John Howard Brown.

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board of strategy in the war with Spain. He in-
troduced the steel high-power rifle-cannon and
established and directed the naval gun factory at
Washington. He died at Westernville, N.Y.,
Sept. 14, 1900.

SICKLES, Daniel Edgar, soldier, was born in
New York city, Oct. 30, 1835 ; son of George
Garrett and Susan (Marsh) Sickles. He attended
the University of the City of New York and en-
gaged in business as a printer. He practised law
in New York city, 1846-53 ; was a representative
in the state legislature in 1847 ; major of the 13th
regiment, N.G.S.N.Y., in 1853 ; corporation at-
torney of New York, in 1853, and secretary of
legation at London, Eng., 1853-55. He was state "
senator, 1856-57, and a representative from New
York city in the 35th and 36th congresses, 1857-
61. He raised a brigade of U.S. volunteer in-
fantry in New York and was commissioned
colonel, June 30, 1861 ; brigadier-general, Sept. 3,
1861, and commanded the 3d brigade, 3d divi-
sion, 3d army corps, under Gen. Joseph Hooker,
and took part in the battles of Williamsburg,
Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill ; the seven days' battle
before Richmond ; the Maryland campaign ; and at
Antietam. He succeeded Gen. Joseph Hooker to
the command of the 2d division, 3d army
corps. Army of the Potomac, and was attached to
the centre grand division at the battle of Fred-
ericksburg, Va. He was promoted major-general



U.S. v., Nov. 29, 1863, and accepted March 39,
1863 ; commanded tlie 3d army corps, Army of
the Potomac, under Gen. Joseph Hooker, in the
Cliancellorsville campaign and was out off with
his corps from communication with Gen. Hoolier,
but ordered a bayonet charge and got back into
position on the right flank. He commanded the
3d army corps. Army of the Potomac, under Gen.
George C. Meade in the battle of Gettysburg, Pa.,
July 1-3, 1863, where on July 3 his force of
10,000 men was overcome by a force of 15,000 un-
der General Longstreet, his command was shat-
tered, and he was wounded in the right leg, ne-
cessitating amputation. He was sent on a special
mission to South America in 1865 ; was appointed
colonel of 42d U.S. infantry, July 28, 1866 ; was
bre vetted brigadier-general, March 3, 1867, for
sn-vioes at the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., and
major-general the same date for services at Get-
tysburg, Pa., and also received the congressional
medal of honor for " most distinguished gallantry
in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863, dis-
played on the field, both before and after the loss
of his leg, while serving as major-general of
volunteers, commanding the 3d army corps."
He commanded the military district of the Caro-
liaas, 1865-67 ; refused the mission to Nether-
lands and was honorably mustered out of volun-
teer service, Jan. 1, 1869, and was retired from
tlie regular army with the rank of majoi'-general,
April 14, 1869, for loss of limb. He was U.S.
minister to Spain, 1869-73, chairman of the New
York civil service commission, 1888-89 ; sheriff of
New Yoi'k in 1890 ; a Democratic representative
from New York in the 53d and 54th congresses,
1893-97, and on Nov. 8, 1903, he was elected com-
mander of the Medal of Honor Legion.

SIQEL, Franz, soldier, was born at Sinsheim,
Baden, Germany, Nov. 34, 1834. He attended the

classical school of
Burchsal, and was
graduated from the
military academy of
Carlsruhe in 1843. He
participated in the
revolutionary strug-
gle in Baden in 1848,
winning military dis-
tinction, and in 1849
he was exiled from
Germany. He immi-
grated to America in
1852, settled in New
York city, and for
five years was en-
gaged in engineering,
surveying and school teaching. He removed
to St. Louis in 1857, becoming an instructor in
the German- American institute in that city, and






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in 1860 was a director of the board of education.
In April, 1861, he organized the 3d Missouri vol-
unteer infantry and a battalion of artillery, and
entered the St. Louis arsenal to aid in its defence.
He participated in the affair at Camp Jackson,
and then, commanding the 2d brigade of Missouri
volunteers, marched to intercept Jackson, and
engaged him at Carthage, July 5, 1861. He was
outnumbered four to one, and after a sharp en-
gagement made a skillful retreat. His next
engagement was at Deep Springs, Mo., where he
fought under General Lyon. At Wilson's Creek,
on Aug. 10, 1861, he marched a portion of his
brigade to the rear of the enemy's camp, and
made a successful attack, driving the enemy into
the woods, but when General Lyon's troops had
been repulsed, the enemy brought up an over-
whelming force and drove him back. He made
a good retreat, until, deserted by his cavalry, he
was surprised by some Texan rangers, and most
of his troops were killed or captured. With a
mere handful of men he marched to Springfield,
where lie was joined by Sturgis. He was com-
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers, to date
from May 17, 1861, and was given command of a
division in Fremont's army. General Hunter
made him commander of Springfield, and when
Halleck assumed command Sigel was sent to
Rolla, to prepare two divisions for active service
in the field. In General Curtiss's advance Sigel
commanded these two divisions, and at the battle
of Pea Eidge, March 7, 1863, was second in com-
mand. While the battle was in progress he
marched with two divisions around to Van Dorn's
right flank and rear, thus compelling him to
withdi-aw. He was commissioned major-general
of volunteers, March 21, 1862, was transferred to
the east, and on June 1 took command of the
troops at Harper's Ferry and at Maryland Heights.
He followed Jackson on his retreat to Winches-
ter, and on June 35, 1862, was given command of
the 1st corps. Army of Virginia, under General
John Pope. He was engaged at Cedar Mountain,
Va., Aug. 9, 1863, and then with his own corps,
General Banks's, and a division of the ninth
corps, he fought on the Rappahannock, and at
daylight on August 29 attacked Jackson near
Groveton. Sigel was reinforced by Hooker's and
Kearney's divisions and waged a flei'ce battle, but
Jackson, finding shelter behind a railroad em-
bankment, stood his ground, and when Pope
arrived in the afternoon he assumed general com-
mand, and Sigel remained with his corps through
the rest of the battle. His corps was transferred
to the Army of the Potomac, as the eleventh
corps, and when Burnside divided his army into
grand divisions, Sigel commanded the fourth, or
reserve grand division, made up of the 11th and
12th corps, but was obliged by ill-health to




take a leave of absence, and in July, 1863, was
assigned to the department of the Lehigh, and in
February, 1864, to the department of West Vir-
ginia. He was defeated by General Breckinridge
at New Market, Va., May 25, 1864, and being re-
lieved by General Hunter, was given command
of the reserve division on the Potomac, and with
5000 men held Early's army at Maryland Heights
until Gen. Lew Wallace could assemble a force at
Monooacy and until the 6tli and 19th corps could
reach Washington. The authorities were not
satisfied with General Sigel's conduct, and he was
relieved from his command. He went to Bethle-
hem, Pa., and later to Baltimore, Md., where he
resigned his commission, May 4, 1865. He en-
gaged in journalism, 1865-85 ; removed to New
York city in 1867 ; was a member of the U.S. Santo
Domingo commission in 1871 ; was collector of
internal revenue, and later was registrar of the
city and county of New York. He was equity
clerk in the county clerk's office of New York
city, 1885-86, and U.S. pension agent at New
York, 1886-89. He died in New York city, Aug.
31, 1903.

SIGMUND, Frederick Lester, educator, was
born in ShimersviUe, Pa., Deo. 8, 1866 ; son of
Albert Miller and Lydia (Leisenring) Sigmund ;
grandson of Frederick Cliristian and Elizabeth
(Miller) Sigmund, and of Gideon and Louisa
(Shindel) Leisenring. and a descendant of John
Conrad Leisenring (born June 29, 1824, in Hild-
burg-Hansen, Saxony, Germany ; died Aug. 14,
1781 ; buried in the cemetery of the Egypt Lu-
theran church, Lehigh county. Pa.). He was
graduated from Wittenberg college, Springfield,
Ohio, A.B., 1886; A.M., 1889, and from the The-
ological seminary of the college, B.D. 1890, being
ordained to the ministry of the Evangelical Lu-
theran church, Oct. 5, 1890. He was pastor at
Camden, Ind., 1890-93, where he was married,'
April 19, 1893, to Ella V., daughter of Philip and

(Plank) Ray ; pastor at Columbus, Ohio,

1892-94 ; Tiffin, Ohio, 1894-99, and Carthage, 111.,
1899-1900, and in September of the latter year be-
came president and professor of mental and moral
philosophy of Carthage college. He was seci-e-
tary of the Miami Evangelical Lutheran synod,
1893-94, and of the board of trustees of Carthage
college, 1899-1900.

SIQOURNEY, Lydia Huntley, author, was
born at Norwich, Conn., Sept. 1, 1791 ; daughter
of Ezekiel Huntley, who was of Scotch descent
and a soldier in the Revolution. She was educated
at Norwich and Hartford ; taught school in Hart-
fort for five years, and while there began to be
known as an author. In 1819 she was married
to Charles Sigourney, a man of literary and ar-
tistic tastes. In 1840 she visited Europe. She is
the author of : Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse

(1815); Traits of the Aborigines of America (1832);
Sketch of Connecticut Forty Years Since (1824) ;
Letters to Young Ladies (1833) ; Letters to
Mothers (1838) ; Pocahontas (1841) ; Pleasant
Memories of Pleasant Lands (1842) ; Scenes in My
Native Land (1844); Voices of Flowers (1845);
^Veeping Willow (1846); Water-Drops (1847);
Wliisperto a Bride {18i9) ; Letters to My Pupils
(1830) ; Olive Leaves (1851) ; The Faded Hope
(1852) ; Past Meridian (1854) ; Lucy Howard's
Journal (1857) ; The Daily Counsellor (1858);
Gleanings (1860) ; and Tlie Man of Uz (1863).
She died at Hartford, Conn., June 1, 1865.

SIQSBEE, Charles Dwight, naval officer, was
born in Albany, N.Y., Jan. 16, 1845; son of
Nicholas and Agnes (Orr) Sigsbee. He attended
the Albany academy ; was graduated from the
U.,S. Naval academy in 1863, and was appointed
acting ensign on the
Monongahela, Oct. 1,
1863. He was trans-
ferred to the Brook-
lyn and took part in
the battle of Mobile
Bay, Aug. 5, 1864,
and the bombard-
ment of Fort Fisher.
He served on the
Wyoming, in the Asi-
atic squadron 1864-
67 ; was commis-
sioned master. May
10, 1866, and pro-
moted lieutenant,
Feb. 31, 1867 ; lieuten-
ant commander, March 13, 1868, and served on
shore duty at the naval academy, 1869-71, and as
navigator to the flag ships Severn and Worcester,
of the north Atlantic squadron, 1871-73. He was
married in November, 1870, to Eliza Rogers,
daughter of Gen. Henry H. Lookwood. He com-
manded the steamer Blake in the U.S. coast
survey, 1873-78, and invented many appliances,
to simplify deep-sea exploration. He. made a
deep-sea exploration of the Gulf of Mexico, and
was authorized by congress to accept the decora-
tion of the Red Eagle, of Prussia, tendered him
by the German Emperor for services rendered to
the German navy in superintending the construc-
tion of a deep-sea machine of his own invention
in 1883. A gold medal was given him by the In-
ternational Fisheries exhibition at London. He
was chief of the hydrographic office at Washing-
ton, D.C., 1878-83; was promoted commander.
May 11, 1883, and was assigned to duty at the
naval academy. He commanded the Kearsarge
on the European station, 1885-86 ; was a member
of the retiring board at the navy department ;
was superintendent of seamanship, naval tactics,




and naval construction at the naval academy,
and was chief hydrographer of the navy depart-
ment, 1893-97. He was commissioned captain,
March 31, 1897, and was given command of the
battleship Maine, April 10, 1897. On Feb. 15,
1898, while anchored in Havana harbor, the
Maine was blown up by a mine and 258 lives were
lost. He took part in the war with Spain as
•commander witli the auxiliary cruiser St. Paul,
called the Harvard, and on May 24, 1898, he cap-
tured the Spanish collier Restormel, and cut ofiE
the coal supply for the Spanish fleet. He com-
manded the battleship Texas, 1898-1900 ; in 1900
was appointed chief officer of naval intelligence,
and in Jlay, 1903, he assumed command of the
lieague Island navy yard, being succeeded as
chief intelligence officer by Commander Sea ton
Schroeder (q.v.). He was a member of the naval
oonstruction board and of the naval general
board, and is the author of : Deep Sea Sounding
■and Dredging (1880) ; Personal Narrative of the
battleship " 2Iaine " (1899) .

SIKES, William Wirt, author, was born in
"Watertown, N.Y., in 1839; son of Dr. William
Eaton and Jleroe Sikes. His health not permit-
ting regular school attendance, he studied at
home, learned the printer's trade in 1850, and was
subsequently engaged in journalism. He wrote
for sevei-al newspapers in Utica, N.Y., while fill-
ing a position as type-setter ; was connected with
the Times and Evening Journal, in Chicago, 111.,
for several years, and became canal inspector for
that state in 1860. He resumed newspaper work
in New York city in 1867 ; published and edited
City and Country, at Nyack, N.Y., 1868-70, and
•was married, Dec. 19, 1873, to Olive Logan (q.v.).
He was the U.S. consul at Cardiff, Wales, 1876-
83. He contributed verses and stories to leading
American periodicals ; figured prominently as an
art critic, and was also a student of the social
condition of the slums of Chicago, New York, and
Paris, and subsequently of the same question in
Wales. He is the author of : A Book for the
Winter Evening Fireside (1858); One Poor Girl :
the Story of Thousands (1869) ; Rambles and
■Studies in Old South Wales (1881); British Oob-
Uns: Welsh Fairy Mythology (1880); and Studies
of Assassination (1881). He died in London,
England, Aug. 19. 1883.

SILL, Edward Roland, poet and prose-writer,
■was born in Windsor, Conn., April 39, 1841 ; son
■of Dr. Theodore (M.D. Yale, 1831) and Elizabeth
N. (Rowland) Sill ; grandson of Dr. Elisha Noyes
and Chloe (AUyn) Sill ; and a descendant of John
Sill, who emigrated from Lyme, England, tq
Cambridge. Mass., about 1637. Dr. Elisha Sill
served in the Revolutionary war ; was town clerk
of Windsor. 1803-13, and a member of the general
assembly, 1816-17 and 1824. Left an orphan in


1853, Edward R. Sill removed to the home of his
uncle, Elisha Noyes Sill, Jr. (Yale, 1820), in
Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio ; was fitted for college at
Phillips academy, Exeter, N.H., and graduated
from Yale, poet of his
class, A.B., 1861. At
'the close of his col-
lege career, being in
poor health, he made
a voyage round Cape
Horn to California,
with his classmate,
Sextus Shearer, and
remained in Califor-
nia, variously em-
ployed, at one time in
a post-office, and later
in a bank, until 1866,
when lie returned
east to enter the
Harvard Divinity

school, where he studied theology less than a
year. He was married, Feb. 7, 1867, to his cousin,
Elizabeth Newberry, daughter of Elisha. Noyes,
Jr., and Fanny (Newberry) Sill of Cuyahoga
Falls, Ohio; removed to Brooklyn, N.Y., where
he taught in a boys' school and engaged in
journalism, being temporarily connected as
critic with the New York Evening Mail ; taught
school at Wadsworth, Medina county, Ohio,
1868-69, and was principal of the high school and
superintendent of schools at Cuyahoga Falls,
1869-70. He taught Greek, Latin and rhetoric
in the high schools at Oakland, Cal., 1871-74,
and was professor of the English language and
literature in the University of California, 1874-
83, resigning in the latter year and again taking
up his residence at Cuyahoga Falls. The rest of
his life was devoted to literary pursuits. Many
of his prose compositions appeared in the Atlantic
Monthly, Tlie Century, The Overland Monthly,
the Califomian, andthe Berkeley Quarterly. His
contribution to literature was fragmentary, but
vital, and his claim to a permanent place in
American poetry rests mainly upon the spon-
taneous and inspirational quality of his thought
and the delicate finish of Iiis style. He translated
Rau's "Mozart" (1868), and is the author of:
Field Notes, The Hermitage and Later Poems (1868);
The Venus of Milo and other Poems (printed
privately, 1883) ; Poems (1887) ; and Hermione
and other Poems (1889). The Prose of Edward
Rowland Sill ; with an Introduction Comprising
Some Familiar Letters was published in 1900, and
a memorial tribute by his friends in California
contains material selected from his private corre-
spondence. His portrait by Keith is in the library
of the University of California. He died in
Cleveland, Ohio, Feb. 27, 1887.




SILL, John Mahelm Berry, educator, was
born at Black Rock, N.Y., Nov. 33, 1831 ; son of
Joseph and Electa (Berry) Sill ; grandson of Giles
and Lucy (Gould) Sill and of Col. John M. Berry,
and a descendant of John Sill, who came from
England and setted in Cambridge, Mass., in 1637.
He was graduated from the Michigan State
Normal school, 1854, remaining there as professor
of English language and literature, 1854-63. He
was married, March 33, 1854, to Sally, daughter
of Abram Lovett and Clarissa Gregg (Holly)
Beaumont, of Jonesville, Mich. He was super-
intendent of the public schools of Detroit, 1863-
65 and 1875-86 ; principal of the Detroit Female
seminary, 1865-75 ; principal of the Michigan
State Normal school, 1886-1893 ; president of the
Michigan State Teachers' association, 1861-63, and
regent of the University of Michigan, 1876-70.
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from
the University of Michigan, 1870, and the degree
of Master of Pedagogics from the Michigan State
Normal college, 1893. In 1890 he was admitted
to the diaconate of the Protestant Episcopal
church. He was consul-general and U.S. min-
ister resident at Seoul, Korea, under President
Cleveland, 1894-97. He is the author of : Syn-
thesis of the English Sentence (1857) , and Practi-
cal Lessons in English (1880). He died in De-
troit, Mich., April 6, 1901.

SILL, Joshua Woodrow, soldier, was born in
Chillicothe, Ohio, Deo. 6, 1831 ; son of Joseph
and Elizabeth (Woodrow) Sill ; grandson of the
Eev. Eichard and Eunice (Lee) Sill, and a de-
scendant of John Sill, who emigrated from Eng-
land with his wife and children in 1637 and set-
tled in Cambridge, Mass. Joshua was graduated
from the U.S. Military academy and brevetted 3d
lieutenant in the ordnance department, July 1,
1853 ; served as an assistant at Watervliet arsenal,
New York, 1853-54, and was promoted 3d lieut-
enant. May 11, 1854. He was assistant professor
of geography, history, and ethics in the U.S. Mili-
tax-y academy, 1854-57 ; was promoted 1st lieut-
enant, July 1, 1856 ; served on special duty at
the arsenal in Allegheny, Pa., 1857-58, and
commanded the ordnance depot at Vancouver,
Washington Territory, 1858-59. He was an as-
sistant at the arsenal at Watervliet, N.Y., and
Fort Munroe, Va., 1859-60, commanded the ord-
nance depot at Leavenworth, Kan., in 1860, and
resigned from the service, Jan. 35, 1861. He was
professor and mathematics and civil engineering
in the Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute at
Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1861 ; served as assistant
adjutant-general of the state of Ohio, April to
July, 1861, and participated in the Western Vir-
ginia campaign, being engaged in the combat of
Rich Mountain on July 11. He was appointed
colonel of the 33d Ohio volunteers, Aug. 37, 1861,

engaged in the advance on Bowling Green, Ky.,
and Nashville, Tenn., and in the operations in
North Alabama he marched to Huntsville, Ala.,
took possession of the railroad from Decatur to
Stephenson and captured valuable stores. He
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers,
July 16, 1863, and commanded a division of Mc-
Cook's corps in the Army of the Ohio in the ad-
vance into Kentucky. He engaged Kirby Smith
at Lawrenceburg, succeeded in joining his corps
at Perry ville on Oct. 11, throe days after the
battle and joined in the pursuit of General
Bragg's army. He marched toward Nashville,
Tenn., joined the Army of the Cumberland in
command of the 1st (late 37th) brigade of Sher-
idan's 3d (late 11th) corps, and was killed in the
battle of Stone's River, Tenn., while giving the
order to charge, Dec. 31, 1863.

SILLIMAN, Augustus Ely, philanthropist, was
born at Newport, R.I., April 11, 1807; son of

Gold Selleck (1777-1868) and (Ely) Silliman

and grandson of Gold Selleck (q.v.) and Mary
(Fish) Noyes Silliman. He became prominent
as a New York banker"; was one of the clearing
house association committee, 1853-59, and pres-
ident of the Merchants' bank of New York, 1857-
68. He was president of the New York Mercan-
tile Library association and bequeathed $100,000
to Yale to found in memory of his mother a series
of University lectures that should illustrate the
" presence and wisdom of God as manifested in
the natural and moral world." He is the author
of : A Oallop among American Scenes and Mili-
tary Adventures (1843) and translator of Fenelon's
" Conversations with M. de Ramsai on the Truth
of Religion " and his " Letters on Immortality of
the Soul and Freedom of the Will " (1869). He
died in Brooklyn, N.Y., May 30, 1884.

SILLIMAN, Benjamin, scientist, was born in
North Stratford, Conn., Aug. 8, 1779 ; son of Gold
Selleck Silliman (q.v.) and Mary Fish (Noyes)
Silliman. He was graduated at Yale, A. B., 1796,
A.M., 1799 ; studied law with Simeon Baldwin,
1798-99 ; was a tutor at Yale, 1799-1803, and in
1803 was admitted to the bar, but in that year
President Dwight, of Yale, proposed that he fit
himself in chemistry and natural history and, as
soon as he was prepared, that he accept a new
chair at Yale. He studied chemistry with Prof.
James Woodhouse at Philadelphia and in 1804 de-
livered his first lectures in chemistry. In 1805, he
went abroad to study a year at Edinburgh and to
buy books and apparatus. On his return, he
studied the geology of New Haven, and in 1807
he examined the meteor that fell near Weston,
Conn., making a chemical analysis of fragments,
this report being the first scientific account of any
American meteor. He delivered his first course
of public lectures at New Haven in 1808, and in




1811, while experimenting with the oxy-hydric
blow-pipe, he reduced many minerals that pre-
viously liad been considered elements. He ex-
amined one hundred coal mines in the Wyoming
Valley in 1830; in 1834 delivered lectures in
Hartford, Conn., and Lowell, Mass., and later in
all the large American cities, delivering the first
Lowell Institute lecture in Boston, 1888. He was
made professor emeritus at Yale in 1853, but for
two years continued his lectures on geology. He
was a vigorous opponent of slavery and a sup-
porter of Lincoln's administration. He was the
first president of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science and in 1863 was
appointed by congress one of the corporate mem-
bers of the National Academy of Sciences. He
founded and for many years edited the American
Journal of Science. The degree of M.D. was con-
ferred upon him by Bov/doin in 1818 and that of
LL.D. by Middlebury in 1826. He edited "Ele-
ments of Chemistry" by William Henry and
" Introduction to Geology " by Robert Blakewell,
and wrote Journals of Travels in England, Hol-
land and Scotland (1810) ; A Short Tour between
Hartford and Quebec (1830) ; Elements of Chem-
istry in the Order of lectures given at Yale Col-
lege (1831); Consistency of Discoveries of Modern
Geology with the Sacred History of the Creation
and the Deluge (1867) and Narrative of a visit to
Europe in 1851 (1853). He was twice married:
Sept. 17, 1809, to Harriet, daughter of Governor
Jonathan Trumbull (q.v.), and in 1851 to Mrs.
Sarah Isabella Webb, daughter of John McClel-
lan of Woodstock, Conn. Harriet Trumbull bore
him one son, Benjamin (q.v.), and three daughters,
one of whom married Prof. Oliver P. Hubbard
(q.v.), and another, Harriet Francis, married Prof.
James D. Dana (q.v.). Professor Silliman died
in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 24, 1864.

SILLIMAN, Benjamin, chemist and naturalist,
was born in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 4, 1816;
son of Benjamin and Harriett (Trumbull) Silli-
man. He was graduated at Yale, A.B., 1837,

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