John Henry Wigmore.

The principles of judicial proof as given by logic, psychology, and general experience, and illustrated in judicial trials; online

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UWART

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE













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THE PRINCIPLES OF JUDICIAL PROOF



THE

PRINCIPLES OF JUDICIAL PROOF

AS GIVEN BY

LOGIC, PSYCHOLOGY, AND GENERAL EXPERIENCE

And Illustrated In

JUDICIAL TRIALS



COMPILED BY

JOHN HENRY WIGMORE

/.Y

PROFESSOR OF THE LAW OF EVIDENCE IN NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

AUTHOR OF "a SYSTEM OF EVIDENCE IN TRIALS AT COMMON

LAW," "A POCKET CODE OF EVIDENCE," ETC.



BOSTON
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY

1913






Copyright, 1913,
By John H. Wkjmore.

All rights reserved



Set up and eUctrotypcd by J. S. Gushing Co., Norwood, Mass. , U.S.A.



HANS GROSS

PROFESSOR OF CRIMINAL LAW IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GRAZ

WHO HAS DONE MORE

THAN" ANY OTHER MAN IN MODERN TIMES

TO ENCOURAGE THE APPLICATION OP SCIENCE TO JUDICIAIi PROOF

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED

IN TOKEN OF

PERSONAL GRATITUDE

AND

PROFESSIONAL ADMIRATION"



CONTENTS

THE PRINCIPLES OF JUDICIAL PROOF AS GIVEN
BY LOGIC, PSYCHOLOGY, AND GENERAL EXPE-
RIENCE, AND ILLUSTRATED BY JUDICIAL TRIALS

Page

Introduction 1

INTRODUCTORY: GENERAL THEORY OF PROOF

1. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 5

2. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 15

PART I: CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

3. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 30

TITLE I: JBVIDENCE TO PROVE AX EVEXT, CONDITION, QITAL-
ITY, CAUSE, OR EFFECT OF EXTERNAL INANIMATE NATURE

4. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 31

5. Robert Salmon's Case 44

6. Bradford v. Insurance Co 45

7. Eidt V. Cutter 45

8. East St. Louis v. Wiggins Ferry Co 47

9. Knowles v. State 47

10. Golden Reward Mining Co. v. Buxton Mining Co 48

11. Chicago C. & St. Louis R. Co. v. Dixon 52

12. Food Adulteration Tests 55

13. Poison Tests 56

TITLE II: EVIDENCE TO PROVE IDENTITY

14. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 63

15. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence" 65

16. The Cranberry Cask Case 72

17. Downie and Milnes' Case 72

18. The Chicago Anarchists' Case 72

19. Webber's Case 73

20. The Tichborne Case 73

21. Joseph Lesurques' Case 77

22. Thomas Hoag's Case 77

23. Karl Franz' Case ' 78

24. The Webster- Parkman Case 78

25. Finger-print Identification 79

26. People v. Jennings 83

TITLE III: EVIDENCE TO PROVE A HUMAN TRAIT, QUALITY,
OR CONDITION

27. John H. Wigmore, "Principles of Judicial Proof " 89

SUBTITLE A: EVIDENCE TO PROVE MORAL CHARACTER

28. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 91

vii



^^ii CONTENTS

SUBTITLE B : EVIDENCE TO PROVE MOTIVE

Page

29. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 94

SUBTITLE C: EVIDENCE TO PROVE KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF.
OR CONSCIOUSNESS

30. John II. Wigmore, '* Principles of Judicial Proof " 96

31. Kugene Aram's Case 98

32. The Perrcaus' Case 99

33. Lord Chancellor Macclesfield's Case 99

34. Mary Blandy's Case 101

35. David Downie's Case 104

36. Lord Cochrane's Case 106

37. Forbes r. Morse 108

38. William Barnard's Case 110



SUBTITLE D: EVIDENCE TO PROVE PLAN (DESIGN,

INTENTION)

39. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 120

40. Alexander ^L Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 121

41. The Case of the Dryad 122

42. The Chicago Anarchists' Case 123

43. Madame Lefarge's Case 125

SUBTITLE E: EVIDENCE TO PROVE INTENT

46. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 131

47. Hodges' and Probin's Case 135

48. Captain Kidd's Case 136

49. Bradford v. Boylston F. and M. Insurance Co 139

50. List Publishing Co. v. Keller 141

TITLK IV: EVIDEXCE TO PROVE THE DOING OF A HUM: AN ACT

53. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 143

54. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 143

SUBTITLE A : CONCOMITANT CIRCUMSTANCES

55. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 147

Topic 1. Time and Place

56. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence" 148

57. Jonalhan Bradford's Case 1,'32

58. William Shaw's Case l.'')3

59. Downing's Case 1.5.')

60. Looker's Case l.f)()

61. Hegina y. Cleary !.'")()

62. Alexander M. Burrill. "Circumstantial Evidence " l.')9

63. Abraham Thornton's Ca.se KiO

64. Frank Bobinson's Case 162

65. The Popish Plot 1G3

6(). Karl Franz' Case 103

67. John Hawkins' Case 1(33



CONTENTS IX

Page

68. Robert Hawkins' Case 163

69. Durrant's Case 163

70. Hillmon v. Insurance Co 164

71. Tourtelotte v. Brown 164

72. Anon 164

Topic 2. Physical and Mental Capacity, Tools, Clothingr, Etc.

73. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence" 164

74. The Sheffield Case 166

75. The Obstinate Juryman's Case 166

76. The Yarmouth Murder 167

77. The Case of the Pair of Gloves 168

78. William Jones' Case 170

79. Karl Franz' Case 173

80. Chicago & Alton R. Co. v. Crowder 173

81. Toledo, St. Louis & K. C. R. Co. i). Clark . 176

SUBTITLE B : PROSPECTANT CIRCUMSTANCES

83. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial P*roof " 178

Topic 1. Moral Character

84. James Sully, " The Human Mind " 178

85. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 181

86. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 182

87. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 184

88. United States v. Roudenbush 185

89. A. C. Plowden, " The Autobiography of a Police Magistrate " . . 186

90. A. G. W. Carter, " The Old Court House " 187

91. H. L. Adam, " The Story of Crime " 188.

92. Walter Sheridan's Case 189

93. The Postman's Case 192"

94. The Self-sacrificing Brother's Case 194

95. Eugene Aram's Case 195

96. Leopold Redpath's Case 199

97. Case of " B " 202

98. Case of " H " 205



Topic 2. Emotion (Motive)

101. James Sully, " The Human Mind " 210

102. G. P. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 213

103. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 215

104. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence" 218

105. H. L. Adam, " The Story of Crime " 220

106. Arthur C. Train, "Why do Men Km?" 221

107. George Wachs' Case 225

108. George Manners' Case 227

109. Thomas Patteson's Case 229

110. The Gloucester Child-Murder , . . 231

111. The Kent Case 232

112. Stevenson v. Stewart 238

113. Commonwealth v. Jeffries 240

114. Bradbury v. Dwight 242

115. Marey v. Barnes 244



X CONTENTS

Topic 3. Plan i Design, Intention)

Page

121. John H. Wigmore, " Principh's of Judicial Proof " 245

122. James Sully, " The Huiiiau Mind " 245

123. Richard (iould's C'ase 247

124. Jonathan Bradford's Case 250

125. The Great Oyer of Poisoning 250

12(5. Regina v. Cleary 251

127. William Habron's Case 251

128. Madeleine Smith's Case 254

1-21). O'Bannon v. Vigus 256



Topic 4. Habit (Usage, Custom)

13ft. James Sully, " The Human Mind " 256

131. Hans Ciross, " Criminal Psychology " 258

132. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 259

133. TwichcH's Case 259

134. Hethcrington r. Kemp 260

135. American E.xpress Co. r. Haggard 261

136. Denver & Rio Grande R. Co. v. Glasscott 262



SUBTITLE C : RETROSPECTANT CIRCUMSTANCES

138. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 265

Topic 1. Mechanical (Physical) Traces

139. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 265

140. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 269

141. The Baker's Case 271

142. The Case of the Sailmaker's Apprentice 272

143. John Jennings' Case 273

144. Courvoisier's Case 275

145. Starne Coal Co. v. Ryan 277

146. Moudy v. Snider 279

Topic 2. Mental Traces

147. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 279

148. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 283

149. The Escaped Convict's Case 286

150. MuUins' Case 287

151. The Uncle's Case 289

l.')2. George Rauschmaier's Case 289

l.')3. Robert Hawkins' Case 291

l.'>4. Donellan's Case 292

155. Robert Wood's Case 293

TITLE V: THE DATUM SOLVENDUM

156. Joim H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " ........ 295

1.57. Alexander M. Burrill, " Circumstantial Evidence " 297

1.5H. Hans (iross, " Criminal Inve.stigatioii " 300

1.59. Christopher Rupprecht's Case 302

100. John I'aul Korster's Case 304

161. Newton's Ca«e 306

162. Abraham Thornton's Case 309



CONTENTS :d

PART II: TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE

INTR on VCTION

Page

163. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 312

TITLE I: GENERIC HITMAX TRAITS AFFECTING THE TRUST-
WORTHINESS OF TESTIMONY

SUBTITLE A: RACE

164. Edward Westermarck, " Origin and Growth of Moral Ideas " . , . 314

165. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 317

\166. F. W. Colegrove, " Memory " 318

167. M. D. Chalmers, " Petty Perjury " 319

168. Minnie Moore- Willson, " The Seminoles of Florida " 320

169. Shelp V. United States 321

170. United States v. Lee Huen 322

171. The General Rucker 327

SUBTITLE B: AGE

172. Robert Louis Stevenson, " Virginibus Puerisque " 330

173. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 333

*174. G. Stanley Hall, " Children's Lies " 337

175. Amos C. Miller, " Examination of Witnesses " 340

176. Guy M. Whipple, " Manual of Mental and Physical Tests " . . . . 340

177. The Disbelieved Child's Case 340

178. Laurence Braddon's Trial 340

SUBTITLE C: SEX

179. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 340

180. Arthur C. Train, " The Prisoner at the Bar " 344

»> 181. Charles C. Moore, " A Treatise on Facts" 349

182. Guy M. Whipple, " Manual of Mental and Physical Tests " . . . 350

183. George Cant's Case 350

184. The Perreaus' Case 351

185. Thomas Hoag's Case 351

186. Mrs. Morris' Case 351

187. Chicago & Alton R. Co. v. Gibbons 351

188. Laurence Braddon's Trial 351

189. Hillmon v. Insurance Co , 351

190. Throckmorton v. Holt 351

SUBTITLE D: MENTAL DISEASE

191. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 351

• 192. Charles Mercier, " Sanity and Insanity " 354

193. Hans Gross, " Criminal Investigation " 357

194. Regina v. Hill 358

*195. Colonel King's Case . .- 360

SUBTITLE E : MORAL CHARACTER

196. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 365

197. Charles C. Moore, " A Treatise on Facts " 367

198. Wm. C. Robinson, " Forensic Oratory " 368

199. Richard Harris, " Hints on Advocacy " 369

200. Day v. Day 369

201. Thomas Hardy's Case 371

202. G. L. Duprat, " The Lie " 377



xii CONTEXTS

SUBTITLE F: FEELING, EMOTION, BIAS

Page

203. G. F. Arnold, " PsyelioloKV applied to Legal Evidence" 382

204. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology" 383

205. Francis L. Wellinan, " The Art of Cross-Examination " 386

200. Ric-hard Whately, " Elements of Rhetoric" 387

207. Robert Hawkins' Case 387

208. Mary Blandys Trial 390

209. Charles C. Moore, "A Treatise on Facts" 392

210. John C. Reed, " Conduct of Lawsuits " 394

211. Amos C. Miller, " E.xamination of Witnesses " 395

212. Richard Harris, "Hints on Advocacy " 396

213. A. G. W. Carter, " The Old Court House " 398

214. N. W. Sibley, " Criminal Appeal and Evidence" 398

215. Richard Harris, " Hints on Advocacy " 399

216. A. C. Plowden, "The Autobiography of a Police Magistrate". . . . 401



SUBTITLE G: EXPERIENCE

220. Josiah Royce, " Outlines of Psychology " 402

221. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology" and " Criminal Investigation" 403
"•222. Richard Whately, " Elements of Rhetoric " 411

223. Samuel S. Page, " Personal Injury Actions " 413

224. Richard Harris, "Hints on Advocacy " 413

225. Donellan's Case 419

226. Luetgert's Case 419

227. Hillmon v. Insurance Co 419

228. Thror-kmorton v. Holt 419

229. Frank S. Rice, " The Medical Expert as a Witness " 419

230. Albert S. Osborn, " Expert Testimony from the Standpoint of the

Witness" 421

231. Wm. L. Foster, " Expert Testimony " 423



TTTLK IT. Tin: J:li:.WE\TS of the TESTTMONIAT, PROCESS

ITS Err .ts A rrEcrisa the TuirsTwoKrurxEss of testi-

SUBTITLE A: PERCEPTION (OBSERVATION, KNOWLEDGE)

234. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 426

235. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 429

236. G. F. Arnold, " Psydioiogy applied to Legal Evidence" 455

237. Wm. C. Robinson, " P^)rensic Oratory " 459

238. Arthur C. Train, "The Prisoner at the Bar" 461



SUBTITLE B: MEMORY

239 Hans Gross, "Criminal Psychology " 402

240. G. F. Arnold, "Psychology applied to Legal Evidence" 467

241. F. W. C'olcjjrove, "Memcjry " 478

242. Wm. C. Robinson, " Forensic Oratory " 481

243. Arthur C. Train, "The Pri.soner at the Bar" 482



SUBTITLE C: NARRATION
244. John H. Wigmore, "Principles of Judicial Proof " 484



CONTENTS Xiii

Topic 1. Languag-e and Demeanor as a Means of Expression

Page

245. William James, " The Principles of Psychology " 485

246. Wm. D. Whitney, " Oriental and Linguistic Studies" 487

247. Wm. C. Robinson, " Forensic Oratory" 489

248. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 490

249. Arthur C. Train, " The Prisoner at the Bar" 491

• 250. G. L. Duprat, " The Lie " 493

251. A. C. Plowden, "Autobiography of a Police Magistrate" .... 496

252. Amos C. Miller, " Examination of Witnesses " 497

Topic 2. Narration as affected by Interrogation and Suggestion

253. Richard Harris, " Hints on Advocacy " 497

254. Bardell v. Pickwick 502

255. John C. Reed, "Conduct of Lawsuits" 503

256. Amos C. Miller, " The Examination of Witnesses " 505

257. Guy M. Whipple, " Manual of Mental and Physical Tests " ... 506
"258. James Ram, " Facts as Subjects of Inquiry by a Jury " 508

259. Charles C. Moore, " A Treatise on Facts " 510

260. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 511

261. Francis L. Wellman, " Day in Court " 511

262. Pat Hogan's Case 512

263. John H. Wigmore, "Principles of Judicial Proof " 512

264. Charles C. Moore, "A Treatise on Facts " 514

265. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 515

266. Brown v. Bramble 515

267. Charles C. Moore, "A Treatise on Facts" 516

268. John C. Reed, " Conduct of Lawsuits " 518

269. Francis L. Wellman, " Day in Court " 518

270. Arthur C. Train, "The Prisoner at the Bar" 519

271. The Hospital Case 520

272. Puyenbroeck's Case 521

273. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 524

Topic 3. Narration as affected by Typical Temperaments

275. Wm. C. Robinson, " Forensic Oratory " 526

276. Richard Harris, " Hints on Advocacy " 530

Topic 4. Confessions of Guilt

277. Hans Gross, " Criminal Psychology " 537

278. Daniel Webster, in Commonwealth v. Knapp 539

279. Honore de Balzac, " Lucien de Rubempre " 541

280. Allan Pinkerton, " Bank Robbers and Detectives " 547

281. International Association of Chiefs of Police, " Proceedings " . . . 550

282. Arthur C. Train, " Courts, Criminals, and the Camorra" .... 554

283. W. M. Best, " A Treatise on Evidence " 555

284. The Hermione Case 558

285. The Gloucester Child-m_urder 559

286. The Case of the Boorns 559

287. Mrs. Morris' Case ... - 564

288. Hugo Miinsterberg, " On the Witness Stand " 568

289. John H. Wigmore, " The Psychology of Testimony " 571

TITLE III. THE INTEItPRETATIOJyr OF SPECIFIC TESTIMONY
TO ESTABLISH THE EXTENT ANI> SOTTRCES OF ERROR

SUBTITLE A: EXTENT OP LATENT ERROR IN THE NORMAL
TESTIMONIAL PROCESS

290. Guy M. Whipple, " Manual of Mental and Physical Tests " .... 575

291. Kansas University Experiment 581



xiv CONTENTS

Pack

292. Arno Gunther's Experiment 583

293. Northwestern University Experiments 585

294. John H. Wigmore, "The Psychology of Testimony " 591

SUBTITLE B: EXTENT AND SOURCES OF ERROR AS INDI-
CATED BY SOME COMMON TESTIMONIAL INCIDENTS

Topic 1. Defective Basis of Perception

296. Elizabeth Canning's Trial 592

297. Heath's Trial 593

298. Brook's Case 593

299. Cal Armstrong's Case 594

300. The Beer-Wagon Case 594

301. The Bottomry Bond Case 595

302. The Poisoned Coffee Case 596

303. Lady Ivy's Trial 597

«304. Captain Baillie's Trial 598

305. James Byrne's Trial 602

306. Hans Gross, " Criminal Investigation " 602

Topic 2. Incomplete Recollection

308. Langhorn's Trial 602

309. Queen Caroline's Trial 603

310. The Doctor's Case 604

311. Lord George Gordon's Trial 604

312. William Winterbotham's Trial 610

Topic 3. Self-contradictory Statements

« 314. Col. Turner's Trial 617

315. Queen Caroline's Trial 617

316. M'Garahan v. Maguire 617

317. Parnell's Commission's Proceedings 618

318. Xetherolift's Case 621

319. Christopher Ruppreeht's Case 621

320. Francis Willis' Trial 623

321. Loucks I'. Paden 628

322. G. F. Arnold, " Psychology applied to Legal Evidence " 631

323. John H. Wigmore, " Principles of Judicial Proof " 632

Topic 4. Contradictory Testimony by Witnesses called on the
Same Side

324. The History of Susanna 634

325. Kerne's Trial 634

326. The Attesting Witnesses' Case 635

327. Frank Robinson's Case 635

32S. Laun-nce Braddon's Trial 637

329. I>jrd Chancanz' Case 840

389. Hillnion v. Insurance Co 856

390. Throckmorton t-. Holt 897

391. Laurence Braddon's Trial 990

392. Earl of Thanet's Trial 1018

393. Knapp's Trial 1080

APPENDIX

List of Trials Useful for Study 1169

List of Authors of Extracts Reprinted 1173

List of Cases Reprinted 1175

Index of Topics 1177



THE PRINCIPLES OF JUDICIAL PROOF

AS CONTAINED IN LOGIC, PSYCHOLOGY, AND GENERAL EXPERIENCE
AND ILLUSTRATED IN JUDICIAL TRIALS



INTRODUCTION

This book aspires to offer, though in tentative form only, a novum
organum for the study of Judicial Evidence.

The study of the principles of Evidence, for a lawyer, falls into two
distinct parts. One is Proof in the general sense, — the part concerned
with the ratiocinative process of contentious persuasion, — mind to
mind, counsel to juror, each partisan seeking to move the mind of the
tribunal. The other part is Admissibility, — the procedural rules
devised by the law, and based on litigious experience and tradition, to
guard the tribunal (particularly the jury) against erroneous persuasion.
Hitherto, the latter has loomed largest in our formal studies, — has, in
fact, monopolized them ; while the former, virtually ignored, has been
left to the chances of later acquisition, casual and empiric, in the course
of practice. Here we have been wrong ; and in two ways :

For one thing, there is, and there must be, a probative science —
the principles of proof — independent of the artificial rules of procedure ;
hence, it can be and should be studied. This science, to be sure, may
as yet be imperfectly formulated or even incapable of formulation.
But all the more need is there to begin in earnest to investigate and
develop it. Furthermore, this process of Proof is the more important
of the two, — indeed, is the ultniiate purpose in every judicial investi-
gation. The procedural rules for iVdmissibility are merely a preliminary
aid to the main activity, viz. the persuasion of the tribunal's mind to
a correct conclusion by safe materials. This main process is that for
which the jury are there, and on which the counsel's duty is focused.
Vital as it is, its principles surely demand study.

And, for another thing, the judicial rules of Admissibility are
destined to lessen in relative importance during the next generation or
later. Proof will assume the important place ; and we must therefore
prepare ourselves for this shifting of emphasis. We must seek to
acquire a scientific understanding of the principles of what may be
called " natural " proof, — the hitherto neglected process. If we do not
do this, history will repeat itself, and we shall find ourselves in the



2 IXTHODllTIOX

present plight of Continoutal Europe. There, in the early ISOOs the
ancient worn-out numerical system of " legal proof " was abolished by
fiat, and the so-called "free proof" — namely, no system at all — was
substituted. For centuries, lawyers and judges had evidenced and
proved by the artificial numerical system ; they had no training in any
other, — no understanding of the living process of belief ; in conse-
quence, when " legal proof " was abolished, they were unready, and
juilicial trials have been carried on for a century past by uncompre-
hended, unguided, and therefore unsafe mental processes. Only in
recent times, under the influence of modern science, are they beginning
to develop a science of proof.

Such will be our own fate, when the time comes, if yve do not lay
foundations to prepare for the new stage of procedure.

The present work seems to be the first attempt in English, since
Benthani, to call attention to the principles of judicial Proof (distin-
guished from Admissibility) as a whole and as a system.' It is therefore
tentative. The chief service it aims to fulfill is to emphasize the
subject as a science, and to stimulate its professional study.

The materials exist in abundance. But they need systematic collec-
tion and analysis. The illustrative materials here offered are culled
from a wide range ; though the search for them has merely touched the
surface. A longer search would have found apter materials in many
places, especially from the annals of civil trials. Most of the selections
are from criminal cases ; first, because they usually show the specific
inference in more striking shape and shorter compass, and next, because
they are the more profuse in the records. But it should not be for-
gotten that while blood and poison and pistol waddings are usually
conceived as types of Circumstantial Evidence, yet the short and simple
annals of civil cases are equally permeated with it, in less sensational form.

Now a few words about the use of the book.

1. It is intended mainly for law-school work. But it may profitably
be used (we hope) for the self-training of the niaturer practitioner.

2. Though most of the topics are introduced or followed (as befits
a novel subject) by a brief expository passage, to focus the reader on
the possibilities of the topic, yet the main part of the material may
and must be used inductively. Some of it merely illustrates; but most
of it calls for self-application of the process of analysis and inference.

' Mr. Burrill's masterly work, two generations ago, eovered only a part of the. field,



Online LibraryJohn Henry WigmoreThe principles of judicial proof as given by logic, psychology, and general experience, and illustrated in judicial trials; → online text (page 1 of 175)