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THE VIA MEDIA

OF

THE ANGLICAN CHURCH.
VOL. H.



CARDINAL NEWMAN'S WORKS.



PAROCHIAL and PLAIN" SERMONS. 8 vols. Cabinet Edition.

5s. each. Popular E.litioa. 8 vols. 33. 6d. each.
SELECTION, from the " Parochial and Plaia Sermons." 53.
FIFTEEN SERMONS PREACHED before the UNIVERSITY of

OXFORD, between A.D. 1826 and 1843. 63.

SERMONS BEARING on SUBJECTS of the DAY. 53.
DISCOURSES ADDRESSED to MIXED CONGREGATIONS. 63,
SERMONS PREACHED on VARIOUS OCCASIONS. 6s.
LECTURES on the DOCTRINE of JUSTIFICATION. 5s.

An ESSAY on the DEVELOPMENT of CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE.

Cabinet Edition, Gs. Cheap Edition, 3s. 6d.

The IDEA of a UNIVERSITY DEFINED and ILLUSTRATED. Ts.

An ES3AY in AID of a GRAMMAR of ASSENT. Cabinet Edition,
7s. Cd. Cheap Edition, 3s. 6d.

The VIA MEDIA of the ANGLICAN CHURCH. 2 vols. 6s. each.

CERTAIN DIFFICULTIES FELT bj ANGLICANS in C.ITHOIJC
TEACHING CONSIDERED. (2 vols.) Vol. I., 7s. 6d. Vol. II., 5s. 6d.

PRESENT POSITION of CATHOLICS in ENGLAND. 7s. 6d.

APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA. Cabinet Edition, 63. Cheap Edition,
3s. 6d. • t- >

ESSAYS on BIBLICAL and on ECCLESIASTICAL MIR.\CLES.

Cabinet Edition, 6s. Cheap Edition, 3s. 6d.

DISCUSSIONS and ARGUMENTS on VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

Cabinet Edition, 6s. Cheiip Edition, 3s. 6d.

ESSAYS CRITICAL and HISTORICAL. Cabinet Edition. 2 vols.
12s. Cheap Edition. 2 vols. 73.

HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 3 vols. 6s. each.

The ARTANS of the FOURTH CENTURY. Cabinet Edition, 6s.
Cheap Edition, 3s. 6d.

SELECT TREATISES of ST. ATHANASIUS in CONTROVERSY
with the ARIANS. Freely Translated. 2 vols. Ifig.

THEOLOGICAL TRACTS. Crown 8vo. 8s.

VERSES on VARIOUS OCCASIONS. Cabinet Edition, 69. Cheap
Edition, 3s. 6d. *^

LOSS and GAIN : The Story of a Convert. 63.

CALLISTA. Cabinet Edition, 6s. Cheap Edition, 3s. 6d.

The DREAM of GERONTIUS. 6d. sewed ; Is. cloth.



London: LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.



THE VIA MEDIA

OF

THE ANGLICAN CHUECH.

ILLUSTRATED IN LECTURES, LETTERS,
AND TRACTS

WRITTEN BETWEEN 1830 AND 1841.
BY

JOHN HENRY CARDINAL NEWMAN.

IN TWO VOLUMES,
WITH A PREFACE AND NOTES.

VOL. II.




LONDON

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16th STREET

1891
All riyhU reterced.



J'



VOL. IL

OCCASIONAL
LETTERS AND TRACTS.



CONTENTS.

r—SuGGFSTIONS IN BEHALF O? THE Ca0KCH MiSSIOXABY



PAOB



Society, 1830. • . , , , i

II.— Via Media, 18;il . ,^

HI— Restoration OF Sufi KAGAN Bishops. LSS5 . . 49
IV.-Ov THK Mode of CoNDucn.vo the Coniboversy

WITH Rome, 1836 (being no. 71 of Tkacts foe

THE Times) . , ,

* • • • t70

V.-Lettee to a Magazine in behalf of Dh. Puset's

Tbacts on Holt Baptism, 1837 .... 14,3
VI.-Lettee to the Maegaret Peofessoe of Divinity
ON Me. R. H. Feoudb's Statements on the
Holy Euchaeist, 1838 .... ^o-

VII.-Remaeks on Ceetain Passages in the Thiety-

NiNE Aeticles, 1841 . . . _ 259

Vnr.-DOCUMENTAEY MaTTEE CONSEQUENT UPON THE FOEE-

GOING Remaeks ON THE Thiety-nine Aeticles . 357

IX-Lettee TO Dr. Jelf in Explanation of the

Remaeks, 1841

. 060

X-Lettee to the Bishop of Oxford on the same

SUBJECT, 1841 . . g^^

XI.-Retractation of Anti-Catholic Statements.

813— 18i5 .

42t)



1.

s u a a E s T 1 isr s

EESPECTFCTLLY OFFERED TO

INDIYIDUAL EESIDENT CLERGYMEN
OF THE UNIVERSITY,

IK BEHALF 01*

THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY,

BY

A MASTER OF AKTS.

1830.
{Not puMisJied, hid sent to a certain number ofresider,ts^



VOL. II.



NOTICE.

I AVROTE the following Letter and circulated it in the
University in February, 1830, at a time when I was one
of the secretaries of the Oxford Branch of the Church
Missionary Society. At that time I was on the whole
Protestant in doctrine, with a growing disposition to-
wards what is called the High Church. I had for many
years greatly esteemed the Church Missionary Society,
but thought it ought to be under the Bishops. I had
made inquiries with a view to the possibility of my
becoming one of its missionaries. \

My object then in this Letter was at once to enlarge
the circle of subscribers to the Society, and to direct and
strengthen the influence of the University and thereby
of the Anglican hierarchy, upon it. And with this view
I urged that the Society itself, by its rules, did actually
pledge itself to welcome that influence which I thought
so necessary for it, and I considered it a great mistake
in the mass of the clergy not to accept a position so
frankly ofiered to them.

B 2



4 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OP

My Letter, however, gave great offence to the leading
members of its Oxford Branch, to which I belonged; and
at the next Annual Meeting, consisting mainly of junior
members of the University, Dr. Symons of Wadham in
the chair, they unanimously voted another, I forget
who, into the office I held.

I did not leave the Association till, I think, four years
afterwards, having in the meantime preached and had a
collection in St. Mary's Church for it. On that occasion
I recollect mentioning the " good man/' (as I called him
■with great sincerity,) Dr. "Wilson of Queen's, afterwards
Canon of Winchester, a Calvinist by reputation, who
introduced the Society to Oxford.

July, 1883. — This incident has been the occasion of
much misrepresentation, and to prevent permanent mis-
takes I am obliged to add as follows ; —

Four years ago, on Mr. L., a friend of mine, saying of
me in a periodical of name, that there were various false
stories in circulation about the part I played towards
certain evangelical bodies (for instance at the time when
I was secretary to the Bible Society, an office which I
never held), a correspondent of the editor wrote to him
to say that what Mr. L. treated " as an amusing myth,"
was an affair in which he (the writer) '^ was a personal



THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 5

actor;" that "if I denied that I was ever a secretary to
the Bible Society, the denial must have been barely that
I was secretary in the year 1826," whereas he (the writer)
spoke of 1829 and 1830; that "when'' the secretary
" presented his Report " I « moved 254 amendments " to
it ; that " the number of emendations " (he repeated) " was
254," though " Mr. L. made it 250 ; " that '^ they were
designed to transform the evangelical style of the Report
into one which was ''perhaps better;" that "meanwhile
I had written " and circulated " a most hostile tract " or
letter; and that, at the Annual Meeting that followed, it
was carried unanimously " that the Rev. J. H. Newman
should be no longer secretary."

The two main points in this uncalled-for and unfounded
contradiction to Mr. L.'s statement which I think it
necessary to deny, are first, that the occurrence which my
assailant writes about took place in the Bible Society,
whereas it took place in the Church Missionary Society, as
the pamphlet which follows sufficiently shows ; and next,
that I moved 254 amendments to the secretary's Annual
Report.

1. As to the first charge, it does but involve a question
of memory, and is important only so far as it bears upon
the general trustworthiness whether of Mr. L.'s account,
or of the one contradictory to it. Now I deny that



6 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

I ever was secretary to any Bible Society. I was indeed
a member of the Oxford Branch, and spoke at two
Annual Meetings, but I know I never was secretary to it,
and never spoke or wrote against it. All that I recollect
of my two speeches is, that Dr. Shuttleworth, after-
wards Bishop of Chichester, said of one of them that it
was the only good one delivered at the meeting. This
my own denial would be enough, but in addition to it. it
is pleasant to me to be able to say that I\Ir. L.'s opponent
himself, on second thoughts had the candour in a sub-
sequent letter to withdraw what he had so strongly
asserted in his first. He writes, " If Cardinal Newman
means that the Letter or Tract to wliich I referred was
directed to the question, not of the Bible Society, but of
the Church Missionary Society, Ia))i sure that his incmory
is likely to he better than mine ; he scores a line under the
words which I have printed in italics. He proceeds, " In
fact I never had a copy of the Tract ; I only read it at
the time.''

2. Secondly, as to the question of " amcndmcnh moved "
by me, which he says ran to the number of 254, his
using elsewhere the word " emendations " instead of what
he calls " amendments," seems to explain the diflSculty
of the wonderful number to which they ran. Not one
*' amendment " did I " move," as far as I remember or



THE CHURCH MTRSTONARY SOCIETY. i

believe ; but it is very likely, from what he says, that at
a preliminary meeting the intended Annual Report was
read to the Committee, of whom I was one ; and, though
I recollect nothing about it now, perhaps or probably I
objected to the conventional Evangelical phraseology in
which it was drawn up, and the friends of its author on
counting up ray proposed " emendations " of style, found
254 7cords affected by my criticism. I am sure there
was no moving, voting, and dividing upon them. If this
explanation will not hold, I can give no other ; anyhow,
in the received meaning of the word, the notion of 254
amendments is absurd.

I am glad that in my lifetime so wholesale a charge
has been made and refuted.

P.S. — The following letter to me from Mr. [Archdeacon]
R. I. Wilberforce under the early date of Oct. 2, 1828,
will illustrate my pamphlet. It shows that my criticism
on the Church Missionary Society was that of others
also, in the years during which I made it, and that I
was doing nothing unreasonable or unfair in attempting
to make the Society's obedience to Episcopal authority a
fact as well as a profession. Mr. Woodruff, I believe, was
one of the chief officials of the Society in 1828.

Oct. 2, 1828. — I have just seen Woodruff here, who tells me
that the only objection to such a rule as [Provost] Hawkins



8 SUGGESTIONS, EIC.

seemed to desiderate in the Church Missionary Society was, that
it would seem to imply that such a principle was not what they
had acted on hitherto. But they had always acted upon the
general rule of conforming to the laws of the Church, and have
therefore conceived that their missionaries would, of course, be
under Episcopal authority. Is there any law of the kind you
mention in the Propagation Society ? — E. I. W.

What Dr. Hawkins and I, not to say Mr. R. I. Wilber-
force, felt in 1828 and 1830, Mr. Hope Scott independently
of us felt in 1837. This appears from a passage in the
(unpublished) memoir of him, on which the Editor observes,
" It is remarkable that, in the year 1830 Mr. Newman, as
the Secretary of the Oxford Association of the Church
Missionary Societ}', had already printed and circuhited a
pamphlet in the University, in behalf of this very subor-
dination which Mr. Hope in 1837 advocated," vol. i.
p. 1-20.



SUGGESTIONS



IN BEHALF OF



THE cnuncn missionary society.



PtEv. Sin,

PfiRsoKS whose names carry weight with
thcin ought not to consider the application of a stranger
an intrusion. You are a sharer in that aggregate of
influence which determines the movements of our Oxford
community. I address you as such ; and, unless i ask an
audience of unreasonable length, find, my apology in the
very circumstance which induces me to seek it.

I am to speak a few words in behalf of the Church
Missionary Society, which I would fain see generally
countenanced by the clergy ; yet so far am I from being
blind to the existing defects of that institution, praise-
worthy as are its aim and exertions, that it is a keen
sense of them that has led me to the step I am now
taking.

Perhaps the faults exhibited in its proceedings are felt
by those who have closely examined them even more
strongly than by yourself. I do not defend the circum-
stances of its origination, which must be ascribed in-



10 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

deed to motives worthy of all respect, but at the same
time evinced little regard for the duty of Church order
and canonical obedience. Nor has it yet cleared itself,
except in part, from the dishonour of its first irregulari-
ties ; which, though not seated in its constitution, still
are mischievous attendants on its actual operations. And
because I think they are great, yet accidental evils; —
evils especially as regards the interests of that Church to
which the Society is attached, distracting her present and
still more endangering her future peace; and yet re-
movable at the word of our ecclesiastical rulers, without
any compromise of principle on their part : on these
accounts it is that I an.xiously and earnestly call upon
those who have the power promptly and with one accord
to put an end to them.

The facts of the case are these. A society for mis-
sionary purposes, supported mainly by members of the
Church of England, professing her doctrines and dis-
cipline, and making use of her name, has extended its
operations into every diocese of the kingdom ; and (as far
as its object is concerned) has laid out anew the Church's
territory, dividing it into districts of its own appointing.
It has moreover remodelled our ecclesiastical system, the
functions of which are brought under the supreme direc-
tion of a committee of management in London ; with
which all its members are in immediate or ultimate cor-
respondence, and which at various times has sent out
its representatives through the country, preachers and
(indirectly) lay-advocates, to detail its proceedings in
Jarge assemblies, and collect contributions for its great
object.

Moreover, its practice of addressing itself to the multi-
tude in public meetings, — besides offending against the
peculiar sobriety of our Church's character, — has a direct
tendency to disarrange her parochial system ; to give a



THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 11

prominence to preaching over other religions ordinances,
which neither her formularies nor the annals of her
history sanction ; and to make the people, not the Bishop,
the basis and moving piinciple of her constitution.

And further, by sending out missionaries for the propa-
gation of the Gospel, this Society has taken on itself a
function which, not less than that of oi'dination, is to be
considered the prerogative of the supreme rulers of the
Christian Church.

To finish the summary of the evils existing iu the pro-
ceedings of this Society, the doctrines held by some of its
most active directors, though not acknowledged perhaps by
the individuals themselves to be Calvinistic, still are more
or less such practically, whatever dispute may be raised
about the exact meaning of words and phrases.

The sum expended by the Society in the course of the
last year exceeded 55,000/. It has two hundred and
twenty- two Associations — It numbers, in all, nine Bishops
among its members ; and, as far as it is possible to form an
estimate from the subscription list attached to the Keport,
above fourteen hundred clergy.

That a society thus availing itself of the name of our
Church, yet actually conducted on principles so widely
different from those which her doctrine and discipline
imply, and advocated moreover with such zeal, and as
yet with such singular success, is doing secret injury to
her highest domestic objects — the pure, sober, and ade-
quate religious training of her people, — can hardly be
doubted.

On the probable increase of the mischief, some light is
thrown by the circumstance, that, while there is a visible
resemblance in actual administration between the system
of this and other missionary societies of recent origin, there
appears on the other hand an inclination in some persons
who are favourable to these latter institutions to detach



12 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

it still further from the Church, and to connect it in a
more formal way with their own bodies:' — an object
which, it is presumed, cannot be attained without the
Church's losing many respectable members, lay, and even
clerical, who support the Society ; nor even prosecuted
without weakening, to an indefinite extent, their attiich-
ment to her principles and interests.

— I have detailed plainly and openly the errors visible
in the conduct of the Church Missionary Society ; but do
not suffer them to engross your attention. I have men-
tioned them not on their own account, but for the sake of
exhibiting their unfavourable bearing en the well-being
of the Church. Let me entreat you to go on, from con-
sidering these misfakes, to consider the evil. Contemplate
this state of things, not as a fact merely exciting your
disapprobation of the Society, but as a mischief of melan-
choly interest to a body of wliich you are a member.
View it, not as if you were an indifferent spectator, but
as feeling tliat it involves a grave practical question, which
claims an answer from i/oii. — How sJwuUl the clergy act in
relation to this Societg ? — This is a problem to be solved
amid opposite difficulties ; in considering which, provided
no principle be compromised, we must be determined by
the suggestions of an enlarged Christian expediency.

Now, in viewing this question, we must not dwell on
the manner of its first establishment. The spirit which
originated it gave no character to its constitution, and has
in a great measure died away. AVe are considering the
Society as it exists at present. Past faults may serve to
confirm a condemnation, but cannot counteract a favour-

' Viil. New Model of Christinn Missions, by the author of the Natural
History of Entbusiasin ; and Eclectic Review, January, 1830. On the
other liand, it is a gratifying fact, that within the last few mouths, Iho
Society has given up its coiiuection with the Missionary Register.



THE CHURCH MISSIONAKY SOCIETY. 13

able judgment formed on existing grounds ; eo we put
them aside.

Taking the case then as it now stands, I beg you to
observe, that all the existing evils are destroyed at once
and for ever, directly the clergy throw themselves into the
Society — which they may do without any sacrifice of
principle on their part. In this respect there is a marked
distinction between it and the Bible Society. To join the
latter implies (as many think), a concession, tliat it is
lawful for orthodox believers to co-operate with heretics,
that the Bible directly supplies a complete rule of dis-
cipline as well as of doctrine, and that dissenters may be
recognized as independent bodies on a footing with the
Church. But in the case of this Society, the authority
of our ecclesiastical rulers is acknowledged by its very
name ; which its regulations so well bear out, that you
may search in vain through them all for any principle of
a sectarian tendency. All clergymen who are subscribers
are ex officio members of the managing committee ; — the
lay-members being limited to the number of twenty-four,
six of whom vacate their seats at the end of every year.
And for actual instances of their respect for our eccle-
siastical system, when their foreign operations come in
contact with it, I may refer to the uniform conduct of
their Indian mission, witnessed as it is by the testimonies
of Middleton and Heber, and illustrated by their munifi-
cent grant in aid of Bishop's College, Calcutta, first of
5000/., then of 1000/. annually for several years.

So much on the question of jyrinciple. — And as to the
practieahility of legitimatizing this Society, its admission
into the bosom of the Church is easy, because it may be
done without compromise of principle. Not only has it
placed itself in the hands of the Church by its rules, it
has also (I believe) taken every opportunity, or rather
used every solicitation, by which an approximation might



14 SUGGESTIONS IN BEHALF OF

be made towards a system of episcopal and archidiaconal

superintendence. The conduct of its leading members has
been on the whole marked by fairness, candour, a simple
desire to do good, and an unaffected willingness to listen
to advice offered from authority. Whatever is irregular
in their proceedings may be attributed partly to their
deficient insight into the duties implied in Church union,
and into the genius of our ecclesiastical system ; and partly
to the mere absence of spiritual authorities, who alone can
confirm the acts of a religious body. Its present irregu-
larities spring from circumstances of a negative, not a
positive character. Its directors are, it is plain, involved
in a diflficulty arising from the anomalous mode of the
Society^s first establishment — a difficulty from which the
Church alone can extricate them, by supplying her sanc-
tion and guidance — and this, which they have no right to
claim, I cull upon her to do, not for their sake, but for
her own. Why should we stand aloof, and allow our name
to be used by a Society, without availing ourselves of that
right of control over its movements which the assumption
of that name gives us ? Why should we not put an end
at once to so distracting a state of things by the only way
left us for remedying it, now that the time is gone by when
we might hope to stop the progress of the Society by dis-
countenancing it ? And why should we not avail our-
selves of its influence and its resources for those great
missionary objects which it is our duty ever to keep in
view ; and in so doing, far from weakening our Church's
exertions (according to the common objection) by divert-
ing contributions from the Propagation Society, actually
add ready-made, and at a small cost, and for an object
which needs provision, a most efficient organ of Christian
benevolence to the number of those through which the
Church at present fulfils her peculiar duties ? Wh)',
because she has lid herself of the corruptions of the



THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 15

Papal times, and the rashness of the age of Laud, should
she not still retain some portion of the vigour and
fearlessness which she possessed in hoth those periods of
her history ?

Things cannot remain as they are. This Society must
approach to the Church, or recede from her. If with an
unwise timidity we let things take their course, it will
insensibly be familiarized to the principles and practices of
schism, and be lost to us with its resources, actual success,
prospects for the future, its piety and activity; in the
process of its separation, perplexing and enfeebling that
Church, which has already enemies enough without our
providing others for her. As yet, however, our seats are
kept for us in its ranks, and we may claim them. The
clergy still may direct its movements and regulate its
associations, and substitute the decencies of parochial order
for the excitement of fortuitous and unauthorized speakers
at a public meeting. In a word, they may annex it to the
Christian Knowledge and Propagation Societies, as a
sister-institution in the work of evangelical charity.

Even if the accomplishment of so great an object in-
volved the temporary distraction of the Society, and the
ultimate defection of a portion of its members, still it
would be supremely desirable. But in fact, an important
advantage is rarely attainable by so certain and unostenta-
tious a proceeding as is here open to us. It is only neces-
sary for the clergy of each diocese and archdeaconry to take
upon themselves the management of the Associations in their
own neighbourhoods. This would be a gradual mode of
connecting the Society with the Church, should it be thought
unwise for her higher authorities to take the lead, by giving
their support to the Parent Institution. To existing ir-
regularities in preaching and public meetings, a stop would
be put at once ; and the influence of the Associations would
soon be felt reacting on the Committee in London. When



16 SUOGKSTIONS IN liKUALF Ol'

a bcji^inninp is onco fairly inado, I have good hopo the

ultitiia((> (•()iiij)le<i()ii of the; dcsiirn Is socured ; and honoured
will hv his iKiino — whoever (hat di^niduy or man of station
be — who is the first to give liis countonanco to it, rccom-
moTidin*^ it hy the wei<«;lit of hi.s in(lu(Miee to a nuinbiU' of
sound and ri^ht-niinded cKir^'v, a!id (hen Kceuring for it
tlio direct putronuge of our spiritual rul(M-s.

I liav(> addressed you, llev. Sir, as having your sliare of
inlluenee in our Oxford eirch? ; — and 1 address you at this
time us believing that a crisis is at hand iu tho ecclesiasti-
cal his(ory of (ho Socie(y. It will b(^ s()ine(,hing (o have
Hucceeded nKU'ely in awakening your attention to an im-



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