John Howard Brown.

Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States; online

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tory and political science at Columbia college,
New York. 1857-65. and of constitutional history
and public law, 1800-7-. He was appointed super-
intendent of a bureau in Washington to collect,
arrange and preserve the records of the Confed-
erate government, and was chosen by the United
States and Mexico as final arbitrator in the dis-
putes between the two countries in 1870. He
received the honorary degree of LL.D. fi-oni
Harvard in 1850. He was a member of many
learned societies, a fellow of the American Acad-
emy of Arts and Sciences, and corresponding
member of the JIassacluisetts Historical society
and of the Institut de France. He is the author
of translations including : Feuerbach's Life of
Caspar Hanser (1830) ; Beaumontand De Tocque-
ville's Penitentiary System in the United States
(1833) and Dictionary of Latin Synonyms (1839);
edited the Encyclopcedia Americana (13 vols.,
1S-J9-3;!): publislied several poems, including
Wein and Wontie Lieder (1824) and Tlie West and
Other Puenis (ISiii). He also wrote Tlie German
Anaeliarsis (1833): Listructions for the Govern-
ment of the Armies of the United States in the
Field (1863); Letters to a Gentleman in Germany
(1^34), afterward published under the title A
Stranger in America (3 vols., 1833); Reminiscences
of Xiebniir (1835); Manual of Political Ethics
{'2 vols.. 1838); Legal and Political Hermenentics
(1835); Essay on Property and Labor (1843);
Great Events Described by Great Historians {184:7);
Civil Liberty and Self Government (2 vols., 1853);
Essays on the Subject of Penal Laic and the Peni-
tentiary System (published by the Philadelphia
Prison Discipline society); Abuse of Penitentiary
Power (publishe<l by the legislature of New
York); Remarks on Mrs. Fry's Views of Solitary
Confinement and a Letter on the Pardoning Sys-
tem (published by the legislature of South Caro-
lina) , besides many pamphlets and articles on
legislative, judicial, .scientific and general topics.
He died in New York city, Oct. 2, 1 872.

LIBBER, Quido Norman, soldier, was born in
Columbia, S.C., 3Iay 21, 1837 ; son of Francis and
Matilda (Oppenheimer) Lieber. He was gradu-
ated from the South Carolina college in 1856 and
from the Harvard Law school in 1858. He was
admitted to the bar in 1860 and practised in New
York city. In 1861 he was commissioned 1st
lieutenant in the 11th infantry, U.S.A. ; was ap-
pointed regimental adjutant and served vmder
McClellan throughout the peninsular campaign.
He was brevetted captain, June 27, 1862, for gal-
lantry in action at Gaines's Mill, Va. ; served at
Second Bull Run, Aug. 27, 1862 ; was appointed



major and judge advocate, Nov. 13,1862; was
brevetted major, ]\lay 28, 1864, for services in the
Red River campaign, and lieutenant-colonel,
March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious serv-
ices during the war. He was married, June 14,
1866, to Bettie, daughter of Gen. Edmund
Brooke and Amelia (Hoffman) Alexander. He
served as assistant to his father in the bureau of
Confederate archives and was judge advocate of
various military departments and divisions. He
was one of the founders of the Military Service
Institution in New York ; professor of law in the
U.S. Military academy, 1878-82 ; and was as-
signed to duty in the bureau of military justice
in 1882. He was appointed assistant judge-
advocate-general with the rank of colonel July 8,
1884, and judge-advocate-general with the rank
of brigadier-general, Jan. 3, 1895. He is the
author of: Remarks on the Army Regulations
(1898); The Use of the Army in Aid of the Civil
Power (1898).

LIEBER, Oscar Montgomery, geologist, was
born in Boston, Mass., Sept. 8, 1830 ; son of
Francis and Matilda (Oppenheimer) Lieber. He
was educated in the colleges at Berlin, Gottin-
gen, and Freiburg, and was state geologist of
Mississippi, 1850-51. He made a geological
survey of Alabama, 1854^55, and was mineral-
ogical, geological and agricultural surveyor of
South Carolina, 1856-60. He accompanied the
American astronomical expedition to Labrador
as geologist in 1860, and in 1861 he joined the
Confederate army. In the battle of Williams-
burg he was mortally wounded. Besides the
four annual reports of the survey of South Caro-
lina (1857-60), he is the author of : Tlie Assayers'
Guide (1862) ; The Atialytical Chemists' Assistant
translated from the German (1833), and various
contributions to the New York Mining Magazine.
He died in Richmond, Va., June 37, 1862.

LIGHTBURN, Joseph Andrew Jackson, sol-
dier, was born in Westmoreland county. Pa.,
Sept. 21, 1824 ; son of Benjamin and Rebeckah
(Fell) Lightburn, and grandson of Benjamin
and Elizabeth (Hayden) Lightburn. He was a
delegate from Lewis county, Va., to the conven-
tion to reorganize the state government in 1861,
and recruited the 4th Virginia Volunteer infantry
regiment for service in the Federal army, and
was made its colonel, Aug. 14, 1861. He was
in command of the district of the Kanawha,
and conducted the retreat from the Kanawha
valley in September, 1862 ; was promoted brig-
adier-general, U.S. volunteers, March 16, 1863.
and participated in the Vicksburg campaign and
in the battle of Chattanooga, Nov. 28-25, 1863.
He was with Sherman's army in the march to
Atlanta, and commanded the 2d brigade, 2d divi-
sion, 15th army corps. Army of the Tennessee,



[61]



LIGON



LINCECUJI



and supported Generals Smith and Wood at the
capture of the heights of Reseca, May 14, 1864.
When Logan succeeded MoPherson in the com-
mand of the Army of tlie Tennessee, Lightburn
assumed command of the 2d division, and upon
Hood's attack upon the 15th corps, July 23, 1864,
the line having been weakened by a jjrevious
attack, the Confederates succeeded by a flank
moTement in driving back a portion of Light-
burn's troops, and causing the whole division to
break in confusion. Lightburn reformed the divi-
sion, and with the assistance of Wood's division
and one brigade of the 16th corps, recaptured the
guns. Buring the Atlanta campaign he was
severely wounded in the head, and after his re-
covery he led a brigade in the Shenandoah valley.
He resigned his commission in the army, June
22, 1865, and was a representative in the West
Virginia state legislature, 1866-67. In 1869 he was
ordained to the Baptist ministry, and became
pastor at Mt. Lebanon Baptist church, Harrison
county, W. Va. He engaged in the active work
of the ministry until January, 1901.

LIQON, Thomas Watkins, governor of Mary-
land, was born in Prince Edward county, Va., in
1813 ; son of Thomas D. Ligon and grandson of
Col. Thomas Watkins, a hero of the battle of
Guilford, March 15, 1781. He attended Hampden-
Sidney college, the University of Virginia, and
Yale Law school. He practised law in Baltimore,
Md., 1835-53, residing near Ellicott City. He
was a representative in the 29th and 30th con-
gresses, 1845-49, and governor of Maryland, 1854-
58. He was president of Patapsco Female Insti-
tute, and an officer in several charitable infstitu-
tions ill Baltimoi-e and vicinity. He died near
Ellicott City, Md., Jan. 13, 1881.

LILLIE, John, biblical scholar, was born in
Kelso, Scotland, Dec. 16, 1812 ; son of Thomas
Lillie, merchant. He was graduated with first
honors from the University of Edinburgh in 1831,
studied theology in the divinity hall and taught
school in Edinburgh until 1834, when he immi-
grated to the United States. He completed his
course in theology at the New Brunswick sem-
inary. New Jersey. He was licensed to preach by
the classis of New York, July 31, 1835, and was
ordained and installed minister in tlie Reformed
Dutch church, Feb. 1, 1836. He was pastor of the
Reformed Dutch church, Kingston, N.Y., 1836-
41 ; president of the grammar school of the Uni-
versity of the City of New York, 1841-43 ; pastor of
the Broadway, afterward Staunton Street Re-
formed Dutch church, in New York city, 1843-52,
and edited the Jewish Chronicle, published for
distribution in the missions among the Jews,
1844-48. He was recognized as one of the best
biblical scholars in the United States, and was
engaged upon the Revised Version prepared by



the American Bible Union, 1851-57. He was
l^astor of the Presbyterian church at Kingston,
N.Y., 1857-67. He received the degree of DJD.
from the University of Edinburgh in 1855. He
translated with additions Auberlen and Riggen-
bach upon Thessalonians, in tlie Lange series
(1868), and is the author of Perpetuity of the
Earth (1842) ; Lectures on the Epistles to the
Thessalonians (1860). His Lectures on the First
and Second Epistles of Peter, with a Biographical
Sketch by I>r. Schaff and James Inglis, were
published posthumously (1869.) He died at
Kingston, N.Y., Feb. 33, 1867.

LILLINQTON, John Alexander, soldier, was
born in Barbadoes, W. I., about 1725 ; son of Col.
George Lillington of the British army, and a
member of the royal council of Barbadoes in 1698,
and grandson of Alexander Lillington who was
governor of Carolina under the lords proprietors,
1691-94. John came to North Carolina with his
father in 1734, after the government had passed
to the crown ; resided in the Albemarle district
and became identified with the movement de-
manding representation in the affairs of govern-
ment. In August, 1775, he received the appoint-
ment of colonel of militia for the Wilmington
district from the provincial congress of North
Carolina. He commanded in the battle of
Moores Creek Bridge, Feb. 37, 1776, until the
arrival of Col. Richard Casewell, when he became
second in command, and they succeeded in cap-
turing 1000 Scotch loyalists. This was the first
victory won by the American troops in the
Revolution. He was promoted colonel of the 6th
North Carolina regiment. Continental army, April
4, 1776, and became brigadier-general under Gen-
eral Gates in 1780. He died probably at "Lil-
lington Hall," Bladen county, N.C., in 1786.

LINCECUM, Qideon, naturalist, was born in
Hancock county, Ga., April 32, 1793. He acquir-
ed an education through home study, served in
the Georgia militia in the war of 1812 and became
a practising physician in Lowndes county, Miss.,^
in 1815. In 1856 he removed to Texas and spent
1868-73 in Tuxpan, Mexico. He became the
friend and correspondent of Darwin, Humboldt,
Agassiz and other eminent naturalists. He pub-
lished papers through the Smithsonian Institu-
tion, the Franklin Institute and the Essex Insti-
tute, among them being a monograph on the red
ant, the result of fourteen years' study. The
Jardin des Plantes in Paris contains his collection
of Texan flora and the Essex Institute, at Salem,
Mass., his collection of forty-eight famihes of
ants and butterflies. He is the autlior of several
unpublished works, including an autobiography ;
The Medical History of the Southern United States
and The Traditions of the Chocta^w hidiiins. He
died in Brenliam, Texas, Nov. 28, 1874.



LINCOLN



LINCOLN



LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of
the United States, was born in a log cabin on the
Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, tliree miles from
Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809 ;
eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy
(Hanks) Lincoln ; grandson of A braliam and Mary



ABRAHAf L AJ<OLAt
VVAS BORAl




(Shipley) Lincoln ; great-grandson of John Lin-
coln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Penn-
sylvania and thence to the wilds of western Vir-
ginia about IT08 ; greats-grandson of Mordecai
and Hannah Bowne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai
removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Mon-
mouth county. N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania ;
great'-grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones)
Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham
to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where he set up a
furnace for smelting iron ore ; and greats-grand-
son of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county,
England, in 1620, who immigrated to Salem,
Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother
Thomas, who had settled in Hingliam, Mass.
The Lincolns were evidently men of considerable
wealth and of good social position. Thomas Lin-
coln, father of the President, inherited some
property but was an improvident man, by trade
a carpenter and accustomed to seek work from
place to place. In the autumn of 1816 he removed
to Indiana where his wife died Oct. 5, 1816, and he
returned to Kentucky and was married secondly
to Sarah (Bush) Johnston, an intelligent and
industrious widow. Abraham's attendance at
scliool occupied hardly one year, but he improved
every opportunity for acquiring knowledge. His
only books were the' Bible, " .^sop"s Fables,"
"Robinson Crusoe", " The Pilgrim's Progress,"
"VVeems's " Life of Washington " and a history of
the United States. During his boyhood and youth
he acquired a local reputation as a wit. He was
also a successful backwoods orator, speaking
whenever opportunity offered on temperance,
national politics and other topics. The Lincoln
famil)' removed to Sangamon count}', Illinois,
where Abraham assisted his father in building a
cabin in the forest. He obtained employment as
a farm hand, and in the spring of 1832 on tlie out-
break of the Black Hawk war he was elected cap-



[63]



tain of a company of volunteers. On the expira-
tion of his term of service he re-enlisted as a
private and served until mustered out in June,
1832. In March, 1833, he had announced himself
a candidate for representative in tlie state legis-
lature and on his return from the war he began
his electioneering. He was not elected, standing
third on a list of eight contestants, but out of
the 208 votes cast in Sangamon county he re-
ceived 205. He tlieu engaged in tlie grocerj'
business at New Salem as junior partner of the
firm of Berry & Lincoln, but this venture ended
disastrously witiiin a year, and he was responsible
for the indebtedness of the firm which he dis-
charged after many years. He was postmaster
at New Salem in 1833 ; was elected deputy sur-
veyor of Sangamon county in January, 1884 ; was
;, Wliig representative in the state legislature.
1834—42, and was, instrumental in removing the
state capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He
studied law, and in March, 1837, was admitted
to the bar. He settled in Springfield and formed
a partnership with John S. Stuart. He was a
candidate on the Whig electoral ticket in ISlOand
stumped tlie state for Harrison and Tyler. He
was married Nov. 4, 1842, to Mary Todd, a native
of Lexington, Ky. , who was residing in Spring-
field with her sister, Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards.
His partnership with Mr. Stuart was dissolved in
1841, and a new partnership was formed with
Stephen T. Logan, which continued until 1843,
when a connection with Williajn H. Herndon
was formed. This firm, of which Mr. Lincoln was
senior partner, was dissolved by Mr. Linc^oln's
death. He was
a candidate on
the Whig presi-
dential electoral
ticket in 1844 and
spoke through-
out Illinois and
a part of Indiana
for Clay and Fre-
linghuysen. He
as a representa-
tive in the 30th congress, 1847-49, having been
elected in 1846 over Peter Cartwright, the Demo-
cratic can didate. He canvassed the state for Taj -
lor and Fillmore during the spring of 1848, and
after the adjournment of congress. Aug. 14, 1848,
he spoke in New England. Wliile in congress he
opposed the extension of slaverJ^ voting for the
Wilmot proviso. He also drew up a bill prohibiting
the bringing of slaves into the District of Colum-
bia, the bill containing other restrictions, the meas-
ure to be decided by popular vote in the district ;
and his bill received some support. After leaving
congress he tried unsuccessfully to obtain the ap-
pointment of commissioner of tlie general land




LI/JCOLA3 5PRI/UGFJELP



LINCOLN



LINCOLN



office and declined the appointment of governor
of tlie newly organized Territory of Oregon. He
was a representative in tlie state legislature in
tlie winter of 1854, but resigned in order to be-
come a candidate before the legislature for the
U.S. senate. In the Whig caucus in February,
1855, he received 45 votes on tlie first ballot
against 41 for James Shields, tlie next candidate,
but on the tentli ballot Lyman Trumbull was
nominated. On tiie organization of the Repub-
lican party in 1854 Lincoln became prominently
identified witli it and during tlie Republican na-
tional convention at Philadelphia, June 17,1856,
wliich nominated Fremont and Dayton, he re-
ceived 110 votes as candidate for Vice-President.
Dining the campaign lie made over fifty speeches
and became prominent as a leader of the new
party. In 1858 he was the Republican nominee
for U.S. senator to succeed Stephen A. Douglas,
and on July 84 he cliallenge Douglas to a series
■^of joint debates. The occasion of these encoun-
ters became historical. The election i-esulted in
a victory for Douglas. Lincoln afterward spoke at
Columbus and at Cincinnati, Ohio, and on Feb.
27, 1860, he spoke in New York city, being intro-
duced by William CuUen Bryant as " an eminent
citizen from the west, hitherto known to you only
by reputation." He then delivered speeches in
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire
and Connecticut. His entire argument was
based on the question, "Is slavery right or
wrong?" After the debates with Douglas in
1858 Lincoln was urged to seek tlie nomination
for President, but be repeatedly discouraged the
suggestion. He reconsidered the matter, how-
ever, in 1859-60, and consented to bs a candidate,
and the Republican state convention of Illinois
instructed their delegates to vote for him.
On May 16, 1860, the Republican national con-
vention met at Chicago, where the chief candi-
dates were William H. Seward, Abraham Lin-
coln, Salmon P. Cliase, Simon Cameron, Edward
Bates and William L. Dayton. Seward led in the
first two ballots, Lincoln standing second. On
the tliird ballot Lincohi had 231^- votes to Sew-
ard's 180, 235 votes being necessary for nomina-
ton, and before the count was announced four
votes were transferred to Lincoln by a delegate
from Ohio. Other delegates followed his exam-
ple and Lincoln received 354 votes out of a possi-
ble 465, the nomination being made unanimous
on the motion of William M. Evarts. Hanni-
bal Hamlin of JMaine was nominated for Vice-
President. Stephen A. Douglas was nominated
by a wing of the Democratic party with Herschel
V. Johnson for Vice-President, at Baltimore,
Jime 18, 1860. After a spirited campaign Lincoln
was elected. Nov. 6, 1860, the popular vote stand-
ing 1,866,353 for Lincoln and Hamlin, 1,375,157



for Douglas and Jolmson, 847,963 for Breckin-
ridge and Lane, 589,581 for Bell and Everett, and
the electoral vote was 180 for Lincoln, 12 for
Douglas, 12 for Breckinridge and 39 for Bell. A
constitution for the provisional government of
the Confederate States of America was adopted
at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 8, 1861, by deputies
from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana,
Mississippi and South Carolina. On Feb. 9, 1861,
Jefferson Davis was elected President, and
Alexander H. Stevens Vice-President, and all
U.S. property within the limits of the Confeder-
acy was declared confiscate. Major Anderson,
with his small force in Fort Moultrie, on the west
end of Sullivan's Island at the entrance of
Charleston harbor, finding the determination of
the South Carolina government to possess them-
selves of the U.S. government property, evacuated
the fort on Dec. 26, 1860, and raised the flag over
Fort Sumter, constructed on a made island mid-
way between Forts Moultrie and Johnson, and
there awaited reinforcements from the national
government. The South Carolina insurgents
took possession of all the other forts in the harbor
and manned them, at tlie same time building a
large floating ironclad battery. After a journey to
Washington, attended with considerable per-
sonal danger, Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated March




164]



THE. WHITE HOUSE,- ia-^8 IQ66.

4, 1861, and in his inaugural address he declared
the union of the states to be perpetual, secession
to be illegal, and his purpose " to hold, occupy and
possess the property and places belonging to the
government and to collect the duties and im-
posts." He also declared that the position of the
Republican party regarding slavery was to
prevent its extension, but not to interfere with
the institution in states where it already lawfully
existed. On April 12, 1861, the Confederates
opened fire on Fort Sumter and continued the
bombardment until the fort was rendered un-
tenable, and as the reinforcements and provisions
sent by the Star of the West, which reached
the harbor Jan. 9, 1861, failed to reach the fort,
Major Anderson had no choice but to surrender,
which he did April 13, 1861, and he evacuated the
fort April 14. This action on the part of the
South aroused great consternation in the North and
political differences were largely forgotten in the
desire to preserve the Union. On April 15, 1861, the



LINCOLN



LINCOLN



President called for To, 000 three-months volunteers
and summoned congress to assemble in extra ses-
sion on July 4, 186L On April 17, 1861, President
Davis also called for 32,000 volunteers and offered
" letters of marque and reprisal to owners of
private armed vessels" to depredate upon U.S.
commerce ; on the same day Virginia seceded,
and on April 19 President Lincoln proclaimed a
blockade of the Confederate ports, which then
included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi and Louisana, and to which
was added North Carolina and Virginia April
19, and the same day the Massachusetts troops
were attacked by a mob in the streets of Balti-
more and one soldier was killed. On May 3, 1861, '
President Lincoln called for volunteers for three
years ; ordered the regular army increased, and
directed the enlistment of additional seamen. On
March 5, 1861, the President had sent in his
nominations for his cabinet, all of wliicli had
been confirmed. William H. Seward of New York
was named as secretary of state ; Salmon P.
Chase of Ohio secretary of the treasury ; Si-
mon Cameron of Pennsylvania secretary of
war ; Gideon Welles of Connecticut secretary
of the navy ; Caleb B. Smitli of Indiana secre-
tary of the interior ; Edward Bates of Missouri
attorney -general ; Montgomery Blair of New
York postmaster-general. The following changes
were made in the cabinet : Secretary Cameron
resigned his portfolio to accept the positi6n of U.
S. minister to Russia, Jan. 11, 1863, and the port-
folio of war was accepted by Edwin M. Stanton
of Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1863 ; W. P. Fessenden of
Maine was appointed secretary of the treasury,
July 1, 1864, to succeed Salmon P. Chase, made
chief justice of the U.S. supreme court, and he
resigned to take a seat in the U.S. senate, and
was succeeded March ~, 1865, by Hugh McCuUoch
of Indiana ; John P. Usher of Indiana was ap-
pointed secretary of the interior, Jan. 8, 1863, to
succeed Caleb B. Smith, appointed U.S. circuit
judge of Indiana ; James Speed of Kentucky
was appointed attorney-general Dec. 3, 1864, to
succeed Edward Bates, resigned ; and William
Dennison of Ohio was appointed postmaster-
general to succeed Montgomery Blair, who
resigned at the request of the President. During
Lincoln's administrations he made the following
diplomatic appointments : minister to Great
Britain, Charles Francis Adams of Massachu-
setts ; minister to France, William H. Dayton of
New Jersey, who was succeeded at his death in
1864 by John Bigelow of New York ; minister to
Austria, Anson Burlingame of Massachusetts,
who was not received by that government on
account of his political opinions, and was suc-
ceeded by John Lothrop Motley of Massachusetts ;
minister to Russia, Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky,

[65]




^^''i^^jt&-fi!e.n^ az:t*t.oo7^s^



who was succeeded by Simon Cameron of Penn-
sylvania in 1863 ; minister to Italy, George P.
Marsh of Vermont ; ami minister to Spain, Carl
Sfhurzof Wisconsin, 1861-62, wiio wassucceeded
by Gustavus Werner of Illinois, 1863-64, and H. J.
Perry of New Hamp-
shire, who served as
cliarge d'affaires un-
til the appointment
of John P. Hale of
New Hampshire in
1865. The President's
message delivered be-
fore both houses of Hljv
1>.



congress July 4 1861, ' ^*^
went far toward re- ^
assuring the people, ^
a large number of
whom were not with-
out uneasiness as to
the ability of the
President to meet the
crisis. He briefly stated the condition of af-
fairs, announced his intention of standing by
the statements made in his inaugural address,
and asked that congress would place at the



Online LibraryJohn Howard BrownLamb's biographical dictionary of the United States; → online text (page 14 of 143)