosecuted
without weakening, to an indefinite extent, their attach-
ment to her principles and interests.

— I have detailed plainly and openly the errors visible
in the conduct of the Church Missionary Society ; but do
not suffer them to engross your attention. I have men-
tioned them not on their own account, but for the sake of
exhibiting their unfavourable bearing on the well-being
of the Church. Let me entreat you to go on, from con-
sidering these mistakes^ to consider the evil. Contemplate
this state of things, not as a fact merely exciting your
disapprobation of the Society, but as a mischief of melan-
choly interest to a body of which you are a member.
View it, not as if you were an indifferent spectator, but
as feeling that it involves a grave practical question, which
claims an answer from you. — How should the clergy act in
relation to this Society ? — This is a problem to be solved
amid opposite difficulties ; in considering which, provided
no principle be compromised, we must be determined by
the suggestions of an enlarged Christian expediency.

Now, in viewing this question, we must not dwell on
the manner of its first establishment. The spirit which
originated it gave no character to its co)iMtution, and has
in a great measure died awa3\ We are considering the
Society as it exists at present. Past faults may serve to
confirm a condemnation, but cannot counteract a favour-

* Vid. New Model of Christian Missions, by the author of the Natural
History of Enthusiasm; and Eclectic Review, January, 1830. On the
other hand, it is a gratifying fact, that within the last few mouths, tho
Society has given up its connection with the Missionary Register.



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THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 13

able judgment formed on existing grounds; so we put
them aside.

Taking the case then as it now stands, I beg you to
observe, that all the existing evils are destroyed at once
and for ever, directly the clergy throw themselves into the
Society — which they may do without any sacrifice of
principle on their part. In this respect there is a marked
distinction between it and the Bible Society. To join the
latter implies (as many think), a concession, that it is
lawful for orthodox believers to co-operate with heretics,
that the Bible directly supplies a complete rule of dis-
cipline as well as of doctrine, and that dissenters may be
recognized as independent bodies on a footing with the
Church. But in the case of this Society, the authority
of our ecclesiastical rulers is acknowledged by its very
name ; which its regulations so well bear out, that you
may search in vain through them all for any principle of
a sectarian tendency. All clergymen who are subscribers
are ex officio members of the managing committee ; — the
lay-members being limited to the number of twenty-four,
six of whom vacate their seats at the end of every year.
And for actual instances of their respect for our eccle-
siastical system, when their foreign operations come in
contact with it, I may refer to the uniform conduct of
their Indian mission, witnessed as it is by the testimonies
of Middleton and Heber, and illustrated by their munifi-
cent grant in aid of Bishop^s College, Calcutta, first of
5000/., then of 1000/. annually for several years.

So much on the question of principle, — And as to the
practicability of legitimatizing this Society, its adu
into the bosom of the Church is easy, became it m
done without compromise of principle. Not only
placed itself in the hands of the Church by its n
has also (I believe) taken every opportunity, or :
used every solicitation, by which an approximation

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14 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OP

be made towards a system of episcopal and archidiacoDal
superintendence. The conduct of its leading members has
been on the whole marked by fairness, candour, a simple
desire to do good, and an unaffected willingness to listen
to advice offered from authority/ Whatever is irregular
in their proceedings may be attributed partly to their
deficient insight into the duties implied in Church union,
and into the genius of our ecclesiastical system ; and partly
to the mere absence of spiritual authorities, who alone can
confirm the acts of a religious body. Its present irregu-
larities spring from circumstances of a negative, not a
positive character. Its directors are, it is plain, involved
in a diflSculty arising from the anomalous mode of the
Society's first establishment — a difficulty from which the
Church alone can extricate them, by supplying her sanc-
tion and guidance — and this, which they have no right to
claim, I call upon her to do, not for their sake, but for
her own. Why should we stand aloof, and allow our name
to be used by a Society, without availing ourselves of that
right of control over its movements which the assumption
of that name gives us ? Why should we not put an end
at once to so distracting a state of things by the only way
left us for remedying it, now that the time is gone by when
we might hope to stop the progress of the Society by dis-



Online LibraryJohn Henry NewmanThe via media of the Anglican church → online text (page 1 of 30)