John Howard Brown.

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Moore Fauntleroy of Naylor's Hole, who came to
Virginia in 1643, and of Col. William Danger-
field, and Merriwetlier Smith, both of Virginia.
He attended an academy in Nelson county, Va.,
matriculated at Dickinson college in the class of
1817, but left in 1845 to study law in Dover, Del.,
with Martin W. Bates. He began practice in
1850, having married Angelica K. Eeed of Dover
in 1848. He was appointed superintendent of the
free schools for Kent county, Del., in 1851, and
was made brigadier-general of Kent county
militia in 1861. He was a member of the Demo-
cratic national committee, 1864-68, a representa-
tive in the 39th and 40th congresses from the state-
at-large, 1865-69, and opposed the impeachment
measures. In 1903 he resided in Kent count}', Del.

NICHOLSON, John B., naval officer, was born
in Richmond, Va., in 1783. He was appointed a
midshipman in the U.S. navy, July 4, 1800 ; was
promoted lieutenant. May 30, 1813, and was
4th lieutenant on the frigate United States,
wlien that vessel captured the British frigate
Macedonian, near the Island of Madeira, Oct. 35,
1813. He was 1st lieutenant of the Peacock,
under Captain Warrington, in the engagement
with the brig Ex^ervier, April 39. 1814, and was
given command of the captured Epervier, taking
her safely into port. He commanded the brig
Flambeau, under Commodore Decatur, on the
declaration of war with the Barbary powers, Feb.
38, 1815. He was promoted commander, March



5, 1817 ; captain, April 34, 1838, and was subse-
quently commissioned a commodore. He died in
Washington, D.C., Nov. 9, 1846.

NICHOLSON, John Reed, chancellor, was
born in Dover, Del., May 19, 1849 ; son of John
Anthony (q.v.) and Angelica Killen (Reed)
Nicholson, and a descendant of William Killen,
the first chancellor of the state. He was gradu-
ated from Yale, A.B., 1870, and from Columbia,
LL.B., 1873. In 1870 he accompanied Prof.
Ithniel C. Marsh (q.v.) on a paleontplogical ex-
pedition through the Rocky Mountains and the
great plains. He practised law in New York,
1873-76, and in Dover, Del., after 1876. He was
married, June 3, 1884, to Isabella Hayes Hager of
Lancaster, Pa. He was attorney-general of Dela-
ware, 1893-95 ; and became chancellor of the
state. Nov. 33, 1895. He was a member of tlie
board of electors for the Hall of Fame for Great
Americans, New York university, October, 1900.

NICHOLSON, Joseph Hopper, representative,
was born in Maryland in 1770. He was admitted
to the bar and practised in his native state, where
he was the Anti-Federalist leader and a repre-
sentative in the legislature. In 1793 he intro-
duced a bill to remove from the statutes of the
state the property qualification for voters. He
was a representative from Maryland in the 6th,
7th, 8th, and 9th congresses, 1799-1806. He
resigned, March 1, 1806, to accept the chief
judgeship of the sixth judicial district to which
he had been appointed in 1805, and he was
succeeded by Edward Lloyd (q.v.). He subse-
quently became judge of the coin-t of appeals of
Maryland. He died in Anne Arundel county,
Md.., March 4, 1871.

NICHOLSON, Samuel, naval officer, was born
in Maryland in 1743. His father was proprietor
of Nicholson Manor, Virginia, and his brothers
James (q.v.) and John were officers in the Con-
tinental navy. Samuel served under John Paul
Jones, as a lieutenant on the Bon Homme Rich-




BATTLf OF THE Bon MOA-



AL RICHAAP ANP SBRAPIS.



[10]



ard; was promoted captain, Sept. 17, 1779, and
engaged in the celebrated sea fight with the
Serapis, Sept. 33, 1779. He commanded the frigate
Deane, 33 guns, in 1783, and cruised with great



NICHOLSON



NICOLAY



success, capturing three British sloops of war
of heavier metal. Upon the reorganization of
the navy in 1794 he retained his commission and
was given command of the frigate Constitution,
having superintended her construction. He died
iii Charlestovs-n, Mass., Dec. 29, 1813.

NICHOLSON, Somerville, naval officer, was
born in New York city, Jan. 1, 1823 ; son of Major
A. A. and Helen Bache (Lispenard) Nicholson.
He was appointed a midshipman in tlie U.S.
navy, June 21, 1839 ; was promoted passed mid-
shipman, July 2. 1815; master, Sept. 9, 1853;
lieutenant, May 5, 1854 ; lieutenant-commander,
July 16, 1862 ; commander, Jan. 9, 1863 ; captain,
June 10, 1870, and commodore, Jan. 32, 1880. He
commanded the steam gunboat Marblehead and
the steamer State of Georgia, and was engaged in
blockading service during the civil war, 1861-65.
After seventeen years' sea service and twelve
years' shore duty, on his own application vmder
the act of Aug. 3, 1861, he was retired, April 7,
1881. He made his home in Washington, D.C.

NICHOLSON, William Carmichael, navai
officer, was born in Maryland in 1800 ; son of
Capt. John Nicholson, an officer in the Continen-
tal navy during the Revolutionary war, and
nephew of James and Samuel Nicholson (q. v. ) . He
was commissioned a midshipman in the U.S. navy,
July 18, 1812, and served on the President, under
Decatur, during the action off Long Island in
1815, where he was taken a prisoner to England
and confined until the close of the war. He was
promoted lieutenant in March, 1821, and served
on the frigate United States, Pacific squadron,
1827-84. In 1834 he was assigned to duty at the
naval station. He was commissioned commander,
Sept. 8, 1841, and commanded the sloop Preble
in the Mediterranean squadron, 1843-45. He was
on duty at the naval rendezvous at Boston, Mass.,
1845-46 ; served on the receiving ship in New
Y'ork, 1847-48, and commanded the navy yard at
Memphis, Tenn., 1852-53. He was promoted
captain, Aug. 22, 1855 ; was fleet captain of the
Pacific squadron in 1855 ; commanded the steam

frigate Missis-

>A ^'<^\ sippi in tlie East

.-^^P^^-^trl India squadron,

/^^^^iXi^X 1858-61 ; was in

/f7\^/fr~ - ■■'f[S^-^w\ command of the

United States
! marine asylum
in Philadelphia,
and commanded
\ the steam f ri-
! gate Roanoke
when the civil
war began. He served on special duty, 1861-66,
and was commissioned commodore, July 16, 1862.
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 35, 1873.




U.5.S. AAISSISSIPPI,



NICHOLSON, William Rufus, R.E. bishop,
was born in Green county, Miss., Jan. 8, 1833;
son of Isaac Rogelle and America (Gilmer) Nicliol-
son. He was graduated from La Grange college,
Ala., in 1840 ; was ordained deacon and priest in
the Protestant Episcopal church, and served as
rector of Grace church, New Orleans, La. ; St.
John's, Cincinnati, Ohio; St. Paul's, Boston, Mass.,
and Trinity, Newark, N.J. He joined the Re-
formed Eijiscopal movement in 1874 and was
rector of the Second R.E. (St. Paul's) church in
Pliiladelphia, 1874-76. He was elected and con-
secrated bishop in 1876 and also assumed the
duties of dean of the Reformed Episcopal Theolo-
gical seminary in Philadelphia, Pa. The honorary
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Kenyon
college, Ohio, in 1857. He was twice married ;
first, on Nov. 37, 1845, to Jane, daughter of Dr.
Franklin Shaw of Mobile, Ala. , and secondly on
Oct. 18, 1866, to Katharine Stanley, daughter of
Charles Hamilton Parker of Boston, Mass. He
is the author of : Tlie Blessedness of Heaven (1874) ;
Reasons why I am a Reformed Episeox)alian
(1875); The Real Presence in the Bread and Wine
of the Lord's Supper (1877); Tlie Call to the
Ministry (1877), and Tlie Bearing of Prophecy
on Inspiration (1888) . He died in Philadelphia,
Pa., June 7, 1901.

NICKLIN, Philip Holbrook, bookseller, was
born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1786. He was grad-
uated from the College of New Jersey, A.B.,
1804, A.M., 1807; studied law, and engaged in
business as a bookseller in Baltimore, Md., 1809-
14, and in Philadelphia, 1814-39. He was a
trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, 1837-
43 ; visited England in 1833, and on his return in
1834 made a report before the board of trustees
on the educational advantages offered by the
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. He
wrote articles on conchology for Silliman's Jour-
nal ; letters descriptive of the Virginia mineral
springs and of a journey through Pennsylvania;
articles on the rights of authors to literary prop-
erty and papers, and on the tariff as affecting
the trade in books. He died in Philadelphia,
Pa., March 3, 1843.

NICOLAY, John George, author, was born in
Essingen, Bavaria, Feb. 36, 1833 ; .son of Jacob
and Helena Nicolay. He immigrated to the
United States with his parents in 1838, who
settled first in Cincinnati, Ohio, and then suc-
cessively in Indiana, Missouri and Illinois. He
received a limited education and was employed
as a clerk in a retail store in Whitehall, 111. , 1846-
47; in the printing office of the Pittsfield, 111.,
Free Press, 1848-56, becoming successively, pub-
lisher, editor and proprietor. He was clerk of
the secretary of state at Springfield, 111. , 1850-60 ;
private secretary to Abraham Lincoln, 1860-65 ;



[111



NICOLL



NIEHAUS



U.S. consul to Paris, 1865-59, and marshal of the
U.S. supreme court, 1873-87. He was a founder
of the Literary society and tlie Columbia His-
torical society of Washington, and a life member
of the American Historical society. He was
married in June, 1865, to Therena Bates of Pitts-
field, 111. She died in November, 1885. In collabo-
ration with John Hay, he is the author of : Abra-
ham Lincoln, a history (10 vols. 1890), which first
appeared in the Century, 1886-90, and in 1901
was condensed by Mr. Nicolay, and Abraham
Lincoln's Complete Works (3 vols., 1894). He also
wrote Tlie Outbreak of the Rebellion (1881), being
the first volume of a series entitled : " Campaigns
of the Civil War " ; the article on President
Lincoln in the English edition of the " Encylo-
paedia Britannica," and many articles in the
leading magazines and periodicals. He died in
Washington, D.C., Sept. 36, 1901.

NICOLL, James Craig, painter, was born in
New York city, Nov. 33, 1846 ; son of John W.
and Elizabeth Phillips (Craig) Nicoll, and grand-
son of John and Anne (Williams) Nicoll of
Ne vvburgh, N. Y., and of James Jefferson and Har-
riet R. (Phillips) Craig of Craigsville, N.Y. His
first ancestor in America was John Nicoll of
Haddieweel, Scotland, who arrived in New York
in 1711. He attended Quackenbos school, New
York, and studied painting with Maurice F. H.
de Haas. He exhibited in 1868 at the National
Academy of Design ; was elected an associate
member in 1880, and an academician in 1885. He
was secretary of the Etching club for several
years ; was elected president of the Artists' Fund
society in 1887 ; was one of the founders of the
American Water-color society and its secretar3'
for several years, and secretary of the National
Academy. He received medals at the Paris ex-
position ; the American Prize Fund ; the New
Orleans exposition of 1885, and at the Pan-
American exposition, Buffalo, 1901. He was
secretary of the International Jury of Award son
Painting at the World's Columbian exposition,
Chicago. Among his water colors are : On the
Gulf of St. Lawrence; Foggy Morning, Grand
Me'nan (1876); Moonlight, Cape Ann (1877); Out-
let of Lake Oscawana (1878); Moonlight at Nahant
(1881); A Creek (1884), and Stormy Days at
Block Island (1886). His paintings in oil include :
Bass Rocks near Gloucester, Mass. (1879); Shower
at Block Island (1880) ; On tlie Rocks near Port-
land (1881); Harbor View (1883); Marblehead
iJocA; (1883) ; Sunlight on the Sea (1884); Summer
Morning (1885); Fog and Sunshine (1886); An
August Evening {i88Q); Night (1900).

NICUM, John, educator and clergyman, was
born in Winnenden, Wiirtemberg, Germany,
Jan. 6, 1851. He attended the Latin school at
Winnenden, was graduated from Muhlenberg



rial



college, Allentown, Pa., in 1873, and from the
Lutheran Theological seminary at Philadelphia,
Pa., in 1876. He was pastor at Frackville, Pa.,
1876-78; at Frankfort, Philadelphia, Pa., 1878-
80 ; at Syracuse, N.Y., 1880-87, and in 1887 was
elected pastor of St. John's Lutheran church at
Rochester, N.Y. In addition to his services as
pastor he accepted the presidency of the Wagner
Memorial Lutheran college at first temporarily in
1894, but which soon after became permanent
and included the professorship of mental and
jiioral science and Hebi-ew. He served as presi-
dent of the fourth conference of the New York
Ministerium, 1884-89, secretary of the general
council of the Evangelical Lutheran church in
North America, 1886-97, and president of the
general council's board of German home missions,
1888-97. He received the degree of D.D. from
Muhlenberg college in 1893. He is the author of:
Gleichniss-Reden Jesu (1884) ; Laius of the State
of New York Relating to Churches (1884); Refor^
mations Album (1885) ; The Doctrinal Develop-
ment of the New York Ministerium (1887) ; the
German edition of Wolf's "The Lutherans in
America" (1893) ; History of the New York Min-
isterium (1888) ; Abivehr (1893) ; Confessional
History of the Lutheran Church in tlie United-
States (1893).

NIEHAUS, Charles Henry, sculptor, was born
in Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 34, 1855 ; son of John
Conrad and Sophia W. (Block) Niehaus, natives.
of Hanover, Germany, who came to the United
States in childhood and settled in Cincinnati.
Charles Henry Niehaus successfully engaged in
wood engraving, casting and cutting marble, to-
which latter trade he was apprenticed. He
studied art at the McMicken school of design at
night and won the first prize in drawing and
modeling. He studied at the Royal academy,
Munich, 1877-80, where he was awarded a first,
prize diploma and medal in recognition of his
group, " Fleeting Time," the first prize ever given
to an American by a German academy. He
traveled in Italy, France and England, 1880-81,
and in 1881 executed a bust of Lord D'Israeli at
Manchester, England. He established a studio-
in Villa Strohl-Fern, Rome, Italy, where he exe-
cuted "The Scraper" and "The Pugilist," the
former winning a fellowship in the Societe della
Artistica Internazienale di Roma, five medals and
a special medal, Chicago, 1893. In 1885 he es-
tablished his studio in New York city, where he
was made a member of the council of the
National Sculpture society, a member of the
Architectural League of America, of the Muni-
cipal Art society, of the National Arts club, of
the Society for the Preservation of Historic and
Science Places, of the Ohio society and of the
Players' club. He executed statues of Garfield



NIEMEYER



NILES



and William Allen, placed in Statuary Hall,
Washington, D.C., 1884 ; colossal statues of Gib-
bon, typifying history, and Jloses, representing
religion, for the Congressional librarj- at Wash-
ington (1896) ; statues of Hooker and Davenport,
and interpretative doors and tympanums for the
capitol at Hartford, Conn. (1895) ; statue of
Vice-President Tompkins for the senate chamber,
Washington ; statue of Governor Morton of In-
diana for Statuary Hall, Washington (1900) ; the
?nemorial Hahnemann monument at Washing-
ton, with a seated figure of Samuel Hahnemann
and four illustrative panels (1900) ; the equestrian
statues of Robert E. Lee and of William T. Sher-
man ; the Astor bronze doors for Trinity church
(1894) ; a statue of Andrew G. Curtin of Penn-
sylvania (189T) ; hei-oic statues of Abraham
Lincoln and Admiral Farragut for Hackley
Square, Muskegon, Mich. (1900) ; an immense
pediment, " The Triumph of the Law," for the
Appellate Court House in New York city (1900) ;
two colossal groups representing mineral wealth,
being "Tlie Story of Light "and "The Story of
Gold," Pan-American exposition (1901) ; the
monument to General Forrest in Memphis, Tenn. ,
from a design accepted June 6, 1901 ; a bust of
President McKinley finished June, 1901, and an
heroic seated figure of Lincoln for the Buffalo
Historical society (1901).

NIEMEYER, John Henry, artist, was born in
Bremen, Germany, June 25, 1839. About 1845
his parents settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, wliere he
received his primary education. Prom 1866 to
1870 he studied painting in Paris at the ]&cole des
Beaux Arts under Leon Gerome, and drawing
under Adolphe Yvon and subsequently under
Louis Jacquesson de la Chevreuse and Sebastian
Cornu. He became a painter of portraits and
landscapes. In 1871 he was appointed professor
of drawing in the Yale School of the Fine Arts.
In 1869 he exhibited in the Paris Salon, the his-
torical picture of " Gutenberg Inventing Movable
Types "and a full-length life-size portrait. His
landscapes are principally of New England
scenery. He also produced The Young Orator
(1873); The Braid (1874); Where? (1875). He
painted a portrait of Theodore D. Woolsey for
the Woolsey Auditorium of Yale university
and portraits of Professor T. R. Lounsbury,
LL D. ; the Rev. T. T. Munger, D.D,, and others.
He modeled in bas-relief a portrait of William
M. Hunt, the artist, in 1883-84, and after reading
Rossetti's " Lilith," modeled Lilith Tempting Eve.
NIOHTINQALE, Augustus Frederick, educa-
tionist, was born in Quincy, Mass., Nov. 11, 1843 ;
son of Thomas J. and Alice (Brackett) Nightin-
gale; grandson of Samuel B. and Mehitable
(Brackett) Nightingale, and of Joseph G. and Char-
lotte (Newcomb) Brackett, and a descendant of



John Nightingale, who settled in Hull, Mass.,,
1634 or 1654. He was graduated from Wesleyan
universitj', A.B., 1866, A.M., 1869, and was pro-
fessor of ancient languages at Upper Iowa uni-
versit}', Fayette, Iowa, 1867-68 ; acting president
of Northwestern Female college, Evanston, 111.,
1868-71 ; pi'ofessor of ancient languages and
teacher of elocution in Simpson Centenary col-
lege, Indianola, Iowa, 1871-72 ; superintendent
of public instruction in Omaha, Neb., 1872-74;
principal of Lake View high school, Ravens-
wood, III., 1874-90 ; assistant superintendent of
public instruction in Chicago, 111. , 1890-92 ; super-
intendent of the public high schools of Chicago,
1892-1901, and in March, 1902, was elected
president of the board of trustees of the Univer-
sity of Illinois. He was married, Aug. 24, 1866,
to Fanny Orena, daughter of the Rev. C. H.
Chase. He was elected president of the Nebraska
State Teachers' association in 1873 ; president of
the Nebraska State Sabbath School association in
1873 ; of the Illinois State Teachers' association in
1887 ; of the secondary department of the Na-
tional Educational association in 1888, and presi-
dent of the North Central association of colleges
and secondary schools in 1898. He was a mem-
ber of the National Educational association and
chairman of the national committee on college
entrance requirements, 1895-1899. He received
from Wesleyan university the degree of Ph.D. in
1891 and of LL.D. in 1901. He is editor of Twen-
tieth Century Text Books (100 vols., 1899 et seq.),
and the author of : A Hand Book of Requirements
for Admission to the Colleges of the United States
(1879) ; and with George Howland of Two Edu-
cational Essays (1881), besides many reports and
educational papers.

NILES, Hezekiah, editor, was born in Chester
county, Pa., Oct. 10, 1777. He was early appren-
ticed to a printer, and in 1808 removed to Balti-
more, Md., where he edited a daily paper, 1804-14.
He founded and edited Niles' Register, a weekly
journal published in Baltimore, 1811-36, in which
he advocated protection of Anrerican industries.
The first 32 volumes (1812-27) were reprinted,
and the Register was continued by his son, Miller
Ogden Niles, and others, 1837-49. He is the
author of : Principles and Acts of the Revolution
(1822), and of a series of humorous essays, en-
titled Quill Driving. The towns of Niles inMich-
igan and Ohio were named in his honor. He
died in Wilmington, Del., April 2, 1839.

NILES, John Milton, senator, was born in
Windsor, Conn., Aug. 20, 1787 ; son of Moses and
Naomi (Marshall) Niles, and grandson of Benja-
min and Lucy (Sill) Niles. His father was a
native of Groton, Conn., and removed to Windsor
prior to the Revolutionary war. John attended
school at Windsor, studied law with John
[13]



NILES



NILES



Sargent and was admitted to the bar in 1817. In
January, 1817, he established and was manager of
the Hartford Times, and obtained for that paper
a large circulation. He was an associate jixdge
of the county court, 1821-29 ; was a representa-
tive in the general assembly in 1826, and was de-
feated for the state senate in 1827. He sup-
ported General Jackson for president, and upon
his inauguration, in 1829, President Jackson ap-
pointed Maj. H. B. Norton, editor of the Times,
postmaster of Hartford, in recognition of the
service rendered by the paper during the cam-
paign. Against this appointment Niles pro-
tested vigorously, and tlie President dismissed
Norton and appointed Niles his successor. On
the death of Natlian Smith, U.S. senator from
Connecticut, Deo. 6, 1836, Niles was elected to
complete the term expiring March 3, 1839. In
1840 President Van Buren appointed him post-
master-general in his cabinet, as successor to
Amos Kendall, who resigned. May 9, 1840, and
Niles held the office until the close of Van Buren's
administration, March 3, 1841. He was the Dem-
ocratic candidate for governer of Connecticut in
1839 and 1840, and was again U.S. senator, 1843-
49. He was twice married, first June 7, 1824, to
Sarah, daughter of William Robinson, and widow
of Lewis Howe. She died, Nov. 23, 1842, and he
was married secondly, Nov. 26, 1845, to Jane H.
Pratt of Columbia county, N.Y., who died in
September, 1850. He made several bequests, in-
cluding $70,000 in trust to the city of Hartford,
the income therefrom to be devoted to the worthy
poor, and his large library to the Connecticut
Historical society. He is the author of : The Inde-
pendent Whig (1816) ; Gazetteer of Connecticut
and Rhode Island (1819); History of the Revolu-
tion in Mexico and South America, with a View of
Texas (1829); The Civil Officer (1840); Loss of
the Brig Commerce upon the West Coast of Africa
(1842). He died in Hartford, Conn., May 31, 1856.
NILES, Nathaniel, representative, was born in
South Kingston, R.I. , April 3, 1741 ; son of Samuel
Niles ; grandson of the Rev. Samuel and Ann
(Coddington) Niles of Braintree, Mass., andgreat-
gi-andson of Nathaniel and Sarah (Sands) Niles of
Block Island. He matriculated at Harvard col-
lege and was graduated from the College of New
Jersey, A.B., 1766, A.M., 1769. He studied the-
ology under the Rev. Dr. Joseph Bellamy, and
also studied law and medicine in New York city,
where he taught school. He preached in Nor-
wich andTorrington, Conn.; resided in Norwich,
where he invented a process for making wire
from bar iron, and added to the wire mill, which
was run by water, a woolen cord manufactory.
He served as a soldier throughout the Revolution,
and subsequently removed to Vermont, where he
purchased a large ti-act of land, founded the town



of AVest Fairlee and held religious services in
his own house for nearly forty years. He was
a representative in the Vermont legislature ;
speaker and agent to congress in 1784 ; judge of
the supreme court, 1784-88 ; a member of the
council of censors in 1785, 1787 and 1789, and a
member of the constitutional convention of 1791.
He was a representative from Vermont in the 2d
and 3d congresses, 1791-95 ; was a representative
in tlie state legislature, 1800-02 and 1812-14 ; a
member of the governor's council, 1803-08; a
presidential elector, 1805 and 1813, and a member
of the constitutional convention of 1814. He led
in formulating the demand of the state for a con-
stitutional amendment prohibiting the importa-
tion of slaves ; was opposed to the bank bill
schemes of 1800, but in 1806 voted for the estab-
lishment of a state bank. He was twice married:
first to a daughter of Rev. Dr. Lathrop of West
Springfield, Mass., and secondly to Elizabeth,
daughter of William Watson of Plymouth,
Mass., and of his sons, Nathaniel vi-as U.S. con-
sul at Sardinia, acting plenipotentiary to Austria
and secretary of legation at the court of St.
James under U.S. Minister Cass. The honorary
degree of A.M. was conferred- on him by Har-
vard in 1772, and by Dartmouth in 1791. He was
trustee of Dartmouth college, 1793-1820. He is
the author of : Four Discourses on Secret Prayer
(1773); Two Discourses on Sin and Forgiveness
(1773); Tivo Discourses upon Liberty; The Per-
fection of God (1777), and The Fountain of Good
(1777). He also wrote an ode entitled ?7ie 4mer-
iean Hero, which was inspired by the news of
the battle of Bunker Hill, was set to music by
the Rev. Sylvanus Ripley, and became the war



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