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from the Anio Vetus, the Marcia, and the Tepula; afterwards,
the Claudia and the Anio Novus united, were distributed here as
in other parts. But these different streams of water were always
kept separate, being intended for different purposes. The Marcia
was always the best for drinking. The water of the Claudia and
Anio Novus united was more abundant than any of the others, and
was used to supply their place when they £uled, which was some-
times the case in time of drought This water was not of equally
good quality, and was generally used for washing and for irrigation,
excepting when the better water failed. The Tepula was always
brought with the Marcia, though in a different pipe or specus. The
Anio Vetus was always underground, but not very deep ; it is most
probable that one branch of this came straight on from the Porta
Maggiore, where it entered Rome, to the great reservoir on the
highest ground, where the Trophies of Marius were afterwards hung,
and from thence was distributed, one branch going to the other
great reservoir, called the Sette Sale, in this Regio.

The small branch of an aqueduct under the south end of the
Porticus Livise, and opposite to the Colosseum, probably came
from the Marcia or Tepula from its level, which is considerably
below that of the Anio Novus, on the Coelian, and the Palatine,
and above that of the Anio Vetus in the Forum Romanum. The
leveb of the aqueducts were alwajrs carefully attended to, so that
the continuous running streams might always flow along gently.
This branch seems to have come from the Thermae of Titus, on the
Esquiline, as on that side the platform of the Summa Sacra Via
touches the Velia, or the bank on which the road is carried in a line
from these great thermae. Towards the Colosseum and towards
the Palatine, the space is too large for the aqueduct to pass, unless
over a bridge or in a syphon, neither of which would have been
convenient here.

clivmn, nt in collem Esquilianim eve- dit Foedom inhumanumque inde tra-

heretar, restitit pavidus atque inhibuit ditur scelas, monumentoque locus est

IreiUM is, qui jnmenta agehat, jacentem- (Scderatnm vicum vocant)," &c (Livii

que domiiue Servium truddatum ostcn- Hist., i. 4S.)

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1 14 Via Sacra.

Churches in this Regio.

Church of SS. Quiricus [or Cyriacus, Martyr] and Giuutta
OR JuLiTTA*.— The first mention that we find of this church is in
the time of Pope Hadrian I., a.d. 772 — 795, who restored it. Bene-
dict III., A.D. 85s, gave a vestment for the altar in this church. In
the Mirabilia of the thirteenth, century it is mentioned: "Ubi est
Sanctus Quiricus (fuit), Templum Jovis." But nothing is known of
this temple of Jupiter, and there is supposed to be some confusion
on the part of this writer, who makes many errors. We do not find
any further notice of it until the fifteenth century, but the campa-
nile is partly of the twelfth. It was restored by Sixtus IV. in 1475,
as recorded by an inscription on the lintel of the door', and again
in 1580, by Cardinal Alexander de Medici.

Paul v., A.D. 1606, restored the pavement after an inundation
of the Tiber, and also restored the vault ». Urban VIII., in 1680,
ornamented it with some pilasters. It was at first a collegiate
church, but was given to the Dominicans by Clement XI., a.d. 1680.
Benedict XIII, modernized it and embellished it a.d. 1728. There
is a good painting over the altar of SS. Quiricus et Giulitta by an
unknown hand ; and there are other modem paintings. The interior
was again restored in 1856.

This church is so closely surrounded by houses, and the walls are
so carefully plastered over, that it is impossible to see whether there
are any parts of the early walls remaining or not ; the only part
visible that has any character, is a piece of cornice on the south
side, which is of the twelfth century. There is an ancient crypt
under the church, but inaccessible, so that the date of it could not
be ascertaineil. There is also the lower part of a tower of the
twelfth century, but the upper part is modernized.

The church and nunnery of SS. Dominicus et Sixtus, on the
cliff of the Quirinal, was established here in 1570 by Pius V., who
transferred to this situation the establishment of the same name on

• RiONE I., Monti.




II ic reficit pontes, mornia, trmpla, VI as.


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Church of 5. Frattcesco di Paola. 115

the Via Appia, this being considered a more convenient and more
healthy situation. The buildings of the old establishment were then
deserted, and are now kno^vn by the name of S, Sisto Vccchio, The
present one has nothing to interest the archaeologist except the site,
which is evidently that of an ancient fortress of considerable extent.
There are remains of the upper row of shops of the Forum of Trajan
under part of this building, which is now (in 1875) a barrack.

The neighbouring church of S. Maria de Monti, was founded by
Gregory XIII. in 1580, and therefore has no archaeological features.
Its frescoes are esteemed.

The church and convent of S. Francesco di Paola was established
on this site in 1623, in the palace or castle of the Cesarini, which
had been bought for that purpose by G. Pizzullo, a priest. It con-
tains nothing archaeological, but has some modern fresco paint-
ings, said to be of merit. A medieval tower of the castle serves for
a campanile.


During the spring of the year 1876, the Italian Government exca-
vated the basement of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, with
the remains of the steps as described by Palladio ; but the marble
had been all carried off as part of the building-material for the great
church of S. Peter in the Vatican, as we are informed by Ligorio, who
was living at the time, in a work still in manuscript, and now pre-
served in the Bodleian Library in Oxford*. The whole of the building-
material for that enormous structure is said to have been taken from
the temples, and thermae, and palaces of the Empire, considerable
ruins of which had remained until that time. Palladio has preserved
drawings of some of them ; he had more respect for antiquities than
his contemporaries, and wrote a short guide to the antiquities of
Rome, which is printed at the end of a " Guide to the Churches and
the Relics of the Martyrs,** published under the sanction of Pope
Sixtus V.^ and which contains also an account of his aqueduct.

Part of the pavement of the Via Sacra has been also brought to
light; this shews that it went along on the eastern side of the Forum
Romanum, under the modem road, and that the Arch of Septimius
Severus was built over it ; the paved road down the middle of the
Forum must therefore be the Via Nova, coming from the Porta

• n. n. MSS. Canon. Ilal. 138.
^ Lc Cobc Maravi^Iiobc dcU* Alma Ciita di Koina, &c.

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Ii6 Appendix.

Romana on the talatine, the upper part of which Via was in steps,
and was destroyed by Signor Rosa about 1870. Some fragments of
the pavement of it were also visible in 1875, behind the Temple
of Vesta, and in front of S. Maria Liberatrice, but at the low level
of the old Forum. The side walls of the cella of the temple,
now the church of S. Maria in Miranda, are built of large blocks
of tufa and peperino, of the character usually of the time of the
Kings, and were probably taken from the second wall of Rome,
which enclosed the two hills in one city, and must have passed
close to the back of this temple. This old tufa, from long exposure
to the weather, has very much the appearance of travertine, so much
so that it was long considered to be travertine ; it was only when
a piece was broken off that it could be ascertained to be tufa, as
this is a soft sandstone of volcanic origin, and travertine is a hard
limestone ; the difference can be clearly seen when a piece is broken,
but on the surface it is sometimes difficult to distinguish one from
the other. It is well known that tufa was always used in the time
of the Kings, and travertine not till near the time of the Empire.

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T?rk"DTTX>r "orwA AKm\€ \tt a CAn-DA

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Alphabetical Index,

Church of SS. Dominicus and Sixtus,

S. Franccsca Romana, 99 ;

formerly called S. Maria Nuova, to. ;
not the same as SS. Peter and Paul,
nor S. Maria Antioua, 100 ; rebuilt
A. D. 860, ib, ; Tombs and Sculpture
contained in, ib. ; Campanile of the
thirteenth cedtury, ib, ; Cloister built
in 1370, loi.

S. Francesco dl Paola, iij.

S. George and S. Sebastian,

or S. Giorgio in Velabro, 55 ; classi-
cal portico of thirteenth century, 56 ;
Campanile, ib.

S. Hadrian, or Adrian, 55.

S. Maria di Monte, 115.

S. Maria Antiqua, on Summa

Sacra Via, 91.

S. Martina and S. Luca, 54.

SS. Peter and Paul, on Via

Sacra, made in Basilica of Constan-
tine, 80 ; legend of Simon Magus, ib,

SS. Quiricus and Giulitta, 1 13.

SS. Scrgius and Bacchus,

built A,D. 790, destroyed 1540^ 14.
S. Theodorus, 58.

Churches in Forum Romanum, &c.,

Clivus Saccr, line of, 66.

Cloaca Maxima drained the Curtian
Gulf, 4; three streams which now
run into it had supplied the lake, 24.

Cohors vi. Vigilum, 46.

Colosseum, fSdium in front of, 96.

Colossus Altus pedes [m.]xiii. is that
of Nero, 93.

Column of the Emperor Phocas, 14.

Comitium, the open space for the
assembly of the people, 14.

Concord, Temple of, founded B.C 303,
rebuilt B.C. 26 and a.d. ii, 5 ; there-
fore often called the Senate House,
6; was the vestibule to the Senate
House, ib. ; Emneror Pertinax sits
in, to wait for the key of the Curia, 8.

Constantine, B.isilica of, 84.

Cosmas and Damian, Church of, on
site of three temples 9S<

Cosmati-work in Ara CoJi, 62.

Curia in Capitolium, 5.

Curtian Gulf, or lake, site of Forum,
4,24; drained by Cloaca Maxima, 4.

Dei Consentes, Temple of, 5.
Dioscuri, fountain of, 22.

Elefans Herbarius, 47.
Equus Constantini, 19.
Excavations throw a new light on the

history of the City of Rome, 3 ; abso-

lutely necessary, ib.
in 1874, between platform on

Summa Sacra Via and di/T of Pala-
tine, 91 ; three objects found by
these,— I. Guard chambers; 2. La-
vacrum of Heliogabalus ; 3. Church
of S. Maria Antiqua, ib.

Fasti Consulares, fragment of, 25.
Forum of Augustus and Temple of

Mars Ultor, 39.

Boarium, or cattle-market, 42.

of Cupid, on the Upper Via

Sacra, 36.

oMulius Ciesar, 37.

of ri^ervje, or Transitorium, 40;

figure of Pallas or Minerva there,

ib., 109.

— Olitorium, remains of, 36.
Piscatorium, or fish-market, 36.

— Pistorium, or of the Bakers, 36.
Romanum Magnum, 44, XIX. ;

belongs to earliest period of history
of Rome, 3 ; length and breadth, 4 ;
the name has a double meaning,
general and special, ib. ; steps at
south end, 25 ; previous history based
upon conjecture, 27 ; extent of, ex-
aggerated by these conjectures, ib,

' Sallustii, near House of Sal-
lust, 36.

■ Suarium, or pig-market, ib,

Trajan, 42.

Vespasian, or Fonun Pacis, 41.

Fountain of J^^uma, 25.

of the Dioscuri, 22.

Fragment of Fasti Consulares, 25.

Gate of Saturn a double gate, 6;
foundations remain, ib.

Genius Populi Romani aureus, 46.

Gneco-Stadium, or Graecostasis, 7 ; on
a platform, on the side of Temple
of Concord, 8 ; space exactly suited
for the purpose, 9 ; site covered by
path of Michael Angelo, ib.

Guard-chambers on Palatine, 91.

Hadrian, House of, near Thermne of
Caracalla, 26.

and Apollodorus, 87.

Heliogabalus, La\*acrum of^ 91 ; rebuilt

the Temple of the Sun, 97.
Hooorius III., Tomb of, A.D. 1286, 61.
Horrea, Germanica et Agrippinse, 49.

CharUria, 108.

House of Ancus Martins and /Edes,

67 ; called Sacellum Strenise, ib.

Hadrian, near Thermae of

Caracalla, 26.
Trajan, on the Aventine, 26.

Janus had originally two faces, after-
wards four, 28 ; one kind made of
bronze, ib. ; one in each of the four-

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Alphabetical Index.


teen R^onaries, 29; these were
small structures of bronze, ib, ; one
at the junction of the four principal
Forums, 3a

iulia, Basilica of, 20.
upiter Capitolinus, Temple of, 31.
upiter Stator, Temple of (?), loi.
utuma, fountain of, 25.

Lake of Curtius, 24.

Lavacrum of Heliogabalus, 91.

Line of the Via Sacra, Clivus Sacer,

Summa Sacra Via, 66.
Livia, Porticus of, 86.

Marble Plan of Rome, 71 ; fragments
all found on same spot, near east
wall of church, fi^. ; excavations made
by Tocco, ib, ; work of Professor
Jordan on, 72.

Marcus Aurelius, statue of, 33.

Marforio, or Mars, statue of, 33.

Markets, three held on Sununa Sacra
Via, 67.

Mars Ultor, two temples, the round
one in the Forum, 18.

Meta Sudans, 108.

Milliarium Aureum, 13, XI.

and Umbilicum Urbis, 13 ;

streets of Rome measured firom it,
but not the roads, 14.

Monumentum Ancyranum, 53.

Municipium in Capitolium, 5.

Nero, Golden House of, 94.

— Colossus of, 93 ; first placed in
the vestibule of G<^en House of
Nero, 94; moved by Hadrian to
make room for the Templum Urbis
Rooue, H, ; elephants dragged it up
the Clivus Sacer, 95 ; the site where
it stood is part of the church of SS.
Cosmas and Damian, ib, ; destroyed
by Pope Silvester, as an idol of the
Sun, 96.

Old fortifications are often the boun-
daries, 90.

Facts, Temple of^ 82 ; antiquaries not

agreed upon the site, 83.
Palace of Caligula, 23.
Palaces of the Cssars, public offices

after first century, 27.
Palatine, guard -chambers, 91.
Panvinius on the site of the Templum

Urbis, 7a
Peace, Temple of, %2.
Phocas, Emperor, column of, 14.
Photography of great use, 3.
Piazza del Campidoglio, pavement

much raised, 33.
Plan of Rome on marble plates, 71.

Podium in front of Colosseum not large
enough for the great Colossus, 96;
used for a smaller one of Gordianus,
ib, ; basement of the time of Gor-
dianus, ib, ; smaller Colossus repre-
sented on a coin of Gordianus, ib.

Porta Satumi, foundation of old wall,
5 ; ground within on a higher level,
rb. ; wall destroyed at an early pe-
riod, ib, ; remains of all three periods,
ib. ; back wall touches the i£ra-
rium, ib,

Porticus Absidata, 104.

Li via:, 86—91 » this name

upon the Marble Plan, 86 ; platform
on Summa Sacra Via the only place
that fits this,fi^. ; mentioned by Strabo,
87 ; base shewn on the Plan was for
the great Colossus, ib, ; the platform
is that on which Apollodorus said
that Hadrian omj^A/ to have placed
the Templum Urbis, ib,

Regiones, divisions of uncertain, 90.
Regio VI H., continet pedes


Restorations, probable, 26.

Roma and Venus, Temples of, 69, 72.

Rostra, three in Forum, 1 1 ; one by
the arch of Septimius Severus, ih, ;
another near the Temple of Anto-
ninus, 12 ; third not yet excavated,

Rostral columns, 13 ; that of Duillius,
A.D. 14, represented on a medal, ib.

Rostrum represented on Arch of Con*
stantine, 12.

Sacellum Strenise, 67.

Sacra Via Summa, or Caput, 66 ; three
markets held in, 67.

Saturn, Temple of, 5.

•^■^— gate of, a double one, 6.

^-^— area of, included site of Temple
of Concord, 6.

Savelli, Tombs of the, 61.

Schola Xanthi, on the lower level, 10 ;
discovered in the sixteenth century,
ib, ; colonnade restored by Canina,

Screen walls of marble in the Comi-
tium, with sculpture of the time of
Hadrian, 15 ; on the inner side of
each wall are the $ncv€temrUia^ 16;
on the outer side groups of figures,
ib, ; on both the f^re of Marsvas,
ib, ; the same object represented on
coins of Hadrian, 17 ; Pliny men-
tions the fig-tree as near this site, ib.

Sculpture from Tomb of the Aterii, 93.

Senacolum, or Curia, in Capitolium, 5.

Senate House behind the Temple of
Concord, 6 ; can be traced, ib, ;

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A ^kabetical Indix.

upper part destroyed by Midiael
AngelOy 7 ; could onlv have been on
this site, ib, ; above tbe level of the
Graecostasis, ib, ; was 60 ft lon|[ and
30 wide, ib, \ mentioned by Cicero,

Senatum, 6.

Siburra, or Suburra, 1 10.

Simon Magus, legend of, 80.

Statue of Marcus Aurelius, 33.

Statue of Marforio, or Mars, 33.

Steps from the south end of the Forum,

Sunmia Sacra Via, three markets on,

Tabularium in Capitolinm, 5.

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 65 ;
built A.D. 165, consecrated as the
church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda,
1430, ib. ; the monolithic columns
stand on steps, 66; represented on
a coin of Antoninus, ib,

Castor and Pollux, Castor and

Minerva, 23, XVIII.

Concord, founded B.a 303,

rebuilt B.C. 216, and a.d. ii, 5, V. ;
a vestibule to Senate-house, and
therefore called the Senate-house, or
Curia, 6 ; passage under ^t podium^
ib. ; space not laige enough for the
Senate, ib, ; Emperor Pertinax sits
in, to wait for the icey of the Curia, 8.
-Concord, Saturn, Dei Con-

sentes, 5.

-Jupiter Capitolinus, 31 ; this


stood on the top of the Tarpeian

rock, ib. ; a description of this tem-
le, 32 ; remains of it, ib. ; consi-
iered by some to have been on the

site of the church of Ara Coeli, ib.

Jupiter Stator(?), site of(?).

- Mars Ultor, 18.

• Pads and Basilica of Con-

stantine, 82 — 86 ; originally built by
Vespasian, 83.

Pacis, 103.

- Rome, or Templum Urbis,

69 ; on the site of SS. Cosmas and
Damian, ib. ; south doorway exca-
vated in 1868, ib. ; built by Hadrian,
70 ; speech of Apollodorus, ib. ;
Panvimus places it on this site, ib. ;

churdi made out of three temples,

Templeof Roma and Venus, represented
on a coin of Hadrian, 72; called
"Twins" by Prudentius, 73; circu-
lar temple that of Romulus, ib. ; parts
of the columns of portico remain, 74 ;
dedicated to Constantine by the Se-
i^tt, 75 ; was made into the church
of SS. Cosmas and Damian by Felix
IV., 76; forms a vestibule to the
others, 77 ; other two under one
roof, ib. ; the apse and mosaic an
insertion, 78; cnurch restored and
endowed by Hadrian I., 79; men-
tioned by Innocent II. as /turta tern*
phtm Rotmdit 8a

Saturn, 6, III. ; touches the

iErarium, 9 ; within the wall of the
fortress, ib, ; was called the i^ra-
rium, 10; steep steps behind the
podium^ ib. ; these are mentioned by
Cicero, ib.

' the Sun, rebuilt by Hclio-

gabalus, 97; description of it in
Mirabilia Urbis, ib.

Telluris, 106.

- Vespasian, on the outer skle

of the street, 1 1 ; no place for a
Treasury under it, ib.

Vespasian and Titus, 11, X.

. Vesta, 25.

Titus, Arch of, 102.

Tomb of the Aterii, sculpture from, 93.

Trajan, House of, on the Aventine, 26.

Umbilicnm Ronue, 13, XL
Urbis, 13.

Vedius Pollio, a libertine and drunkard,
89; bequeaths his property to Augus-
tus, ib. ; his house destroyed by
Augustus, ib.

Vespasian, Temple of, on outer side
of the street, 11.

Vesta, Temple of, 25, 49, XXVII.

Via Sacra, line of, 66.

Vicum Jugarium et unguentarium, 47.

Walls of marble as screens in the Co-
mitium, 15 ; with sculpture on them,

Xanthus, Schola of, 5.

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: xj .*^iL ^•nt^^iiit*. ^ -1


\ Via Sacra.

Description op Plate XXXI.

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Via Sacra.

Description of Plate XXXII.


And Church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda.

Section and Plan.

The excavations made in front of this temple in 1876, shew that
it stands upon the tufa rock, and not merely on a podium^ or base-
ment built for it, as in other instances. The flight of twenty-one
steps up to it, described by Palladio in the sixteenth centur}% can still
be traced, although the marble was carried away as part of the
building-material for S. Peter's in the Vatican ; the foundation of
the seven lower steps still remains, and the measurements, r, shew
that, if completed, they would exactly rise to the level of the bases
of the great monolithic columns marked a a. The pavement of the
Via Sacra remains at the foot of the steps, and indicates that this
street was continued along the eastern side of the Forum, and
passed under the arch of Septimius Severus, and that the paved
street down the centre of the Forum must be the Via Nova, which
was a new street in the time of Augustus. The celia of the temple,
^ ^, is built of large blocks of tufa and peperino, probably taken
from the second wall of Rome, which enclosed the two hills in one
city, and must have passed very near to the east end of this temple.
The church made in it is marked / in the diagram ; the roads or
streets on the east and north side are marked ^^; the floor of the
church is made at the level of the streets, whidi is nearly ten feet
above the original level of the temple ; the roof of the church is
also carried twenty feet above the level of the cornice of the temple.
A buripVplace has been made under it in the space marked b b.
The columns are monolithic blocks of cipellino marble, 46 ft high.

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Front View.

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F^n"v.^iV \

Via Sacra.

Description of Plate XXXIII.


Front View.

This is the largest basilica that remains in Rome, and only about
one-third part of it is still standing ; it extended to the pavement in
front, and had wings on each side, as well as an attic storey over
the present vaulted ceiling; it was very richly decorated, but has
been thoroughly stripped, the niches for statues remain in the apse,
which is an addition to the original building; the ceilings have
the caissons, in which bronze or stucco ornament has been in-
serted. The niches and the vaulted ceilings of the two apses,
back to back, on the Sumbca Sacra Via, are exactly similar to
these *. This large building was begun in the time of Maxentius,
and finished in that of Constantine\ Of the attic storey very
little is left; it was almost destroyed in the great earthquake in
the fourteenth century. The pavement seen in front of the building
is that of the Clivus Sacer, where, according to the Church legends,
Simon Magus fell dead at the feet of S. Peter. The steps seen in
the right of the picture go up to the modem entrance of the Church
of S. Francesca Romana. Ttees growing on the Velia are seen
through the openings in the place of windows, which have been
destroyed, if there ever were any. The plan is not at all the usual
one of a basilica ; here we have three parallel aisles, all of the same
height and width ; usually we have a lofty and very wide nave, with
low and narrow aisles, as in the Basilica Jovis. On the left hand, or
north-west side, a small church was made in the Middle Ages. The
comer of the attic storey, in which was a newel staircase {c»Mea)f
fell down in an earthquake on to the pavement in front of the
Marble Plan of Rome (just beyond the limits of this picture), and
by the crash of the fall of that great mass caused the maible plates
also to fiedl on to the pavement below, and to be broken to pieces.

• See PUte XXVII. an idol that was worshipped bj the

^ The two smaller basilicas were people. This b aentioped in the Mi"

built in the time of Constantine, after nMim UHit; see Codex UrlidM, pp.

the great Colossus had been melted iio^ 1361

down by order of Pope Sflvcster, as

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Back View, and Interior of Apseu

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rT l^fj^^ ■

^fvy "^ "' i **** »"


Via Sacra.

Description of Plate XXXIV.


I. View of the Back.

I. This side of the building was originally in the Forum Pacis,
and the arch which is here seen open, was the communication fix>m
the market-place to the Basilica, both being the largest in Rome.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17

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